Encyclopedia Astronautica
Proton-K



8k82kalm.jpg
Proton 8K82K
8K82K with Almaz-K payload - COSPAR 1991-024
Russian orbital launch vehicle. Development of a three-stage version of the UR-500 was authorised in the decree of 3 August 1964. Decrees of 12 October and 11 November 1964 authorised development of the Almaz manned military space station and the manned circumlunar spacecraft LK-1 as payloads for the UR-500K. Remarkably, due to continuing failures, the 8K82K did not satisfactorily complete its state trials until its 61st launch (Salyut 6 / serial number 29501 / 29 September 1977). Thereafter it reached a level of launch reliability comparable to that of other world launch vehicles.

Development of a three-stage version of the UR-500 was authorised in the decree of 3 August 1964. During development, in comparison to the original polyblock design, the engine performances were improved by about 5 seconds; the mass of the first stage increased by 71 tonnes; the second stage by 30 tonnes; and the third stage by 27 tonnes (more than doubled). These changes brought the low earth orbit payload from 12,000 kg up to almost 20,000 kg. The UR-500K, although it exceeded the launch mass of the 11A511 Soyuz by 2.22 times and the fuel mass by 2.25 times, was more efficient with a useful load by 2.78 times greater. However putting the new variant of Proton into service proved difficult.

Decrees of 12 October and 11 November 1964 authorised development of the Almaz manned military space station and the manned circumlunar spacecraft LK-1 as payloads for the UR-500K. However at the same time Khrushchev was ousted from power. Chelomei lost his chief patron and his projects came under negative scrutiny by the new leadership.

Although Korolev was opposed to the Proton, he now used it to his advantage. On 8 September 1965 Korolev presented several schemes for using Chelomei's UR-500K to fly around the moon. One alternate was a two-part spaceship, using the Proton with the upper stage Block D from Korolev's N1-L3 lunar project. This would launch Korolev's 7K-L1 spacecraft (derived from the 7K-OK Soyuz spacecraft) onto a translunar trajectory. This project received the name UR-500K-L1, and was adopted in place of Chelomei's LK-1. It required construction of 18 UR-500K rockets, which, in a combination flight-test and government trials program, would send L1 spacecraft around the moon, at first unmanned, then manned.

As a result of Korolev's seizure of the project, the first flights of the three stage Proton included Korolev's fourth Block D stage. Due to delays in the Almaz military space station, it was pre-empted by an OKB-1 civilian derivative, the Zarya. The first launch of the basic three-stage UR-500K vehicle, without the Block D upper stage, did not come until the launch of the Proton 4 physics satellite, almost two years after flights of the four-stage version had begun.

Remarkably, due to continuing failures, the 8K82K did not satisfactorily complete its state trials until its 61st launch (Salyut 6 / serial number 29501 / 29 September 1977). Thereafter it reached a level of launch reliability comparable to that of other world launch vehicles.

LEO Payload: 19,760 kg (43,560 lb) to a 186 km orbit at 51.60 degrees. Failures: 4. Success Rate: 87.10%. First Fail Date: 1972-07-29. Last Fail Date: 1986-11-29. Launch Price $: 50.000 million in 1994 dollars.

AKA: Proton 3; UR-500K; SL-13; 8K82K; D-1.
Status: Retired 2000.
Gross mass: 693,810 kg (1,529,580 lb).
Payload: 19,760 kg (43,560 lb).
Height: 50.00 m (164.00 ft).
Diameter: 4.15 m (13.61 ft).
Span: 7.40 m (24.20 ft).
Thrust: 8,847.00 kN (1,988,884 lbf).
Apogee: 186 km (115 mi).
First Launch: 1968.11.16.
Last Launch: 2000.07.12.
Number: 31 .

More... - Chronology...


Associated Countries
Associated Spacecraft
  • Raketoplan Russian manned spaceplane. Developed from 1959, including suborbital hardware tests, before cancellation in 1964. More...
  • LK-1 Russian manned lunar flyby spacecraft. Cancelled 1965. The LK-1 was the spacecraft designed by Chelomei for the original Soviet manned lunar flyby project. More...
  • TGR Russian military surveillance satellite. Study 1963. Two new directions were pursued in the Soviet Union for space optical reconnaissance systems in the mid-1960's: automated systems with television transmission of pictures, and manned systems. More...
  • Almaz APOS Russian manned space station. Cancelled 1966. The initial Almaz program planned in 1965 consisted of two phases. More...
  • N-6 Russian cosmic ray astronomy satellite. One launch, 1968.11.16, Proton 4. Cosmic ray measurements. Study of the nature of high and ultra-high energy cosmic rays and their interaction with atomic nuclei. Mass announced at time of launch 17,000 kg. More...
  • Salyut 1 Russian manned space station. 2 launches, 1971.04.19 (Salyut 1) and 1972.07.29 (Zarya s/n 122). Salyut 1 was the first DOS long duration orbital station. More...
  • Space Tug American space tug. Study 1971. The original Boeing Space Tug design of the early 1970's was sized to be flown either in a single shuttle mission or as a Saturn V payload. Optimum mass was found to be 20.6 metric tons regardless. More...
  • Almaz OPS-2 Russian manned space station. Cancelled 1979. The initial Almaz military space station program planned in 1965 consisted of two phases. More...
  • Almaz OPS Russian manned space station. 3 launches, 1973.04.03 (Salyut 2) to 1976.06.22 (Salyut 5). Vladimir Chelomei's Almaz OPS was the only manned military space station ever actually flown. More...
  • Salyut 4 Russian manned space station. 2 launches, 1973.05.11 (Cosmos 557) to 1974.12.26 (Salyut 4). Four of the initial DOS-1 versions of a civilian Soviet space station were built using converted Almaz military stations. More...
  • TKS VA Russian manned spacecraft module. 13 launches, 1976.12.15 (Cosmos 881) to 1985.09.27 (Cosmos 1686). The VA reentry capsule was similar in configuration to the American Apollo, but 30% smaller. Reusable re-entry capsule. More...
  • OPS + TKS Russian manned space station. Cancelled 1976. Designation give to combined TKS+OPS Almaz station. More...
  • KSI Russian logistics spacecraft. Study 1977. Capsule designed to return film and data materials from the Almaz military space station. More...
  • TKS Russian manned spacecraft. 4 launches, 1977.07.17 (Cosmos 929) to 1985.09.27 (Cosmos 1686). More...
  • Salyut 6 Russian manned space station. One launch, 1977.09.29. The Salyut 6 space station was the most successful of the DOS series prior to Mir. It was aloft for four years and ten months, completing 27,785 orbits of the earth. More...
  • Mars 5M Russian Mars lander. Cancelled 1978. The 5M was a second attempt by the Lavochkin bureau to design and fly a Soviet Martian soil return mission. Design and development was undertaken from 1974 to 1978. More...
  • 37K-Mir Russian manned space station. Cancelled 1983. The basic 37K design consisted of a 4.2 m diameter pressurized cylinder with a docking port at the forward end. It was not equipped with its own propulsion system. More...
  • Space Operations Center American manned space station. Study 1979. The Space Operations Center was proposed by NASA's Johnson Spaceflight Center in 1979. More...
  • Iskra Russian amateur radio communications satellite. 3 launches, 1981.07.10 (Iskra) to 1982.11.18 (Iskra 3). Launched from Salyut 7 airlock. Conduct of experiments in the field of amateur radio communications. More...
  • Salyut 7 Russian manned space station. One launch, 1982.04.19. Salyut 7 was the back-up article for Salyut 6 and very similar in equipment and capabilities. More...
  • Space Station Designs - 1982 American manned space station. Study 1982. NASA regarded a permanently manned space station as the next 'logical step' in manned spaceflight after the Space Shuttle entered service in April 1981. More...
  • LKS Russian manned spaceplane. Mock-up stage when cancelled in 1983. The LKS was a Chelomei design for a reusable manned winged spacecraft, similar to the later European Hermes spaceplane. More...
  • Polar Platform American manned space station. Study 1984. In order to increase the Space Station's and Space Shuttle's appeal, NASA tried to involve as many users as possible. More...
  • Space Station 1984 American manned space station. Design as of 1984. President Reagan finally approved a space station project for NASA in January 1984. More...
  • Vega 5VS Russian Venus probe. Cancelled 1985. Unflown series of Venus probes (which also served as the basis for the Granat satellite). Original plans called for two versions, 5VS and 5VP, both weighing 4850 kg. More...
  • Mir Russian manned space station. One launch, 1986.02.20. Improved model of the Salyut DOS-17K space station with one aft docking port and five ports in a spherical compartment at the forward end of the station. More...
  • Almaz-T Russian civilian surveillance radar satellite. 3 launches, 1986.11.29 (Almaz-T s/n 303 Failure) to 1991.03.31 (Almaz 1). The results of the manned Almaz flights showed that manned reconnaissance from space was not worth the expense. More...
  • Kvant Russian manned space station. One launch, 1987.03.31 (Kvant 1). The Kvant spacecraft represented the first use of a new kind of Soviet space station module, designated 37K. More...
  • Space Station Freedom American manned space station. Design as of 1988. NASA's first detailed cost assessment for the US space station caused a political uproar in Congress, where many politicians had started to express doubt about the project. More...
  • Kvant-2 Russian manned space station. One launch, 1989.11.26, Kvant 2. Kvant-2 was a utility module launched to the Mir station. It provided an airlock, additional electric power, and additional gyrodynes for orienting the station. More...
  • Kristall Russian manned space station. One launch, 1990.05.31. Kristal was a dedicated zero-gravity materials and biological science research module for the Mir space station, launched in January 1990 More...
  • Tellura Russian earth land resources satellite. Study 1990. In 1990 KB Salyut proposed an unmanned derivative of the TKS manned ferry to conduct earth resources experiments. More...
  • Mak Russian earth atmosphere satellite. 2 launches, 1991.06.17 (Mak 1) and 1992.10.27 (Mak 2). Launched from Mir airlock. Investigation of features at the Earth's atmosphere. More...
  • Spektr - Original Russian military anti-satellite system. Study 1989. Chelomei designed a spacecraft bus for space based weapons based on his TKS space tug. This was an alternate / competitive design to the NPO Energia USB. More...
  • Almaz-1B Russian civilian surveillance radar satellite. Study 1993. More...
  • Spektr Russian manned space station. One launch, 1995.05.20. Spektr was a module of the Mir space station. It began life as a dedicated military research unit. More...
  • Almaz-2 Russian civilian surveillance radar satellite. Study 1995. Plans for an even more sophisticated and capable civilian Almaz 2 spacecraft were made in the early 1990's. Almaz 2's payload mass of 6. More...
  • Priroda Russian manned space station. One launch, 1996.04.23. Priroda was the last Mir module launched. It was originally an all-Soviet remote sensing module for combined civilian and military surveillance of the earth. More...
  • ISS Zvezda Russian manned space station. One launch, 2000.07.12, Zvezda. The Zvezda service module of the International Space Station had its origins a quarter century before it was launched. More...

