Encyclopedia Astronautica

Credit: Ukrainian Space Agency
Russian intermediate range ballistic missile. Universal version, for pad-launch or from silo complex 'Chusovaya'.

Development of the modernised R-14U (universal) version, which could also be launched from 'Chusovaya' complex silos, was authorised on 30 May 1960. The authority to design the silo was issued two weeks later. The first test launch from a surface pad was conducted on 12 January 1962, followed by a series of launches from the silos from 11 February 1962 to October 1963.

In the silo-launched version, each regiment consisted of two divisions, each division being a single emplacement with a technical point and three silos. The launch complex was designed by TsKB TM under the direction of Nikolai Krivoshein. The hardened command and control technical point was modified from that for the R-12U, with each silo placed at least 100 m from the other about the technical point. Each silo was 30 m deep, had an inner diameter of 4.0 to 4.5 m, and was hardened to withstand overpressures of 2 kg/cm2. The silo design was accepted for military service on 15 June 1963.

The first R-14U silo division became operational at Priekule, Latvia in 1964. Further complexes were at Nerchinsk and Yasnaya in the far east, Dzhambul in Kazakhstan, Glukhov and Belokorovichi in the Ukraine, and Karmelaya in Lithuania. By 1965 a total of 97 R-14 and R-14U test or operational verification launches had been conducted, and around 100 mobile and silo launchers were operational.

The R-14U, in mixed deployment with mobile launchers, was retired in the late 1970's.

Maximum range: 4,000 km (2,400 mi). Initial Operational Capability: 1960.

AKA: SS-5 Mod 2; 8K65U; Skean; Chusovaya.
Status: Retired 1969.
Gross mass: 86,400 kg (190,400 lb).
Height: 24.40 m (80.00 ft).
Diameter: 2.40 m (7.80 ft).
Thrust: 1,480.00 kN (332,710 lbf).
Apogee: 676 km (420 mi).
First Launch: 1962.01.11.
Last Launch: 1969.07.18.
Number: 3 .

More... - Chronology...

Associated Countries
See also
  • Kosmos 3 In 1961 Isayev and Reshetnev developed the Voskhod space launch system on the basis of the R-14 IRBM. The initial version of the two stage rocket was designated Kosmos-1. The first 'Voskhod' launch complex was at Baikonur, a modification of one of the pads at the R-16 ICBM launch complex 41. More...
  • missile Guided self-propelled military weapon (as opposed to rocket, an unguided self-propelled weapon). More...

Associated Manufacturers and Agencies
  • Polyot Russian manufacturer of rockets. AKO Polyot, Omsk, Omsk, Russia. More...

Associated Launch Sites
  • Kapustin Yar Russia's first missile test range and used for satellite launches of smaller Kosmos vehicles. V-2's launched from here in 1946 were the first ballistic missiles fired on Soviet territory. It was greatly expanded as the test site for innumerable Soviet intermediate and short range missile projects in the 1950's.. Kapustin Year was also headquarters of the first operational R-1/R-2 units, 1950-1953, and later a base for 12 operational R-14 missile launchers. Kapustin Yar was known to have been used for over 3519 major launches from 1946 to 2007. More...
  • Plesetsk Plesetsk was the Soviet Union's northern cosmodrome, used for polar orbit launches of mainly military satellites, and was at one time the busiest launch centre in the world. The collapse of the Soviet Union put the main launch site of Baikonur in Kazakh territory. It now seems that once the Proton rocket is retired, Baikonur will be abandoned and Plesetsk will be Russia's primary launch centre. Upgrades to existing launch facilities will allow advanced versions of the Soyuz rocket and the new Angara launch vehicle to be launched from Plesetsk. Plesetsk's major drawback was the lower net payload in geosynchronous orbit from a northern latitude launch site. However Russia is planning to remove the disadvantage by looping geosynchronous satellites around the moon, using lunar gravity to make the necessary orbital plane change. More...
  • Kapustin Yar V-2 V-2, RT-15, R-5, R-2, R-17, R-11, R-1, Pioner, MR-12, M-100, Kosmos 3, Kosmos 2, RT-1, R-13, MMR-06, MERA launch complex. V-2 Launch Area More...

Associated Stages
  • Kosmos-1 Nitric acid/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 87,200/5,300 kg. Thrust 1,740.02 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 292 seconds. Launch count 411 orbital and ca. 300 suborbital to end 1994. Failures based on proration of failures to orbit. More...

R-14U Chronology

1962 January 11 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 3. Launch Vehicle: R-14U.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 675 km (419 mi).

1962 February 11 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar silo. LV Family: Kosmos 3. Launch Vehicle: R-14U.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 675 km (419 mi).

1969 July 18 - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC131. Launch Pad: LC131/1. LV Family: Kosmos 3. Launch Vehicle: R-14U.
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