Encyclopedia Astronautica
R-11



8k14.jpg
8K14
Credit: © Mark Wade
First Russian ballistic missile using storable propellants, developed from the German Wasserfall SAM by Korolev's OKB. The design was then spun off to the Makeyev OKB for development of Army (R-17 Scud) and SLBM (R-11FMA) derivatives.

The R-11 originated as Theme N-2 of the R-3 IRBM project. This was an alternate approach to delivering nuclear warheads on West European targets - a road-mobile missile of shorter range that could be set up at the forward area of the battlefield and reach enemy targets. A submarine-launched version would allow all of the major cities of Western Europe to be reached. The specification was for a missile of the range and payload of the German V-2, but of less than half the size, using non-cryogenic propellants.

The R-11 design adapted the Isayev rocket engine used in the V-300 / R-101 antiaircraft missile (itself a Russian-built version of the German Wasserfall). Following the decision to drop the R-3A, a 20 October 1951 MOP decree authorised work to start on the R-5 and R-11. Due to the extensive work already done under the Theme N-2, the 8 volume R-11 draft project was delivered on 30 November 1951. Korolev did not agree with the production of rockets using the R-11's toxic storable propellants, and project leader Viktor Petrovich Makeyev had to persevere in developing the rocket without his boss' support.

The first test flight was made on 18 April 1953. Massive problems were encountered in the difficult test series - with poor-quality kerosene fuel, handling and leakage of the propellants, and reliable start of the engine. But the Red Army saw much more promise in the design than in Korolev's cumbersome liquid oxygen rockets. A government decree was issued on 13 December 1953 for SKB-385 in the Urals to be responsible for series production of the R-11 and its S2.253 engine. SKB-385 had not distinguished itself in 1949-1951 when it was responsible for the first abortive attempt to put the R-1 rocket into production.

Following a protracted two-year test series, the design was finally accepted for military service on 13 July 1955. In anticipation of this formal decree, in June of 1955 Makeyev was made Chief Designer at SKB-385, responsible for engineering of the R-11 and future small land and sea based ballistic missiles. SKB-385 was given complete responsibility for development of the sub-launched R-11FM in August 1955.

Tests of the R-11FM had begun in February 1955 at Kapustin Yar with three experimental launches of the missile from a standard R-11 launch stand. This was followed by launches from a special stand simulating a ship's motion, developed by A P Abramov. Finally a third test series was conducted from the Project 611 submarine B-57 from 16 September to 13 October 1955 in the White Sea. This demonstrated launches from a pitching surfaced vessel and a total range of 150 km. Following further trials the system was accepted for military surface in 1959, but never deployed on an operational vessel. However the project had cemented Makeyev's relationship with the Soviet Navy, which decided to make him their sole source for all future naval ballistic missiles.

Meanwhile Makeyev had moved quickly to redesign the R-11 to remedy all of the basic defects identified in the trials. This included a new, less troublesome, higher performance propellant combination. The state authorised work to begin on the R-11M missile on 26 August 1954. This was followed by the first launch on 30 December 1955 and acceptance of the design for service on 1 April 1958.

The final refinement of the R-11 design was the R-17, to be exported and infamous around the world as the Scud-B. In 1958-1959 Makeyev designed and built the first mock-up of the new missile. But by then the decision was made to devote the bureau to sea-launched missiles, and in 1959 the program was transferred to Votkinsk Machine Building Plant. There design work continued with first launch in 1961 and acceptance into military service in 1964.

Range 270 km with 690 kg, accuracy 1.5 km/0.75 km. Maximum altitude 78 km. Time of flight 5.4 minutes. Max velocity at burnout 1430 m/s. Data is accurate. Source: placards at Orevo and TsNIIMASH.

Failures: 1. Success Rate: 98.72%. First Fail Date: 1959-01-01. Last Fail Date: 1959-01-01. Launch data is: complete. Standard warhead: 699 kg (1,541 lb). Maximum range: 260 km (160 mi). Number Standard Warheads: 1. CEP: 5.16 km (3.20 mi). Boost Propulsion: Storable liquid rocket, AK-20I/T-1. Maximum speed: 5,160 kph (3,200 mph). Initial Operational Capability: 1958.

