Encyclopedia Astronautica
R-5M



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V5V rocket
Dynamic test model of V5V sounding rocket
Credit: © Mark Wade
r5.gif
R-5 missie
Credit: © Mark Wade
qnukmush.jpg
Atom blast from R-5M
Atom blast from R-5M test
Credit: RKK Energia
Russian intermediate range ballistic missile. The R-5M was the first Soviet missile to be armed with a nuclear warhead, and the first to launch a live nuclear warhead in test. The technical characteristics were virtually the same as those of the R-5 basic model, except for an increase in the propellant load. 48 launchers were deployed from 1956 to 1968, tipped with nuclear warheads of 80 kiloton, 300 kiloton, or 1 megaton.

The explosion of the RD5-6 400 kiloton warhead at Semiplatinsk on 12 August 1953 proved the design of a lightweight thermonuclear warhead. Korolev began work in 1953 to develop a re-entry vehicle for this warhead. Formal authorisation to begin work on a nuclear-tipped version of the R-5 came in a decree of 10 April 1954. Sadoviy and Kozlov were named to lead the project. Based substantially on the R-5, it used the 8U25 launch portable launch stand. The first phase of flight trials were conducted from 21 January to July 1955. Of the 14 launches, 13 were successful. The second phase in August-November 1955 consisted of 10 successful launches at ranges of 1083 to 1190 km. This cleared the way for a final test series leading to the first rocket-delivered test of a Soviet atomic bomb.

The series of 5 launches began on 11 January 1956 with launch of a dummy warhead. The test with a live weapon came on 2 February 1956, with the successful launch of the design for an 80 kt warhead over a 1200 km range - from Kaputsin Yar. Area 4N to a point near Priaralsk Karakum, 150 km north-east of the Aral Sea. It was heavily classified that the prototype warhead was a fizzle when it exploded - planned yield was 70 kt, but actual yield was 300 tonnes. The problem was traced to a failed heating element on the warhead. Some sources give the yield of this test as 300 kt, but this seems to stem from a common Soviet disinformation practice. Even in classified documents, nuclear weapon yields were often given incorrectly by a factor of ten or in different units. The idea was that if you were a spy, you would be deceived, but if you were in the know, you'd recognize the error and the reason for it. Therefore a 300 t fizzled yield might be listed in some official documents as 300 kt.

The R-5M was accepted by the military on 21 July 1956. Deployment of the missile began in 1956 in brigades of six launchers. Due to the nuclear warhead, specially trained engineering brigades had to be formed. The launch preparations had to be made meticulously and the final launch procedure was automated. Initially it took 30 hours to prepare the rocket for launch, but this was reduced to 5 to 6 hours after several years of service. The rocket had to be launched quickly after loading the uninsulated liquid oxygen tank. The gyroscopic guidance system was supplemented by radio control of the pitch angle of the missile in flight.

To store and install the nuclear warheads special units of the Ministry of Defence were formed. These originated in 1949 as the Sixth Directorate of the Ministry of Military Forces of the USSR. Deployment of the R-5M in 1956 caused the First Military Subdivision, consisting of two brigades, to be formed. The parent organisation was transformed according to a 23 November 1957 decree to the Twelfth General Directorate of the Ministry of Defence, charged with the development, trials, deployment, and security of nuclear warheads. From December 1959 this directorate's activities were limited specifically to safekeeping of the warheads of the RSVN rocket forces. In May 1963, as the number of ballistic missiles deployed increased, a specialised Subdirectorate for Nuclear Operations was formed within the Twelfth Directorate. As of 1965 the warheads were still stored separately form Soviet ballistic missiles. In 1966 the individual nuclear weapons units were made an integrated part of the operational rocket field units. In 1972, as the last open-pad missiles were retired, it was decided to mount all warheads on the silo-based missiles in instant readiness for launch. On 28 November 1974, its operational tasks finished, the 12th Directorate was placed under the Ministry of Defence. In its place the RSVN created a Sixth Directorate for security of nuclear weapons.