Associated Engines
  • RD-0212 Kosberg N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. 613 kN. Proton stage 3. Engine unit consisting of 1 RD-0213 maine engine and 4 RD-0214 vernier/steering engines. 8D48 essentially similar to 8D411 and 8D412 and has the same combustion chamber. Isp=324s. First flight 1967. More...
  • RD-0210 Kosberg N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. 582.1 kN. Isp=326s. Cluster of four similar engines used in second stage of Proton - one providing tank pressurization (8D412K/RD-0211) and three (8D411K/RD-0210). Staged combustion cycle. First flight 1965. More...
  • RD-253-11D48 Glushko N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. 1635 kN. Isp=316s. Six gimballed single chamber RD-253s provide the first stage power for the UR-500 Proton launch vehicle. First flown in 1965. More...

See also
  • Proton The Proton launch vehicle has been the medium-lift workhorse of the Soviet and Russian space programs for over forty years. Although constantly criticized within Russia for its use of toxic and ecologically-damaging storable liquid propellants, it has out-lasted all challengers, and no replacement is in sight. More...

Associated Manufacturers and Agencies
  • Chelomei Russian manufacturer of rockets, spacecraft, and rocket engines. Chelomei Design Bureau, Reutov, Russia. More...

Associated Programs
  • Almaz The only manned military space station to have ever flown, it served only to prove that manned stations provided no cost-effective substitute to unmanned military satellites. Derivatives of the design continue in service into the 21st Century as modules of the Salyut, Mir, and International Space Stations. More...
  • ISS Finally completed in 2010 after a torturous 25-year development and production process, the International Space Station was originally conceived as the staging post for manned exploration of the solar systrem. Instead, it was seemed to be the death knell of manned spaceflight. More...
  • Mir The Mir space station was the last remnant of the once mighty Soviet space programme. It was built to last only five years, and was to have been composed of modules launched by Proton and Buran/Energia launch vehicles. These modules were derived from those originally designed by Chelomei in the 1960's for the Almaz military station programme. As the Soviet Union collapsed Mir stayed in orbit, but the final modules were years late and could only be completed with American financial assistance. Kept flying over a decade beyond its rated life, Mir proved a source of pride to the Russian people and proved the ability of their cosmonauts and engineers to improvise and keep operations going despite all manner of challenges and mishaps. More...
  • Proton Investigation of ultra-high-energy cosmic particles. More...
  • Salyut 7 Due to cancellation of the Almaz military station, and delays in the Mir project, the decision was taken in the late 1970's to fly the back-up to DOS-5 / Salyut 6. This was launched as Salyut 7 in 1982. The opportunity was still taken to fly 'guest cosmonauts' from friendly countries on short visits to the stations, although emphasis was placed on military experiments. Salyut 7 was able to conduct significant military experiments thanks to the greatly increased volume and payload of the TKS modules diverted from the Almaz programme that docked with the station. More...
  • Salyut 6 Mishin was authorised in December 1973 to build an improved design DOS-5 version of the Salyut station using Almaz facilities. Mishin's bureau borrowed the two docking port configuration of Chelomei's Almaz OPS-2 This station's second docking port would allow rotation of crews and resupply/refueling using unmanned Progress spacecraft. More...
  • Salyut The world's first space station, developed in one year by the Soviet Union on the basis of Chelomei's Almaz station, in an attempt to upstage the American Skylab after the loss of the moon landing race to the Americans. More...

Associated Launch Sites
  • Baikonur Russia's largest cosmodrome, the only one used for manned launches and with facilities for the larger Proton, N1, and Energia launch vehicles. The spaceport ended up on foreign soil after the break-up of Soviet Union. The official designations NIIP-5 and GIK-5 are used in official Soviet histories. It was also universally referred to as Tyuratam by both Soviet military staff and engineers, and the US intelligence agencies. Since the dissolution of the Soviet Union the Russian Federation has insisted on continued use of the old Soviet 'public' name of Baikonur. In its Kazakh (Kazak) version this is rendered Baykonur. More...