Stage Data - R-11

  • Stage 1. 1 x R-11. Gross Mass: 4,660 kg (10,270 lb). Empty Mass: 955 kg (2,105 lb). Thrust (vac): 93.280 kN (20,970 lbf). Isp: 251 sec. Burn time: 78 sec. Isp(sl): 219 sec. Diameter: 0.88 m (2.88 ft). Span: 1.82 m (5.96 ft). Length: 7.42 m (24.34 ft). Propellants: Nitric acid/Kerosene. No Engines: 1. Engine: S2.253. Other designations: 8A61. Status: In Production. First Russian ballistic missile using storable propellants. Enlargement/elaboration of German Wasserfall SAM. Developed by Korolev OKB, then Makeyev OKB spun off to develop Army and SLBM derivatives. Range 270 km with 690 kg, accuracy 1.5 km/0.75 km. Maximum altitude 78 km. Time of flight 5.4 minutes. Max velocity at burnout 1430 m/s. Source: Wall chart, Russian Space Agency HQ, Moscow.

AKA: SS-1B; 8A61; 8K14; Scud A.
Status: Retired 1965.
Gross mass: 5,337 kg (11,766 lb).
Payload: 699 kg (1,541 lb).
Height: 10.67 m (35.00 ft).
Diameter: 0.85 m (2.78 ft).
Span: 1.80 m (5.90 ft).
Thrust: 101.00 kN (22,705 lbf).
Apogee: 160 km (90 mi).
First Launch: 1953.04.18.
Last Launch: 1965.05.18.
Number: 104 .

More... - Chronology...


Associated Countries
Associated Engines
  • S2.253 Isayev Nitric acid/Kerosene rocket engine. 93.3 kN. R-11 (Scud B) 8A61. Thrust 8300 kgf at sea level. Fuel Kerosene T-1, chemical ignition by TG-02. Isp=251s. First flight 1953. More...

See also
  • A4 The V-2, known as the A4 to its developers, was the basis for most of the rocketry that exists in the world today. It was ineffective as a weapon of war, but represented a quantum leap in technology. The A1, A2, A3, and A5 were steps in the development of the missile. Later versions - the A6 through A12 - were planned to take the Third Reich to the planets. More...
  • R-11 First Russian ballistic missile using storable propellants, developed from the German Wasserfall SAM by Korolev's OKB. The design was then spun off to the Makeyev OKB for development of Army (R-17 Scud) and SLBM (R-11FMA) derivatives. More...
  • missile Guided self-propelled military weapon (as opposed to rocket, an unguided self-propelled weapon). More...

Associated Manufacturers and Agencies
  • Makeyev Russian manufacturer of rockets, spacecraft, and rocket engines. Makeyev Design Bureau, Kolomna, Russia. More...

Bibliography
  • McDowell, Jonathan, Jonathan's Space Home Page (launch records), Harvard University, 1997-present. Web Address when accessed: here.
  • Ordway, Frank, and Sharpe, Mitchell, The Rocket Team, Collector's Guide Publishing, Ontario, Canada, 2000.
  • Semenov, Yu. P., S P Korolev Space Corporation Energia, RKK Energia, 1994.
  • Vetrov, G S, S. P. Korolev i evo delo, Nauka, Moscow, 1998.
  • Siddiqi, Asif A, The Soviet Space Race With Apollo, University Press of Florida, 2003.
  • Makeyev Viktor Petrovich, Istoriya Rossiskoi Sovietskoi kosmonavtiki, Web site, 2000.. Web Address when accessed: here.

Associated Launch Sites
  • Kapustin Yar Russia's first missile test range and used for satellite launches of smaller Kosmos vehicles. V-2's launched from here in 1946 were the first ballistic missiles fired on Soviet territory. It was greatly expanded as the test site for innumerable Soviet intermediate and short range missile projects in the 1950's.. Kapustin Year was also headquarters of the first operational R-1/R-2 units, 1950-1953, and later a base for 12 operational R-14 missile launchers. Kapustin Yar was known to have been used for over 3519 major launches from 1946 to 2007. More...
  • Kapustin Yar V-2 V-2, RT-15, R-5, R-2, R-17, R-11, R-1, Pioner, MR-12, M-100, Kosmos 3, Kosmos 2, RT-1, R-13, MMR-06, MERA launch complex. V-2 Launch Area More...

Associated Stages
  • R-11 Nitric acid/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 4,660/955 kg. Thrust 93.28 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 251 seconds. First Russian ballistic missile using storable propellants. Enlargement/elaboration of German Wasserfall SAM. Developed by Korolev OKB, then Makeyev OKB spun off to develop Army and SLBM derivatives. Range 270 km with 690 kg, accuracy 1.5 km/0.75 km. Maximum altitude 78 km. Time of flight 5.4 minutes. Max velocity at burnout 1430 m/s. Source: Wall chart, Russian Space Agency HQ, Moscow. More...

R-11 Chronology


1949 June - . LV Family: R-11. Launch Vehicle: R-11.
  • Groettrup team designs R-13. - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Groettrup. Summary: Groettrup group consulted on 'R-13' (code name for R-11?). Specifications include 1000 kg warhead, 120 km range..

