Encyclopedia Astronautica

Credit: © Mark Wade
Russian surface-to-air missile. Soviet surface-to-air missile design of 1948-1951. Propulsion and guidance based on that of the R-102 (copy of German Schmetterling) but with new aerodynamics. Cancelled without ever flying in 1951 when decision was made to proceed with a new generation of SAM designs.

The R-112 was an advanced medium surface-to-air missile derived from the R-102 (Schmetterling). SKB-5 of NII-88 under Chief Designer Semyon Yevelyevich Rashkov was authorised to begin work on the design in a decree of 14 April 1948. The missile was to be produced in three variants: R-112A, with a self-homing guidance system and a 160 kg warhead; the R-112B, unguided but with a 270 kg warhead; and the R-112S - unguided but powered by a ramjet engine. Subcontrctors included: NII-504 MSKhM - target-ranging system; NII-885 MPSS - telemetry and control systems; NII-6 MSKhM - solid propellant booster motors; NII-6 MSKhM - warhead; MV - self-destruct system; and TsAGI MAP - aerodynamic layout.

The draft project for the R-112 was defended before a plenary session of NTS NII-88 on 4 August 1949. The rocket as designed would used two solid propellant boosters. These would burn out 2 to 3 seconds from launch, after which the missile would cruise to the target under the power of a liquid propellant engine. The missile had a total mass of 1500 kg, would reach a speed of 700 m/s, an altitude of 15 km, and a range of 20 km. Accuracy was 25 m at 20 km range. Maximum target speed was 300 m/s.

Aerodynamically the missile was equipped with two fixed wings and two rudders in-line. A launch battery would consist of six trailer-launchers, with one missile per launcher. All six could be fired within 13 seconds. No external guidance was to be provided to the missiles. The draft project consisted of 12 volumes; volume 11 dealt with the R-112S ramjet version. Rashkov was still the overall designer for this variant, but Mikhail Makarovich Bondaryuk of OKB-3 NII-1 TsIAMI was responsible for the integral ramjet and associated aerodynamics. Within NII-88 a half-scale flying prototype of the R-112S had been built. By May 1949 the following models had been delivered for test in the wind tunnels of NII-88 Section 11:

  • Model 1, with a diameter of 75 mm, for analysis of the internal ramjet diffuser channel performance.
  • Model 2, with a 120 mm in diameter, to study external aerodynamics in a closed wind tunnel.
  • Model 3, also 120 mm in diameter, used to verify full-scale aerodynamic effects in an open wind tunnel, as a basis for comparison with model 2.
Test results with these three models were satisfactory and by January 1950 75% of the drawings were released for a full-size 200 mm diameter test model. Two guidance systems were being developed. System A was a self-guiding design; and System B guided the missile via ground command using a ground-based target tracking system.

During boost, the elevons were locked at a 45 degree angle. After burnout and separation of the solids, a 2 tonne thrust liquid propellant engine by Isayev took over. This burned a mixed synthetic oxidiser and kerosene propellants, a combination that had been recommended for manoeuvring rockets.

Section 5, after the cancellation of the R-102, still continued work on the R-112. Furthermore the missile's future seemed assured when the R-112 was chosen over the R-117 in June 1950. Ironically, further work on the R-112 was in turn cancelled on 17 August 1951, when the decision was made to cancel all German-derived surface-to-air missiles in favour of new approaches.

Maximum range: 20 km (12 mi). Boost Propulsion: Solid rocket, 2 x boosters.

Status: Cancelled 1951.
Gross mass: 1,500 kg (3,300 lb).
Apogee: 15 km (9 mi).

More... - Chronology...

Associated Countries
See also
  • Russian SAMs and ABMs Perhaps no missiles ever produced had as much historical influence as the surface-to-air missiles of the Soviet Union. Originally conceived to provide a defence against the American bomber fleets of the early Cold War, they decisively affected the turn of events when they shot down American U-2 reconnaissance aircraft over Russia and Cuba. Soviet-provided missiles accounted for a hundred American aircraft over North Vietnam and set the terms of the air battle. A new generation of missiles presented a huge technological surprise and took an awful toll of Israeli aircraft in the 1973 war. To this day, Russian surface-to-air missiles provide the only defence available to most countries against American bombers, and Russian man-portable anti-aircraft missiles are a major part of the terrorist threat. More...
  • missile Guided self-propelled military weapon (as opposed to rocket, an unguided self-propelled weapon). More...

Associated Manufacturers and Agencies
  • Rashkov Russian manufacturer of rockets. Rashkov Design Bureau, Korolev, Russia. More...

  • Yeftifyev, M D, Iz istorii sozdaniya zenito-raketnovo shchita rossii, Vuzovskaya kniga, Moscow, 2000. Web Address when accessed: here.

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