Associated Stages
  • Proton K-3 N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 50,747/4,185 kg. Thrust 630.17 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 325 seconds. More...
  • Proton K-2 N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 167,828/11,715 kg. Thrust 2,399.22 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 327 seconds. More...
  • Proton K-1 N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 450,510/31,100 kg. Thrust 10,470.16 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 316 seconds. More...

Proton-K Chronology


1964 August 15 - . LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K.
  • Chief Designers review of Voskhod at OKB-1 - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Khrushchev, Sergei; Chelomei. Program: Voskhod. Flight: Voskhod 1. Spacecraft: Voskhod; LK-1. All concerned designers, bureaux, and institutes certify the reliability of the systems of the spacecraft and launch vehicle. The second phase of trials of the soft landing system have been successful. Of 10 drops, 9 landed with vertical velocity under 7.5 m/s, and of those, 6 landed with a speed of only 0.0 to 1.5 m/s. There are still concerns about how the system will function in soft soils or adverse weather conditions. Nevertheless the decision is taken to ship the spacecraft to the cosmodrome for final preparations between 18 and 25 August. It is likely that the manned flight cannot occur until the end of September. Later in the day Kamanin is visited by Sergei Nikitovich Khrushchev and other experts from Chelomei's design bureau. They brief Kamanin on plans for a manned circumnavigation of the moon using their spacecraft launched by their UR-500 booster by the end of 1967.

1964 October 12 - . LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K.
  • Almaz project starts - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Chelomei. Spacecraft: Almaz APOS; Soyuz R. The day before the overthrow of his patron, Chelomei obtained permission to begin development of a larger military space station, the Almaz. This 20 tonne station would take three cosmonauts to orbit in a single launch of his UR-500K Proton rocket. Therefore there were now two competing projects for the same mission - Almaz and Soyuz-R. First flight of the Almaz, with a one year operational period, was set for 1968.

1964 November 11 - . LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K.
  • Development of the manned circumlunar spacecraft LK-1 authorised - . Nation: USSR.

1966 April 10 - . LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K. LV Configuration: Proton 8K82K.
  • Cosmonaut training for lunar flights announced - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Leonov. Program: Lunar L1. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-L1. Summary: Leonov announces that cosmonauts are in training for lunar missions..

1966 September 2 - . LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K. LV Configuration: Proton 8K82K.
1966 December 24 - . LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K.
  • First session of State Commission for the L1 - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Tyulin; Mishin; Chelomei; Barmin. Program: Lunar L1. Flight: Soyuz 7K-L1 mission 1; Soyuz 7K-L1 mission 2; Soyuz 7K-L1 mission 3. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-OK; Soyuz 7K-L1. Tyulin chairs the meeting. Mishin, Chelomei and Barmin brief the status of the spacecraft, booster, and launch site. There is much to be done in order to fly cosmonauts around the moon by 7 November 1967 - the 50th anniversary of the October Revolution. The first manned flight around the moon is planned for 26 June 1967. To achieve this, four flights of the L1 without a crew have to be completed first. The UR-500K booster should be capable of launching the L1 on a direct flight around the Moon and back to the earth. But since the UR-500K has not yet flown, and its 19-tonne low earth payload has not bee verified, Mishin plans to follow the podsadka scenario. The UR-500K will place in low earth orbit an L1 without a crew, and then a Soyuz booster will place a manned Soyuz 7K-OK Soyuz in orbit. The Soyuz crew will rendezvous and dock with the L1, and the crew for the circumlunar mission will spacewalk through open space from the 7K-OK into the L1. The spacecraft will then separate. The 7K-OK returns to earth, while the L1 is boosted on a circumlunar trajectory. After 4 to 6 launches of the UR-500K to verify its reliability and payload margins, it should be possible to make the direct flight to the moon on subsequent versions. For the time being it is necessary to develop both versions in parallel.

1967 January - . LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K. LV Configuration: Proton 8K82K.
  • First L-1 Zond spacecraft mated to Proton - . Payload: Soyuz 7K-L1P #1. Nation: USSR. Program: Lunar L1. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-L1. Summary: Fit tests at Tyuratam. Not launched (Interavia SD)..

1967 October 7 - . LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K.
  • Soviet of Chief Designers - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Chelomei; Mishin; Glushko; Ustinov; Dementiev. Program: Lunar L1; Soyuz. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-OK; Soyuz 7K-L1. In Moscow, Mishin heads a meeting of all the Chief Designers (including Chelomei, Mishin, and Glushko). Glushko says that the last UR-500K failure was due to errors made during manufacture of an engine in 1965 at Factory 19 at Perm. Ustinov notes that the failure has cost the state 100 million roubles and has delayed the program two to three months. He brutally attacks Dementiev, Minister of Aviation Industry, for the poor work of his factories on the space program. Another issue is continued delays in the Salyut computer for the L1. Ustinov orders an alternate technical solution to be developed in parallel with the digital computer development. The next Soyuz flight is set for the end of December, the next L1 attempt for 21-22 November.

1967 November 17 - . LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K.
  • UR-500 launch vehicle version for military payloads authorised. - . Nation: USSR. Summary: Central Committee of the Communist Party and Council of Soviet Ministers Decree 1070-363 'On approval of work on the UR-500 launch vehicle' was issued..

1967 November 21 - . LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K.
  • Cause of Proton failure in last launch. - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Glushko. Program: Lunar L1. Summary: Glushko at Baikonur. He reports the Perm factory is under close supervision - the engine that failed on the last launch was found to have resin in the main fuel line..

July 1968 - . LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K. LV Configuration: Proton 8K82K.
  • DIA/CIA warn of impending Zond circumlunar flight - . Nation: USSR. Program: Lunar L1. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-L1. The information led NASA to decide to send Apollo 8 on a risky lunar orbital mission at the end of December 1968. Interestingly enough the CIA warning to NASA came within days of the L1 State Commission's meeting and decision to press for a November circumlunar flight.

1968 July 21 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K. LV Configuration: Proton 8K82K.
  • Zond 7K-L1 s/n 8L - . Payload: Zond 7K-L1 s/n 8L. Mass: 5,140 kg (11,330 lb). Nation: USSR. Program: Lunar L1. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-L1. Decay Date: 1968-07-21 . Summary: Block D stage exploded on pad, killing three people. Booster and 7K-L1 spacecraft were still intact however..

1968 November 16 - . 11:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/24. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K. LV Configuration: Proton-K 236-01.
  • Proton 4 - . Payload: N-6 s/n 1. Mass: 16,000 kg (35,000 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Proton. Class: Astronomy. Type: X-ray astronomy satellite. Spacecraft: N-6 . Decay Date: 1969-07-24 . USAF Sat Cat: 3544 . COSPAR: 1968-103A. Apogee: 477 km (296 mi). Perigee: 248 km (154 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 91.80 min. Summary: First launch of the Proton three-stage variant. The satellite studied the nature of high and ultra-high energy cosmic rays and their interaction with atomic nuclei. Scientific payload 12,500 kg; operated for 100 days in orbit. .

1969 December 1 - . LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K. LV Configuration: Proton 8K82K.
  • First flight Almaz station close to completion - . Nation: USSR. Program: Almaz. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space station. Spacecraft: Almaz OPS. Summary: Ten stations 'in advanced stage of completion' by end of year..