1953 April 18 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. LV Family: R-11. Launch Vehicle: R-11.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi). Massive problems were encountered in the difficult test series - with poor-quality kerosene fuel, handling and leakage of the propellants, and reliable start of the engine. But the Red Army saw much more promise in the design than in Korolev's cumbersome liquid oxygen rockets.

1953 May 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. LV Family: R-11. Launch Vehicle: R-11.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1953 May 9 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-11.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1953 May 17 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-11.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1953 May 22 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-11.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1953 May 26 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-11.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1953 May 27 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-11.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1953 May 28 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-11.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1953 May 30 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-11.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1953 June 3 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. LV Family: R-11. Launch Vehicle: R-11.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1953 December 13 - . LV Family: R-11. Launch Vehicle: R-11.
  • R-11 production decree - . Nation: USSR. A government decree was issued for SKB-385 in the Urals to be responsible for series production of the R-11 and its S2.253 engine. SKB-385 had not distinguished itself in 1949-1951 when it was responsible for the first abortive attempt to put the R-1 rocket into production.

1954 April 20 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. LV Family: R-11. Launch Vehicle: R-11.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1954 April 24 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-11.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1954 April 27 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-11.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1954 May 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. LV Family: R-11. Launch Vehicle: R-11.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1954 May 4 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-11.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1954 May 5 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-11.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1954 May 6 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-11.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1954 May 8 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-11.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1954 May 12 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-11.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1954 May 13 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. LV Family: R-11. Launch Vehicle: R-11.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1954 July 13 - . LV Family: R-11. Launch Vehicle: R-11.
  • R-11 accepted into military service. - . Nation: USSR. Summary: Council of Soviet Ministers (SM) Decree 'On adoption of the R-11 into armaments' was issued..

1954 August 26 - . LV Family: R-11. Launch Vehicle: R-11.
  • R-11M development authorised. - . Nation: USSR. Summary: Council of Soviet Ministers (SM) Decree 'On approval of work on the R-11M missile' was issued..

1954 December 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. LV Family: R-11. Launch Vehicle: R-11.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1955 January 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. LV Family: R-11. Launch Vehicle: R-11.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1955 January 14 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-11. LV Configuration: R-11 K3-4.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1955 January 21 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-11. LV Configuration: R-11 K3-5.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1955 January 21 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-11. LV Configuration: R-11 K3-6.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1955 February 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. LV Family: R-11. Launch Vehicle: R-11.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1955 February 2 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-11. LV Configuration: R-11 K3-10.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 0 km ( mi).

1955 February 10 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-11. LV Configuration: R-11 K3-9.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1955 February 11 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-11. LV Configuration: R-11 K3-8.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1955 February 15 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-11. LV Configuration: R-11 S3-12.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1955 February 17 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-11. LV Configuration: R-11 S3-7.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1955 February 17 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-11. LV Configuration: R-11 S3-15.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1955 February 19 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-11. LV Configuration: R-11 S3-13.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1955 February 21 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-11. LV Configuration: R-11 S3-16.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1955 February 22 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-11. LV Configuration: R-11 S3-11.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1955 July 13 - . LV Family: R-11. Launch Vehicle: R-11.
  • R-11 accepted for military service - . Nation: USSR. Following a protracted two-year test series, the design was finally accepted for military service on 13 July 1955. In anticipation of this formal decree, in June of 1955 Makeyev was made Chief Designer at SKB-385, responsible for engineering of the R-11 and future small land and sea based ballistic missiles. SKB-385 was given complete responsibility for development of the sub-launched R-11FM in August 1955.

1956 January 29 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-11. LV Configuration: R-11 S1-1.
  • Production launch - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1956 January 31 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-11. LV Configuration: R-11 S1-3.
  • Production launch - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1956 April 20 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-11. LV Configuration: R-11 A1-1.
  • Production launch - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

1956 June 28 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-11. LV Configuration: R-11 A1-5.
  • Production launch - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 30 km (18 mi).

1956 July 11 - . LV Family: R-11. Launch Vehicle: R-11.
  • Sounding rocket variant of the R-11 authorised. - . Nation: USSR. Summary: Decree 'On approval of work on the R-11A missile for the IGY' was issued..

1957 January 4 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-11. LV Configuration: R-11 A1-4T.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 80 km (49 mi).