A total of 48 R-5M launchers were built, and deployed in brigades of six launchers each or regiments of four launchers each. The basic field unit was the division, each division of two batteries, each with a single launcher. The unit histories were as follows:

  • 72nd brigade in Medved, Novgorod. The 72nd Brigade had actually been formed in Germany in 1946, to assist in testing of V-2 technology. It later moved to Kaputsin Yar, where it had conducted the first R-1 trials. In 1955 it was moved to Medved, Novgorod, to form the first R-5 brigade. In January 1959 it was redeployed to Gvardeisk, Kaliningrad. Two divisions were detached for then detached for a test German deployment - one division by train, the control division by airplane to Templin air base. The divisions were placed under the command of the Second Guard Tank Army at Fuerstenberg and deployed over a wide area of north-east East Germany. The total deployment consisted of 4 launchers and 12 rockets. In August-September 1959 the divisions returned to Gvardeisk and began conversion to R-12. The unit was finally dissolved in 1990.
  • 77th and 80th brigades were deployed to Belokorovichi in Zhitomir oblast. The 77th was later assigned to the Red Army.
  • 73th brigade at Kamyshin, Volgograd oblast. In 1960 this was moved to Kolomiya in the Ukraine.
  • 85th brigade at Kapustin Yar. This was redeployed in 1960 to Siauliai, Lithuania
  • 90th brigade to Kiev, Ukraine, assigned to the Red Army.
  • Four autonomous regiments in at Ussuriysk and Manzovka in the Far East and at Simferopol and Slavuta in the Ukraine.

By the end of 1956 24 launchers were deployed, increasing to the final total of 48 by the end of 1957. Perhaps 200 missiles were built.

In 1953 and 1955 the Ministry of Defence studied field deployments of the R-1, R-2, and R-5 to East Germany, but nothing came of these studies. A 26 March 1955 decree of the Communist Party ordered deployment of the 72nd brigade to East Germany, and the 73th to Bulgaria, but these were not carried out. Finally a January 1959 a government decree ordered the 72nd brigade to deploy to East Germany for a test deployment.

In 10 May 1959 the first extended field deployment from a field location was undertaken during Army exercises at Simferopol. This was the first field deployment with nuclear weapons in Soviet history and verified the ability of the ballistic missile systems to operate in an integrated manner with the ground forces..

The R-5M was formally accepted into military service in 1960. The missile continued in service until 1968.

Three nuclear warheads were used with the R-5M, apparently all of similar 1350 kg mass: a 40 to 80 kt fission warhead; a 300 kiloton boosted fission or fusion warhead; and a 1 megaton fusion warhead. The R-5M had a propellant capacity 1930 kg greater than that of the basic R-5 - 10,010 kg alcohol, and 13,990 kg liquid oxygen.

Versions of the R-5M were used for technology tests. The R-5RD or M5RD was flown 10 times from 15 February to 18 August 1956 to test subsystems for the R-7 ICBM. From 24 November to 30 December 1956 R-5M's were launched as targets for the V-1000 anti-ballistic missile system.

Success Rate: 100.00%. Standard warhead: 1,350 kg (2,970 lb). Maximum range: 1,200 km (700 mi). Number Standard Warheads: 1. Warhead yield: 1,000 KT. Number Alternate Warheads: 1. Alternate warhead yield: 80 KT.

AKA: Pobeda; R-5M; SS-3 Mod.2; 8K51; Shyster; 8A62M; T-1.
Gross mass: 28,610 kg (63,070 lb).
Payload: 1,350 kg (2,970 lb).
Height: 20.75 m (68.07 ft).
Diameter: 1.65 m (5.42 ft).
Thrust: 420.00 kN (94,410 lbf).
Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).
First Launch: 1955.01.20.
Last Launch: 1962.10.28.
Number: 120 .

More... - Chronology...