1970 February 1 - . LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K. LV Configuration: Proton 8K82K.
  • Space station programs rationalised. - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Chelomei; Mishin. Program: Almaz. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space station. Spacecraft: Almaz OPS; Soyuz 7K-S; Soyuz OB-VI; Salyut 1. Brezhnev orders a cooperative crash program to build a civilian space station to beat Skylab into orbit. The civilian station (later named Salyut) will use the Almaz spaceframe fitted out with Soyuz functional equipment. Mishin's OIS military station was cancelled and Chelomei's Almaz would continue, but as second priority to the civilian station. The Soyuz 7K-S station ferry, the 7K-ST, would be revised to be a more conservative modification of the Soyuz 7K-OK. The OIS cosmonaut group was incorporated into the Almaz group.

1970 June 16 - . LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K.
  • Development of TKS ferry for Almaz authorised. Soyuz 7K-TK cancelled - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Chelomei. Spacecraft: TKS; Soyuz 7K-TK. Decree 437-160 'On creation of the TKS and termination of the 7K-TK' was issued. In 1969 Chelomei proposed replacement of the 11F72 Soyuz 7K-TK with his own transport-supply spacecraft 11F72 (transportnovo korablya snabzheniya - TKS). This would consist of the same 11F74 VA landing capsule used on the Almaz station, together with a new 11F77 functional-cargo block (funktsionalno-gruzovovo blok, FGB). This would transport three crew and sufficient supplies for 90 day operation of the Almaz.

1970 August 18 - . 03:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/23. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K. LV Configuration: Proton-K 246-01.
  • 82-EV test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi). Summary: Heavily instrumented suborbital flight to provide data to root out causes of continuing launch vehicle failures. Heavy mass model of an unspecified spacecraft used to simulate payload...

1970 October 31 - . LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K. LV Configuration: Proton 8K82K.
  • Soyuz 7K-L1 s/n 10L and 15L - . Payload: Soyuz 7K-L1 s/n 10L and 15L. Nation: USSR. Program: Lunar L1. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-L1. Summary: Despite decision to cancel immediate manned circumlunar flights after Apollo 8, the remaining two L-1 spacecraft were kept in reserve for support of the L3 lunar landing program and possible later manned flights. They were never used..

1971 April 19 - . 01:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/24. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K. LV Configuration: Proton-K 254-01.
  • Salyut 1 - . Payload: Zarya s/n 121. Mass: 18,500 kg (40,700 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space station. Flight: Soyuz 10; Soyuz 11; Soyuz 12 / DOS 1. Spacecraft: Salyut 1. Duration: 179.93 days. Decay Date: 1971-10-11 . USAF Sat Cat: 5160 . COSPAR: 1971-032A. Apogee: 214 km (132 mi). Perigee: 180 km (110 mi). Inclination: 51.4000 deg. Period: 88.50 min. First manned space station. Salyut 1 included a number of military experiments, including the OD-4 optical visual ranger, the Orion ultraviolet instrument for characterising rocket plumes, and the highly classified Svinets radiometer. Primary objectives included photography of the earth, spectrographs of the earth's horizon, experiments with intense gamma rays, and studying manual methods for station orientation.

    At 05:20 the State Commission and their guests arrive at the Area 95 observation point to view the launch. The booster takes off on schedule at 06:40 in light rain and 60 km/hr wind. The tracking station reports good orbital insertion, separation from the third stage, and antennae and solar panel deployment. But the cover of the scientific equipment bay does not separate. This will mean that many experiments cannot be accomplished. It is decided to launch the crew to the station anyway, since the station is otherwise functioning normally. The cosmonauts go to the baths in the evening. Additional Details: here....


1972 June 15 - . LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K.
  • Almaz / TKS project rescheduled. - . Nation: USSR. Spacecraft: Almaz OPS; Almaz OPS-2; TKS. Summary: Ministry of General Machine Building (MOM) Decree 'On schedule of work for the Almaz and TKS programs' was issued..

1972 July 29 - . 03:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/23. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K. LV Configuration: Proton-K 260-01. FAILURE: Second stage malfunction at T+ 162 sec.. Failed Stage: 2.
  • Zarya s/n 122 - . Payload: Zarya s/n 122. Mass: 18,000 kg (39,000 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Program: Salyut. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space station. Spacecraft: Salyut 1. Decay Date: 1972-07-29 . COSPAR: F720729A. Summary: Second Salyut space station (DOS 2), failed to reach orbit..

1972 December 31 - . LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K. LV Configuration: Proton 8K82K.
  • Brezhnev selects Almaz for next space station - . Nation: USSR. Program: Almaz. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space station. Spacecraft: Almaz OPS. Summary: Brezhnev personally selects Almaz for next space station launch. Following two successive failures of DOS-7K station (Salyut 1 and the July 29, 1972 launch failure), Brezhnev personally selects Almaz for next launch (Salyut 2)..

1973 April 3 - . 09:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/23. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K. LV Configuration: Proton-K 283-01.
  • Salyut 2 - . Payload: Almaz s/n 101-01. Mass: 18,500 kg (40,700 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Almaz. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space station. Spacecraft: Almaz OPS. Duration: 54.62 days. Decay Date: 1973-05-28 . USAF Sat Cat: 6398 . COSPAR: 1973-017A. Apogee: 248 km (154 mi). Perigee: 216 km (134 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 89.10 min. The first flight of the Almaz manned military space station. In January 1973 the first Almaz OPS was delivered to Baikonur. Launch and initial orbital checkout went according to plan. But before a crew could be launched the station depressurized. It was concluded that a short in electrical equipment started a fire in pressure vessel, leading to rupture of hull and depressurization. An alternate theory was that debris from an explosion of the third stage of Proton penetrated the hull. Control was lost on April 25, 1973, and the OPS cased operations on 29 April. Decayed May 28, 1973. Initial crew was to have been Popovich and Artyukhin.
    Officially: Testing of improved design, on-board systems and equipment; conduct of scientific and technical research and experiments. Additional Details: here....

1973 May 11 - . 00:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/23. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K. LV Configuration: Proton-K 284-01.
  • Cosmos 557 - . Payload: Zarya s/n 123. Mass: 19,400 kg (42,700 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space station. Spacecraft: Salyut 4. Duration: 10.98 days. Decay Date: 1973-05-22 . USAF Sat Cat: 6498 . COSPAR: 1973-026A. Apogee: 225 km (139 mi). Perigee: 206 km (128 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.90 min. Summary: Salyut failure. Unsuccessful mission. Salyut out of control. Decayed May 22, 1973. Was to have been manned by initial crew of Leonov and Kubasov. Last chance to upstage Skylab, launched three days later..

1974 June 24 - . 22:38 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/23. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K. LV Configuration: Proton-K 283-02.
  • Salyut 3 - . Payload: Almaz s/n 101-02. Mass: 18,500 kg (40,700 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Almaz. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space station. Spacecraft: Almaz OPS. Duration: 90.00 days. Decay Date: 1975-01-24 . USAF Sat Cat: 7342 . COSPAR: 1974-046A. Apogee: 253 km (157 mi). Perigee: 213 km (132 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 89.10 min. First successful Almaz military manned space station flight. Tested a wide array of reconnaissance sensors. Following the successful Soyuz 14 and unsuccessful Soyuz 15 missions, on 23 September 1974 the station ejected a film return capsule. The KSI capsule suffered damage during re-entry but all the film was recoverable. On 24 January 1975 trials of the on-board 23 mm Nudelmann aircraft cannon (other sources say it was a Nudelmann NR-30 30 mm gun) were conducted. The next day the station was commanded to retrofire to a destructive re-entry over the Pacific Ocean. Although only one of three planned crews managed to board the station, that crew did complete the first completely successful Soviet space station flight. Additional Details: here....