1957 January 25 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-11. LV Configuration: R-11 A1-2.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1957 February 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-11. LV Configuration: R-11 A1-7.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1957 February 2 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-11. LV Configuration: R-11 A1-1.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1957 February 6 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-11. LV Configuration: R-11 A1-4.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1957 February 20 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-11. LV Configuration: R-11 A2-1.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1957 February 20 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-11. LV Configuration: R-11 A1-20.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1957 August 22 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-11. LV Configuration: R-11 M686.
  • ZI - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1957 August 23 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-11. LV Configuration: R-11 M583.
  • ZI - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1957 August 23 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-11. LV Configuration: R-11 M581.
  • ZI - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1957 September 27 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-11. LV Configuration: R-11 M681.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1957 September 27 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-11. LV Configuration: R-11 M689.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1957 October 6 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-11. LV Configuration: R-11 M6816.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1957 November 18 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-11. LV Configuration: R-11 M6812.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1957 November 20 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-11. LV Configuration: R-11 M68688.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1957 November 26 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-11. LV Configuration: R-11 M6814.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1957 November 27 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-11. LV Configuration: R-11 M6811.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1957 November 29 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-11. LV Configuration: R-11 M6817.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1957 December 11 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-11. LV Configuration: R-11 M6818.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 40 km (24 mi).

1957 December 11 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-11. LV Configuration: R-11 M6815.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 40 km (24 mi).

1957 December 12 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-11. LV Configuration: R-11 M6813.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 40 km (24 mi).

1957 December 16 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-11. LV Configuration: R-11 M2-25.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1957 December 16 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-11. LV Configuration: R-11 M2-2.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1957 December 26 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-11. LV Configuration: R-11 M3-25T.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1957 December 28 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-11. LV Configuration: R-11 M3-9.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1957 December 31 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-11. LV Configuration: R-11 M4-4T.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1957 December 31 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-11. LV Configuration: R-11 M4-6.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1958 March 8 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-11. LV Configuration: R-11 B1-19.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1958 April 1 - . LV Family: R-11. Launch Vehicle: R-11.
  • R-11M accepted into military service. - . Nation: USSR. Summary: Decree 'On adoption of the R-11M into armaments' was issued..

1958 May 31 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-11. LV Configuration: R-11 B2-3.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1958 May 31 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-11. LV Configuration: R-11 B2-67.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1958 July 8 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-11. LV Configuration: R-11 M2-12.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1958 July 31 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-11. LV Configuration: R-11 M2-21.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1958 August 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-11. LV Configuration: R-11 M2-7.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1958 August 6 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-11. LV Configuration: R-11 M2-22.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1958 September 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-11. LV Configuration: R-11 B2-23.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1958 September 8 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-11. LV Configuration: R-11 M2-24.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 40 km (24 mi).

1958 September 8 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-11. LV Configuration: R-11 M2-9.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1958 September 18 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-11. LV Configuration: R-11 B2-8.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1958 September 18 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-11. LV Configuration: R-11 B2-2.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1958 September 23 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-11. LV Configuration: R-11 B2-4.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1958 September 30 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-11. LV Configuration: R-11 B2-11.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1958 December 27 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-11. LV Configuration: R-11 B1-8T.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1959 January 12 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-11. LV Configuration: R-11 B1-18T.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1959 January 13 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-11. LV Configuration: R-11 B1-2.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1959 January 13 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-11. LV Configuration: R-11 B1-15.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1959 January 29 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-11. LV Configuration: R-11 M3-17.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1959 March 4 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-11. LV Configuration: R-11 M3-19.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1959 March 4 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-11. LV Configuration: R-11 M2-23.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1959 March 12 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-11. LV Configuration: R-11 I1-15T.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1959 March 13 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-11. LV Configuration: R-11 I1-6.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1959 April 28 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-11. LV Configuration: R-11 I2-9.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1959 April 28 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-11. LV Configuration: R-11 I2-3T.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1959 May 15 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-11. LV Configuration: R-11 B2-1.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1959 May 19 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-11. LV Configuration: R-11 B2-20.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1959 December 24 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-11. LV Configuration: R-11 B1-25.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1959 December 24 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-11. LV Configuration: R-11 B1-16.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1959 December 27 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-11. LV Configuration: R-11 B1-22.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1959 December 28 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-11. LV Configuration: R-11 B1-24.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1959 December 29 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-11. LV Configuration: R-11 B1-19.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1959 December 29 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-11. LV Configuration: R-11 B1-23.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1965 May 7 - . 07:28 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-11. Launch Vehicle: R-11.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

1965 May 8 - . 10:47 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-11. Launch Vehicle: R-11.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

1965 May 14 - . 19:12 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-11. Launch Vehicle: R-11.
  • Ionosphere mission? - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

1965 May 15 - . 08:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-11. Launch Vehicle: R-11.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

1965 May 18 - . 09:07 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-11. Launch Vehicle: R-11.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

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