Associated Countries
See also
  • Early Russian Ballistic Missiles The true configuration of the world's first ICBM, the R-7, was revealed only in 1967, ten years after its first test. The Soviet N1 moon rocket was only revealed in 1990, 21 years after its first launch. At the same time, other Russian ballistic missiles were routinely paraded before the cameras of the world press even before they went into service. The extraordinary sensitivity of the Soviet leadership over these Korolev designs may be traced to the fact that they derived from the work of the Groettrup German rocket engineering team. More...
  • R-5 The R-5 was the first Soviet missile to be armed with a nuclear warhead, and the first for which the new southern facility at Dnepropetrovsk took over full design and production responsibility. The R-5 could deliver a 1425 kg warhead over a range of 1200 km, doubling the performance of the R-2. It was also the end of the road in being the ultimate extrapolation of German V-2 technology. Later missiles of both Yangel and Korolev would use other propellants and engine designs. More...
  • missile Guided self-propelled military weapon (as opposed to rocket, an unguided self-propelled weapon). More...

Associated Manufacturers and Agencies
  • Korolev Russian manufacturer of rockets, spacecraft, and rocket engines. Korolev Design Bureau, Kaliningrad, Russia. More...

Associated Launch Sites
  • Kapustin Yar Russia's first missile test range and used for satellite launches of smaller Kosmos vehicles. V-2's launched from here in 1946 were the first ballistic missiles fired on Soviet territory. It was greatly expanded as the test site for innumerable Soviet intermediate and short range missile projects in the 1950's.. Kapustin Year was also headquarters of the first operational R-1/R-2 units, 1950-1953, and later a base for 12 operational R-14 missile launchers. Kapustin Yar was known to have been used for over 3519 major launches from 1946 to 2007. More...
  • Kapustin Yar V-2 V-2, RT-15, R-5, R-2, R-17, R-11, R-1, Pioner, MR-12, M-100, Kosmos 3, Kosmos 2, RT-1, R-13, MMR-06, MERA launch complex. V-2 Launch Area More...

Associated Stages
  • R-5 Lox/Alcohol propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 27,250/3,250 kg. Thrust 479.22 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 244 seconds. More...

R-5M Chronology


1953 August 12 - . LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5M.
  • Test of 400 kiloton lightweight thermonuclear warhead - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Korolev. Summary: The explosion of the RD5-6 400 kiloton warhead at Semiplatinsk proved the design of a lightweight thermonuclear warhead. Korolev began work in 1953 to develop a re-entry vehicle for this warhead..

1954 April 10 - . LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5M.
  • OKB-586 founded and nuclear-tipped R-5M IRBM development authorised. - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Kozlov. Council of Soviet Ministers (SM) Decree 'On approval of work on the R-5M missile and on establishment of OKB-586 at Dnepropetrovsk Plant No. 586' was issued. Sadoviy and Kozlov were named to lead the project. Based substantially on the R-5, it used the 8U25 launch portable launch stand.

1955 January 20 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5M.
  • ZI test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1955 February 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5M.
  • ZI test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1955 February 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5M.
  • ZI test launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi). Summary: The first phase of flight trials were conducted from 21 January to July 1955. Of the 14 launches, 13 were successful..

1955 March 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5M.
  • ZI test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1955 March 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5M.
  • ZI test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1955 April 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5M.
  • ZI test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1955 April 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5M.
  • ZI test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1955 May 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5M.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1955 May 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5M.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1955 June 6 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5M.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1955 June 22 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5M.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1955 June 23 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5M.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1955 July 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5M.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1955 July 9 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5M.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1955 August 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5M.
  • PI state trials launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1955 August 9 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5M.
  • PI state trials launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1955 September 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5M.
  • PI state trials launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1955 September 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5M.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1955 September 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5M.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1955 October 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5M.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1955 October 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5M.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1955 November 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5M.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1955 November 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5M.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1955 November 19 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5M.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1956 January 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5M.
  • Certification test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1956 January 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5M.
  • Certification test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1956 January 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5M.
  • Certification test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi). Summary: The series of 5 launches began on 11 January 1956 with launch of a dummy warhead..