1974 December 26 - . 04:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/24. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K. LV Configuration: Proton-K 284-02.
  • Salyut 4 - . Payload: Zarya s/n 124. Mass: 18,500 kg (40,700 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space station. Spacecraft: Salyut 4. Duration: 768.82 days. Decay Date: 1977-02-02 . USAF Sat Cat: 7591 . COSPAR: 1974-104A. Apogee: 251 km (155 mi). Perigee: 212 km (131 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 89.10 min. Deorbited February 2, 1977.
    Maneuver Summary:
    211km X 250km orbit to 215km X 286km orbit. Delta V: 11 m/s
    211km X 284km orbit to 276km X 344km orbit. Delta V: 35 m/s
    277km X 342km orbit to 338km X 351km orbit. Delta V: 19 m/s
    330km X 340km orbit to 337km X 350km orbit. Delta V: 4 m/s
    337km X 349km orbit to 339km X 351km orbit. Delta V: 1 m/s
    332km X 348km orbit to 348km X 355km orbit. Delta V: 6 m/s
    347km X 354km orbit to 343km X 351km orbit. Delta V: 1 m/s
    335km X 344km orbit to 335km X 360km orbit. Delta V: 4 m/s
    335km X 360km orbit to 342km X 361km orbit. Delta V: 2 m/s
    330km X 351km orbit to 344km X 353km orbit. Delta V: 4 m/s
    186km X 187km orbit to 90km X 186km orbit. Delta V: 28 m/s
    Total Delta V: 87/115 m/s.
    Officially: Further testing of station design, on-board systems and equipment; conduct of scientific and technical research and experiments in outer space. Further testing of station design, on-board systems and equipment; conduct of scientific and technical researc h and experiments in outer space.

1976 June 22 - . 18:04 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/23. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K. LV Configuration: Proton-K 290-02.
  • Salyut 5 - . Payload: Almaz s/n 103-01. Mass: 19,000 kg (41,000 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Almaz. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space station. Spacecraft: Almaz OPS. Duration: 411.24 days. Decay Date: 1977-08-08 . USAF Sat Cat: 8911 . COSPAR: 1976-057A. Apogee: 232 km (144 mi). Perigee: 215 km (133 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.90 min. Second successful flight of the Almaz manned military space station. It had taken only 60 days and 1450 man-hours to prepare Almaz 0101-2 for flight, using the services of 368 officers and 337 non-commissioned officers. The tracking ships Academician Sergei Korolev and Cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin were stationed in the Atlantic and Caribean to provide communications when out of tracking range of the USSR. Salyut 5 operated for 409 days, during which the crews of Soyuz 22 and 24 visited the station. Soyuz 23 was to have docked but its long-distance rendezvous system failed. Soyuz 25 was planned, but the mission would have been incomplete due to low orientation fuel on Salyut 5, so it was cancelled.

    During the flight of Salyut 5 a 'parallel crew' was aboard a duplicate station on the ground. They conducted the same operations in support of over 300 astrophysical, geophysical, technological, and medical/biological experiments. Astrophysics studies included an infrared telescope-spectrometer in the 2-15 micrometer range which also obtained solar spectra. Earth resources studies were conducted as well as Kristall, Potok, Diffuziya, Sfera, and Reatsiya technology experiments. Presumably Salyut 5 was equipped with a SAR side-looking radar for reconnaissance of land and sea targets even through cloud cover.

    The film capsule was ejected 22 February 1977 (and sold at Sotheby's, New York, on December 11, 1993!). The station was deorbited on 8 August 1977. In addition to the human crew two Russian tortoises (Testudo horsfieldi) and Zebrafish (Danio rerio) were flown.

    The results of the Salyut 3 and 5 flights showed that manned reconnaissance was not worth the expense. There was minimal time to operate the equipment after the crew took the necessary time for maintenance of station housekeeping and environmental control systems. The experiments themselves showed good results and especially the value of reconnaissance of the same location in many different spectral bands and parts of the electromagnetic spectrum. Additional Details: here....


1976 December 15 - . 01:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/24. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K. LV Configuration: Proton-K 289-02.
  • Cosmos 881 - . Payload: TKS VA s/n 009P. Mass: 4,250 kg (9,360 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Almaz. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: TKS VA . Duration: 0.0600 days. Decay Date: 1976-12-15 . USAF Sat Cat: 9606 . COSPAR: 1976-121A. Apogee: 241 km (149 mi). Perigee: 201 km (124 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.90 min. Launch of mission LVI-1 came at 04:00 on 15 December. At 176 seconds the ADU escape tower separated from the LVI. Once the final stage had shut down in orbit, by command from the launch vehicle sequencer, the VA 009A (also given as 009P) and its TDU separated from the LVI. Two seconds later VA 009 (or 009L) was ejected. Fifteen minutes after launch all systems of the both VA capsules were in operation. The guidance system detected the direction of flight and oriented each spacecraft for retro-fire, and the pair began the return to earth after less than one revolution. At an external atmospheric pressure of 165 mm (10 km altitude) the NO section jettisoned, the three-cupola drogue parachute ejected, and the antennae and altimeter were deployed. The Komara landing radio beacon (installed on the landing section of the parachute) was activated when the spacecraft was 1.0 to 1.5 m above the ground - which occurred at the same moment on both 009 and 009A. The Kaktus special system tripped the soft landing PRSP (parachute landing propulsion system). The soft landing was accomplished with higher accuracy than Soyuz, both capsules being recovered at 44 deg N, 73 deg E, on December 15, 1976 3:00 GMT. The flights were officially given the designations Cosmos 881 (VA 009A) and Cosmos 882 (VA 009). US intelligence believed them to be tests of recoverable manned spaceplane prototypes.
  • Cosmos 882 - . Payload: TKS VA s/n 009L. Mass: 4,250 kg (9,360 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Almaz. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: TKS VA. Decay Date: 1976-12-15 . USAF Sat Cat: 9607 . COSPAR: 1976-121B. Apogee: 213 km (132 mi). Perigee: 191 km (118 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.50 min. Summary: Test of TKS-VA capsule. Two satellites launched by a single rocket..

1977 July 17 - . 09:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/24. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K. LV Configuration: Proton-K 293-02.
  • Cosmos 929 - . Payload: TKS s/n 16101. Mass: 19,000 kg (41,000 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Almaz. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: TKS . Duration: 199.62 days. Decay Date: 1978-02-02 . USAF Sat Cat: 10146 . COSPAR: 1977-066A. Apogee: 260 km (160 mi). Perigee: 226 km (140 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 89.40 min. First test of TKS manned shuttle. Maneuvered extensively. TKS-VA capsule returned to earth August 16, 1977. Deorbited February 2, 1978.
    Maneuver Summary:
    214 km X 261 km orbit to 215 km X 279 km orbit. Delta V: 5 m/s
    207 km X 261 km orbit to 208 km X 264 km orbit. Delta V: 1 m/s
    208 km X 260 km orbit to 209 km X 267 km orbit. Delta V: 2 m/s
    192 km X 222 km orbit to 219 km X 232 km orbit. Delta V: 9 m/s
    219 km X 232 km orbit to 303 km X 327 km orbit. Delta V: 51 m/s
    303 km X 327 km orbit to 312 km X 318 km orbit. Delta V: 4 m/s
    312 km X 319 km orbit to 314 km X 325 km orbit. Delta V: 1 m/s
    284 km X 294 km orbit to 290 km X 301 km orbit. Delta V: 3 m/s
    288 km X 300 km orbit to 286 km X 305 km orbit. Delta V: 1 m/s
    285 km X 303 km orbit to 439 km X 447 km orbit. Delta V: 84 m/s
    437 km X 448 km orbit to 335 km X 437 km orbit. Delta V: 31 m/s
    335 km X 437 km orbit to 337 km X 438 km orbit. Delta V: 1 m/s
    337 km X 438 km orbit to 90 km X 337 km orbit. Delta V: 100 m/s
    Total Delta V: 193/293 m/s
    Officially: Investigation of the upper atmosphere and outer space.

1977 August 4 - . 22:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/24. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K. LV Configuration: Proton-K 293-01. FAILURE: First stage engine steering unit failure at T+40.1 seconds. Failed Stage: 1.
  • TKS VA s/n 009L/P - . Payload: TKS VA s/n 009L/P. Mass: 4,250 kg (9,360 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Program: Almaz. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: TKS VA. Decay Date: 1977-08-04 . COSPAR: F770804A. Summary: Spacecraft lost in booster explosion..
  • TKS VA s/n 009P/P - . Payload: TKS VA s/n 009P/P. Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Program: Almaz. Spacecraft: TKS VA. COSPAR: F770804C. A repeat test of the VA capsules from LVI-1 of a month earlier were atop the Proton (VA's 009P and 009L). However the booster failed at 49 seconds after launch. The SAS launch escape system pulled the top capsule (009P) away from the exploding Proton rocket and it was successfully recovered. The lower capsule was lost with the booster.

1977 September 29 - . LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K.
  • Proton 8K82K launch vehicle completes its state trials tests and is accepted into service. - . Nation: USSR. Remarkably, due to continuing failures, the 8K82K did not satisfactorily complete its state trials until its 61st launch (Salyut 6 / serial number 29501 / 29 September 1977). Thereafter it reached a level of launch reliability comparable to that of other world launch vehicles.

1977 September 29 - . 06:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/24. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K. LV Configuration: Proton-K 295-01.
  • Salyut 6 - . Payload: Zarya s/n 125 s/n 5L. Mass: 19,824 kg (43,704 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut 6. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space station. Spacecraft: Salyut 6. Duration: 1,763.71 days. Decay Date: 1982-07-29 . USAF Sat Cat: 10382 . COSPAR: 1977-097A. Apogee: 237 km (147 mi). Perigee: 188 km (116 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.70 min. Conduct of scientific and technical research and experiments; further testing of station design, on-board system and equipment. Soyuz 25 docking unsuccessful. EVA 20 Dec 1977 to examine forward docking port (no damage). EVA 29 July 1978 to retrieve externally mounted experiments (micrometeorites, biopolymers, radiation plates, materials tests). Soyuz 33 failure to dock due to propulsion failure April 1979. Soyuz 34 launched unmanned to provide replacement vehicle June 1979. EVA August 15 to dislodge 10 m diameter KRT-10 radio telescope from aft docking collar. Repair mission Soyuz T-3 December 1980 (temperature control hydraulics). Repair mission Soyuz T-4 March 1981 (stuck solar array). Salyut ejected a module on May 31 (perhaps retained Soyuz Orbital Module). Kosmos 1267 docks 19 June 1981. Commanded to reentry using Kosmos 1267 propulsion system over Pacific July 29 1982. Additional Details: here....

1978 March 30 - . 00:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/24. Launch Pad: LC81/24?. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K. LV Configuration: Proton-K 292-01.
  • Cosmos 997 - . Payload: TKS VA s/n 102L. Mass: 4,250 kg (9,360 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Almaz. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Cosmos 997. Spacecraft: TKS VA . Decay Date: 1978-03-30 . USAF Sat Cat: 10770 . COSPAR: 1978-032A. Apogee: 230 km (140 mi). Perigee: 200 km (120 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.70 min. Given the on-pad explosion of the LVI-2 launch attempt, plans to crew the upper VA re-entry capsule in the next test was abandoned. LVI-3 (VA's 102P and 102L / Cosmos 997 and Cosmos 998) was launched unmanned four months behind the original schedule. Both capsules were recovered after one orbit. One source indicates that one of the capsules was 009P, on its third launch and second flight to orbit. This was said to have demonstrated the multiple re-entry capability of the heat shield and the first planned reuse of a spacecraft (Gemini 2 was refurbished and reflown as MOL-1 in the 1960's, but was not designed for that purpose).
  • Cosmos 998 - . Payload: TKS VA s/n 102P. Mass: 4,250 kg (9,360 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Almaz. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: TKS VA. Decay Date: 1978-03-30 . USAF Sat Cat: 10771 . COSPAR: 1978-032B. Apogee: 230 km (140 mi). Perigee: 200 km (120 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.70 min. Summary: Dual reentry test of two TKS-VA capsules. Recovered March 30, 1978 after one orbit..

1979 April 20 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/24. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K. LV Configuration: Proton 8K82K s/n 300-02. FAILURE: Engines ignited but immediately shut down on launch pad. Booster could be reused with new payload.. Failed Stage: 1.
  • - . Payload: TKS VA s/n 008. Nation: USSR. Program: Almaz. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: TKS VA . Decay Date: 1979-05-23 . USAF Sat Cat: 11362 . Apogee: 223 km (138 mi). Perigee: 193 km (119 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.70 min.

1979 May 22 - . 23:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/24. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K. LV Configuration: Proton-K 300-02.
  • Cosmos 1100 - . Payload: TKS VA s/n 102P. Mass: 4,250 kg (9,360 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Almaz. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Cosmos 1100. Spacecraft: TKS VA . Duration: 0.0600 days. Decay Date: 1979-05-23 . USAF Sat Cat: 11362 . COSPAR: 1979-042A. Apogee: 222 km (137 mi). Perigee: 193 km (119 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.60 min. The Proton launch vehicle that shut down on the original LVI-4 launch attempt was undamaged, and just a month later, with a switch of payload, LVI-4 was orbited as Cosmos 1100 and 1101. The pair launched were the 102P/102L twins from LVI-3. One capsule failed when the automatic system suffered an electrical distribution failure and it did not land correctly, spending two orbits in space, while the other landed as planned after one orbit. The launch again successfully demonstrated the reusability of the VA capsule. Plans to launch the upper capsule manned were scrubbed due to the inability to get two consecutive failure-free launches of the Proton/TKS-VA.
  • Cosmos 1101 - . Payload: TKS VA s/n 102L. Mass: 4,250 kg (9,360 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Almaz. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: TKS VA. Decay Date: 1979-05-23 . USAF Sat Cat: 11363 . COSPAR: 1979-042B. Apogee: 222 km (137 mi). Perigee: 193 km (119 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.60 min. Summary: Test of TKS-VA manned capsule. Two satellites launched by a single rocket..