1956 January 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5M.
  • Certification test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1956 February 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5M. LV Configuration: R-5M M-5RD.
  • R-7 component test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1956 February 2 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5M.
  • BAYKAL Nuclear test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi). Summary: The R-5M successfully launched an 80 kiloton (300 kiloton according to some sources) warhead over a 1200 km range - from Kaputsin Yar Area 4N to a point near Priaralsk Karakum, 150 km north-east of the Aral Sea..

1956 February 16 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5M. LV Configuration: R-5M M-5RD.
  • R-7 component test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi). Summary: The R-5RD or M5RD was flown to test subsystems for the R-7 ICBM..

1956 March 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5M. LV Configuration: R-5M M-5RD.
  • R-7 component test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1956 March 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5M. LV Configuration: R-5M M-5RD.
  • R-7 component test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1956 March 23 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5M. LV Configuration: R-5M M-5RD.
  • R-7 component test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1956 May 15 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5M. LV Configuration: R-5M R-5R.
  • Radio guidance test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1956 June 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5M. LV Configuration: R-5M R-5R.
  • Radio guidance test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1956 June 15 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5M. LV Configuration: R-5M R-5R.
  • Radio guidance test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1956 June 21 - . LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5M.
  • R-5M - the first nuclear Soviet ballistic missile - is accepted into military service. - . Nation: USSR. Decree 'On adoption of the R-5M into armaments' was issued. Deployment of the missile began in 1956 in brigades of six launchers. Initially it took 30 hours to prepare the rocket for launch, but this was reduced to 5 to 6 hours after several years of service.

1956 July 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5M. LV Configuration: R-5M M-5RD.
  • R-7 component test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1956 July 20 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5M. LV Configuration: R-5M M-5RD.
  • R-7 component test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1956 August 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5M. LV Configuration: R-5M M-5RD.
  • R-7 component test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1956 August 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5M. LV Configuration: R-5M M-5RD.
  • R-7 component test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1956 August 18 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5M. LV Configuration: R-5M M-5RD.
  • R-7 component test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi). Summary: The R-5RD or M5RD was flown 10 times to test subsystems for the R-7 ICBM..

1956 August 25 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-5M. LV Configuration: R-5M S1-10.
  • KS Prod. test - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1956 September 16 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-5M. LV Configuration: R-5M A1-1TS.
  • KS - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1956 September 19 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-5M. LV Configuration: R-5M A1-2TS.
  • KS - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1956 November 3 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-5M. LV Configuration: R-5M A1-3TS.
  • KS - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1956 November 13 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-5M. LV Configuration: R-5M A1-6TS.
  • KS - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1956 November 16 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-5M. LV Configuration: R-5M A1-4TS.
  • KS - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1956 November 24 - . LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5M.
  • First R-5 launch as ABM target - . Nation: USSR. Agency: GAU. Summary: R-5M's launched as targets for the V-1000 anti-ballistic missile system..

1956 December 6 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-5M. LV Configuration: R-5M A1-5TS.
  • KS - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1956 December 12 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-5M. LV Configuration: R-5M A2-20.
  • KS - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1956 December 30 - . LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5M.
  • Final R-5 launch as ABM target - . Nation: USSR. Summary: R-5M's launched as targets for the V-1000 anti-ballistic missile system..

1957 January 19 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5M.
  • Nuclear test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1957 March 11 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-5M. LV Configuration: R-5M A2-12TS.
  • TMP-2 GCh - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1957 March 18 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-5M. LV Configuration: R-5M M5-7TK.
  • VV GCh - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1957 March 18 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-5M. LV Configuration: R-5M A2-13TS.
  • TMP-2 GCh - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1957 March 21 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-5M. LV Configuration: R-5M A2-15TS.
  • TMP-2 GCh - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1957 March 28 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-5M. LV Configuration: R-5M M1-20.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1957 June 14 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-5M. LV Configuration: R-5M A683-V.
  • Vibrator - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1957 June 28 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-5M. LV Configuration: R-5M M2-20T.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1957 June 28 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-5M. LV Configuration: R-5M A681-V.
  • Vibrator - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1957 July 9 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-5M. LV Configuration: R-5M A2-17TS.
  • GCh/RUD - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1957 July 18 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-5M. LV Configuration: R-5M A2-16TS.
  • GCh/RUD - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1957 July 24 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-5M. LV Configuration: R-5M A2-18TS.
  • GCh/RUD - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1957 August 21 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-5M. LV Configuration: R-5M B7-20T.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1957 September 5 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-5M. LV Configuration: R-5M M1-1.
  • Generator-5 - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1957 September 12 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-5M. LV Configuration: R-5M A2-19TS.
  • TMP-2 - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1957 September 14 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-5M. LV Configuration: R-5M A2-14TS.
  • TMP-2 - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1957 September 26 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-5M. LV Configuration: R-5M M3-20.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1957 November 3 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-5M. LV Configuration: R-5M M1-2.
  • Generator-5 - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1957 November 30 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-5M. LV Configuration: R-5M M4-20.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1957 December 26 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-5M. LV Configuration: R-5M M1-3.
  • Generator-5 - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1958 February 4 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-5M. LV Configuration: R-5M B1-20T.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1958 February 12 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-5M. LV Configuration: R-5M M5-3TSK.
  • VV GCh - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1958 March 7 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-5M. LV Configuration: R-5M M5-5TK.
  • VV GCh - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1958 March 28 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-5M. LV Configuration: R-5M A6-84V.
  • Vibrator - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1958 March 29 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-5M. LV Configuration: R-5M B2-20T.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1958 March 30 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-5M. LV Configuration: R-5M B3-20T.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1958 April 22 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-5M. LV Configuration: R-5M A6-85V.
  • Vibrator - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1958 April 30 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-5M. LV Configuration: R-5M B4-20TS.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1958 May 9 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-5M. LV Configuration: R-5M M5-6TK.
  • VV GCh - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1958 May 16 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-5M. LV Configuration: R-5M A6-82V.
  • Vibrator - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1958 May 29 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-5M. LV Configuration: R-5M B5-20T.
  • UBP - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1958 May 30 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-5M. LV Configuration: R-5M M5-4TK.
  • UBP/VV GCh - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1958 June 3 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-5M. LV Configuration: R-5M M5-10TK.
  • VV GCh - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1958 June 23 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-5M. LV Configuration: R-5M M5-8TK.
  • VV GCh - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi).

1958 June 26 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-5M. LV Configuration: R-5M B6-20T.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1958 July 10 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-5M. LV Configuration: R-5M M5-1TSK.
  • VV GCh - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1958 July 11 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-5M. LV Configuration: R-5M M5-9TSK.
  • VV GCh - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1958 July 29 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-5M. LV Configuration: R-5M A2-2.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1958 September 8 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-5M. LV Configuration: R-5M M3-18.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1958 September 23 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-5M. LV Configuration: R-5M M5-2TSK.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1958 September 23 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-5M. LV Configuration: R-5M M4-17.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1958 September 23 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-5M. LV Configuration: R-5M M4-26.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1958 September 24 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-5M. LV Configuration: R-5M B8-20T.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1958 November 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5M.
  • Nuclear test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1958 November 3 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5M.
  • Nuclear test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1958 November 4 - . Launch Site: Chelkar. Launch Vehicle: R-5M. LV Configuration: R-5M M1-4 8K51D.
  • GCh Fakel - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1958 November 28 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-5M. LV Configuration: R-5M B1-3 8K52.
  • Zvezda - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 460 km (280 mi).

1958 December 2 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-5M. LV Configuration: R-5M B10-20T.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1958 December 19 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-5M. LV Configuration: R-5M B1-5 8K52.
  • Zvezda - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 460 km (280 mi).