1981 April 25 - . 02:01 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/39. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K. LV Configuration: Proton-K 299-02.
  • Cosmos 1267 - . Payload: TKS s/n 16301. Mass: 19,000 kg (41,000 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Almaz. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: TKS . Duration: 459.91 days. Decay Date: 1982-07-29 . USAF Sat Cat: 12419 . COSPAR: 1981-039A. Apogee: 259 km (160 mi). Perigee: 192 km (119 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.90 min. TKS space station ferry. Flown unmanned to the Salyut 6 space station after the Almaz military station program was cancelled. Capsule recovered 24 May 1981. Docked with Salyut 6 on June 19 at 10:52 AM MT after 57 days autonomous flight. Deorbited and destroyed with Salyut July 29, 1982. Additional Details: here....

1982 April 19 - . 19:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/40. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K. LV Configuration: Proton-K 306-02.
  • Salyut 7 - . Payload: Zarya s/n 125-2. Mass: 18,900 kg (41,600 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut 7. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space station. Spacecraft: Salyut 7. Duration: 3,215.34 days. Decay Date: 1991-02-07 . USAF Sat Cat: 13138 . COSPAR: 1982-033A. Apogee: 284 km (176 mi). Perigee: 279 km (173 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 90.20 min. Second Soviet replenishable long-duration ‘civilian’ space station. Objectives: Continuation of scientific research on board manned space complexes in the interests of science and the Soviet national economy; testing of advanced systems and apparatus for orbital stations. Continuation of the scientific research in progress on board manned space complexes in the interests of science and the national economy; testing of advanced systems and apparatus for orbital stations. Although of the same design as Salyut 6, technical breakdowns throughout its life made Salyut 7 a much less productive station. Replaced finally by Mir. Two different TKS resupply craft, originally designed for the Almaz military station, docked with Salyut 7 to provide a larger complex. With the cancellation of Almaz, a large proportion of the experiments carried out on board had military objectives. As of January 1990 out of fuel, unable to manoeuvre, uncontrolled re-entry expected in three to four years. Re-entered in 1991 with 70 kg fuel remaining over Argentina. Controllers attempted to control impact point (set for Atlantic Ocean) by setting Salyut 7/Kosmos 1686 assembly into a tumble. This however failed and Salyut 7 re-entered February 7, 1991 04:00 GMT. Many fragments fell on the town of Capitan Bermudez, 25 km from Rosario and 400 km from Buenos Aires, Argentina. At 1 am local time the sky was lit up with hundreds of incandescent meteors travelling from Southwest to Northeast. At dawn the inhabitants discovered numerous metal fragments, which seemed to have fallen in distinct groups at various locations in the city. Luckily no one was hurt in the metallic shower. Additional Details: here....
  • Iskra 2 - . Payload: RK-02. Mass: 28 kg (61 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut 7. Class: Communications. Type: Amateur radio communications satellite. Spacecraft: Iskra. Decay Date: 1982-07-09 . USAF Sat Cat: 13176 . COSPAR: 1982-033C. Apogee: 345 km (214 mi). Perigee: 336 km (208 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 91.40 min. Summary: Deployed from Salyut 7 5/17/82. Launched from Salyut 7. Experiments in amateur radio communications. Launched into orbit from aboard the Salyut-7 orbital scientific station. .
  • Iskra 3 - . Payload: RK-03. Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut 7. Class: Communications. Type: Amateur radio communications satellite. Flight: Salyut 7 EO-1. Spacecraft: Iskra. Decay Date: 1982-12-16 . USAF Sat Cat: 13663 . COSPAR: 1982-033AD. Apogee: 356 km (221 mi). Perigee: 349 km (216 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 91.60 min. Summary: Launched from Salyut 7 airlock. Conduct of experiments in the field of amateur radiocommunications. .

1983 March 2 - . 09:37 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/39. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K. LV Configuration: Proton-K 309-02.
  • Cosmos 1443 - . Payload: TKS-M s/n 16401L. Mass: 20,000 kg (44,000 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Almaz. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: TKS . Duration: 200.62 days. Decay Date: 1983-09-19 . USAF Sat Cat: 13868 . COSPAR: 1983-013A. Apogee: 261 km (162 mi). Perigee: 194 km (120 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 89.00 min. TKS manned ferry spacecraft from the cancelled Almaz OPS-4 mission. Flown unmanned to the Salyut 7 space station. Docked with Salyut 7 on 4 March 1983. Separated from Salyut 7 on 14 August. The VA re-entry capsule separated and the space station deorbited itself on September 19, 1983 at 0:28 GMT. The VA capsule continued in space for four more days, demonstrating autonomous flight, before successfully re-entering on 23 August 1983. Returned 350 kg of material from the station. Additional Details: here....

1985 September 27 - . 08:41 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/39. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K. LV Configuration: Proton-K 331-01.
  • Cosmos 1686 - . Payload: TKS-M s/n 16501. Mass: 20,000 kg (44,000 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Almaz. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Salyut 7 EO-4-1a; Salyut 7 EO-4-2. Spacecraft: TKS . Duration: 1,958.80 days. Decay Date: 1991-02-07 . USAF Sat Cat: 16095 . COSPAR: 1985-086A. Apogee: 284 km (176 mi). Perigee: 280 km (170 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 90.20 min. Modification of cancelled TKS manned ferry; docked with Salyut 7. All landing systems were removed from the VA re-entry capsule and replaced with military optical sensor experiments (infrared telescope and Ozon spectrometer). Burned up in the atmosphere and together with the Salyut 7 station over Argentina on February 7, 1991 04:00 GMT. Re-entered with unused 3 m diameter recoverable capsule of 2-3,000 kg mass, solid rocket motors, and cesium sensors.

    Maneuver Summary:
    172 km X 302 km orbit to 284 km X 319 km orbit. Delta V: 36 m/s
    281 km X 315 km orbit to 290 km X 336 km orbit. Delta V: 8 m/s
    290 km X 336 km orbit to 335 km X 352 km orbit. Delta V: 16 m/s
    Maneuvers after docking with Salyut 7:
    336 km X 353 km orbit to 338 km X 358 km orbit. Delta V: 1 m/s
    338 km X 358 km orbit to 358 km X 359 km orbit. Delta V: 5 m/s
    331 km X 333 km orbit to 333 km X 385 km orbit. Delta V: 14 m/s
    333 km X 385 km orbit to 332 km X 468 km orbit. Delta V: 23 m/s
    332 km X 468 km orbit to 466 km X 468 km orbit. Delta V: 37 m/s
    466 km X 468 km orbit to 470 km X 475 km orbit. Delta V: 2 m/s
    470 km X 475 km orbit to 475 km X 475 km orbit. Delta V: 1 m/s
    Total Delta V: 143 m/s
    Officially: Testing the equipment, assemblies and design components of a satellite in various modes of flight, including joint flight with the Salyut-7 station.