1959 February - . LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5M.
  • First deployment to Germany of nuclear-tipped R-5M IRBM's - . Nation: USSR. The 72nd Brigade had actually been formed in Germany in 1946, to assist in testing of V-2 technology. It later moved to Kaputsin Yar, where it had conducted the first R-1 trials. In 1955 it was moved to Medved, Novgorod, to form the first R-5 brigade. In January 1959 it was redeployed to Gvardeisk, Kaliningrad. Then two divisions were detached for a test German deployment - one division by train, the control division by airplane to Templin air base. The divisions deployed over a wide area of north-east East Germany. The total deployment consisted of 4 launchers and 12 rockets. In August-September 1959 the divisions returned to Gvardeisk and began conversion to R-12.

1959 February 2 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-5M. LV Configuration: R-5M B1-4 8K52.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

1959 February 13 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-5M. LV Configuration: R-5M B10-17TA.
  • Gotovnost-3 - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

1959 March 4 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-5M. LV Configuration: R-5M B10-16T.
  • Gotovnost-1 - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

1959 March 6 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-5M. LV Configuration: R-5M B10-19TA.
  • Gotovnost-3 - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

1959 March 6 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-5M. LV Configuration: R-5M B10-18TA.
  • Gotovnost-1 - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

1959 April 7 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-5M. LV Configuration: R-5M I1-20TS.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

1959 April 9 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-5M. LV Configuration: R-5M B1-8 8K52.
  • Zvezda - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1959 April 21 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-5M. LV Configuration: R-5M B1-2.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1959 April 25 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-5M. LV Configuration: R-5M B1-1.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1959 May 10 - . LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5M.
  • First extended field deployment of a nuclear Soviet IRBM - . Nation: USSR. The first extended field deployment of the R-5M from a field location was undertaken during Army exercises at Simferopol. This was the first field deployment with nuclear weapons in Soviet history and verified the ability of the ballistic missile systems to operate in an integrated manner with the ground forces. The R-5M was formally accepted into military service in 1960. The missile continued in service until 1968.

1959 September 5 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-5M. LV Configuration: R-5M M3-11.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1959 September 7 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-5M. LV Configuration: R-5M M1-4.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1959 September 7 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-5M. LV Configuration: R-5M M3-5.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1959 September 24 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-5M. LV Configuration: R-5M M1-5.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1961 September 6 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5M.
  • Nuclear test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1961 October 6 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5M.
  • Nuclear test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1961 October 27 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5M.
  • Nuclear Test K-2 Nuclear test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 180 km (110 mi). Summary: Two R-12's (other sources say R-5M's or an R-12 and an R-5M) were salvo fired, at least one with a live nuclear warhead, to Sary Shagan to support ABM-related research on the effects of nuclear explosions on rocket systems..

1961 October 27 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5M.
  • Nuclear Test K-1 Nuclear test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi). Summary: Two R-12's (other sources say R-5M's or an R-12 and an R-5M) were salvo fired, at least one with a live nuclear warhead, to Sary Shagan to support ABM-related research on the effects of nuclear explosions on rocket systems..

1962 October 22 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5M.
  • Nuclear test K-3 Nuclear test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi). Summary: The R-12 (other sources say an R-5M) launched a live thermonuclear warheads toward Sary Shagan which was detonated at an altitude of 300 km. High altitude tests designed to test electromagnetic pulse effects on electronics, especially ABM system radars..

1962 October 28 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5M.
  • Nuclear test K-4 Nuclear test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi). In a test of nuclear fratricide and ABM effectiveness, an R-5M (some sources say an R-12) launched a live thermonuclear warhead toward Semipalitinsk/Sary Shagan which was detonated at an altitude of 150 km. Two R-9 ICBM's were launched minutes earlier, timed to pass through the zone of the explosion. Both missiles guided to the planned impact zone without apparent ill-effect. This high altitude test was designed to test electromagnetic pulse effects on electronics, especially ABM system radars and incoming 'friendly' ICBM's.

1974 November 28 - . LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5M.
  • Ballistic missile warheads no longer stored separately from missiles - . Nation: USSR. From 1972, as the last open-pad missiles were retired, it was decided to mount all warheads on the silo-based missiles in instant readiness for launch. Its operational tasks finished, the 12th Directorate was placed under the Ministry of Defence. In its place the RSVN created a Sixth Directorate for security of nuclear weapons.

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