1986 February 19 - . 21:28 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/39. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K. LV Configuration: Proton-K 337-01.
  • Mir - . Payload: Mir s/n 127-01. Mass: 20,100 kg (44,300 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space station. Spacecraft: Mir . Decay Date: 2001-03-23 . USAF Sat Cat: 16609 . COSPAR: 1986-017A. Apogee: 395 km (245 mi). Perigee: 387 km (240 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 92.40 min. The core module of Russia's new space station was placed in an initial orbit of 172 x 301 km. It was established in its operational orbit on 6 March. It passed just 10 km from Salyut 7 on 8 March. First use of the geosynchronous Luch relay sattelite for communications with the station was on 29 March. Equipment launched with the core module included:

    • Splav-2 crystal growth facility
    • Zona zone melt facility
    • Kashtan electrophoresis unit
    • Bulgarian Rozhen photometer
    • Spektr-256 and MKS-M spectrometers
    • Pion-M multipurpose physics unit (41 kg)
    • Biryuza semiconductor materials unit
    • -Ruchei electrophoresis installation
    • Yantar metal coating equipment
    • Mariye magnetic spectrometer
    • Korund furnace (136 kg)

    Total costs of Mir from February 1986 through return of Soyuz TM-9 in April 1989 were given as 1.471 billion rubles. This sum ncluded Mir, Kvant, all Soyuz and Progress spacecraft, and 2 new modules. As of April 1989 50% of the scientific equipment was inoperable and the interior was cramped due to lack of extension modules. Electric power supply problems were first reported in April 1989 (batteries would not hold charge from panels). Mass 27,300 kg as of January 1990. Complex mass with Kvant-2 65,790 kg; with Kristall, Soyuz TM, and Progress M, 89,990 kg. Additional Details: here....


1986 November 29 - . 08:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/40. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K. LV Configuration: Proton-K 338-01. FAILURE: Second stage explosion.. Failed Stage: 2.
  • Almaz-T s/n 303 Failure - . Payload: Almaz-K s/n 303. Mass: 18,550 kg (40,890 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: UNKS. Program: Almaz. Class: Surveillance. Type: Civilian surveillance radar satellite. Spacecraft: Almaz-T. Decay Date: 1986-12-29 . COSPAR: F861129A. Summary: In the second half of 1986 the first Almaz-T s/n 303 was readied for launch. General V V Favorskiy ordered it to be completed and launched with a full-up lab module in place of trials equipment. Unfortunately did not reach orbit..

1987 March 31 - . 00:16 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/39. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K. LV Configuration: Proton-K 336-02.
  • Kvant 1 - . Payload: 37KE s/n 010 / 77KE s/n 16601. Mass: 20,000 kg (44,000 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space station. Flight: Mir EO-2; Mir LD-1. Spacecraft: Kvant. Duration: 2,586.99 days. Decay Date: 2001-03-23 . USAF Sat Cat: 17845 . COSPAR: 1987-030A. Apogee: 393 km (244 mi). Perigee: 385 km (239 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 92.30 min. MIR module; high energy observatory. Docked with Mir. Rendezvous with Mir 5 April; soft dock 9 April; EVA on 11 April to remove fabric strip from docking apparatus and hard dock; jettisoned service module on 12 April at 22:18

    Maneuver Summary:
    168 km X 278 km orbit to 172 km X 300 km orbit. Delta V: 7 m/s
    169 km X 296 km orbit to 172 km X 314 km orbit. Delta V: 5 m/s
    170 km X 313 km orbit to 297 km X 345 km orbit. Delta V: 46 m/s
    298 km X 344 km orbit to 345 km X 364 km orbit. Delta V: 18 m/s
    Service Module only, after undocking with Mir:
    345 km X 364 km orbit to 341 km X 363 km orbit. Delta V: 1 m/s
    340 km X 361 km orbit to 383 km X 406 km orbit. Delta V: 24 m/s
    Total Delta V: 101 m/s
    Officially: Extra-atmospheric astronomic research and resolution of a number of problems with scientific and economic applications.
  • FSB - . Payload: FSB No. 16601. Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Mir. Flight: Mir EO-2; Mir LD-1. Spacecraft: Kvant. Decay Date: 1988-08-25 . USAF Sat Cat: 17851 . COSPAR: 1987-030C. Apogee: 404 km (251 mi). Perigee: 380 km (230 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 92.40 min.

1987 July 25 - . 09:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/40. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K. LV Configuration: Proton-K 347-01.
  • Cosmos 1870 - . Payload: Almaz-K s/n 304. Mass: 18,550 kg (40,890 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Almaz. Class: Surveillance. Type: Civilian surveillance radar satellite. Spacecraft: Almaz-T. Duration: 734.00 days. Decay Date: 1989-07-29 . USAF Sat Cat: 18225 . COSPAR: 1987-064A. Apogee: 278 km (172 mi). Perigee: 263 km (163 mi). Inclination: 71.9000 deg. Period: 89.90 min. First flight of Almaz radars imaging satellite taken out of mothballs after death of Ustinov. At the beginning of 1987 it was decided not to man the Almaz-T, instead operate it in a fully automatic mode. Thus the final Almaz cosmonaut training group was disbanded. Cosmos 1870 conducted remote sensing of the earth's surface, oceans and seas in the interests of various branches of science and the economy. Its side-looking radar had a 20-25 m ground resolution and functioned throughout its two year service life.

1989 November 26 - . 13:01 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/39. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K. LV Configuration: Proton-K 354-01.
  • Kvant 2 - . Payload: 77KSD s/n 17101. Mass: 19,565 kg (43,133 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space station. Flight: Mir EO-5. Spacecraft: Kvant-2. Duration: 1,615.45 days. Decay Date: 2001-03-23 . USAF Sat Cat: 20335 . COSPAR: 1989-093A. Apogee: 397 km (246 mi). Perigee: 388 km (241 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 92.40 min. Mir expansion module. Scheduled docking 2 December delayed due to failure of solar panel to extend and failure of automatic rendezvous system. Faults corrected by ground control and docked with Mir December 6, 1989 at 12:21 GMT. Transferred to lateral port December 8.
    Officially: Delivery to the Mir orbital station of additional equipment and apparatus for the purpose of expanding the research and experiments conducted in the interests of science and the national economy.

1990 May 31 - . 10:33 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/39. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K. LV Configuration: Proton-K 360-01.
  • Kristall - . Payload: 77KST s/n 17201. Mass: 19,640 kg (43,290 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space station. Flight: Mir EO-6. Spacecraft: Kristall. Decay Date: 2001-03-23 . USAF Sat Cat: 20635 . COSPAR: 1990-048A. Apogee: 397 km (246 mi). Perigee: 388 km (241 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 92.40 min. Mir module; materials processing laboratory. Docked with Mir. Kristall: Mass: 19,500 kg. Mass on docking 17,200 kg. Length: 11. 9 m or 13. 73 m?. Solar array span 36 m. Diameter: 4. 35 m. Payload: 7,000 kg. Two compartments. Instrument-Payload Compartment contains food containers, and industrial processing units Krater 3, Optizon 1, Zona 02, and Zona 03. 0. 8 m hatch leads to Junction-Docking compartment. This contains spherical universal docker with two APAS-89 androgynous docking units. These will be used to dock with Buran shuttle and 1,000 kg X-ray telescope to be delivered by Buran in 1991. Third opening houses earth observation cameras.
    Launch originally planned for 30 March 1990. Delayed to April 18, then further delayed due to computer chip problems.
    Launched 31 May 1990 12:33 GMT. Docking scheduled June 6 at 12:36 but delayed due to problem with one of Kristall's orientation engines. Docking successful 10 June at 12:47. On June 11 moved to side port. Work within module began 15 June.
    Spektr: Late 1991 launch. Remote sensing work. Occupies port opposite Kvant 2. Before this occurs Kristall solar arrays will be relocated to Kvant.
    Officially: Specialized module. Experimental-industrial production of semi-conducting materials; refinement of biologically active substances for the production of new medicinal preparations. Cultivation of crystals of different albumine compositions and hybridizatio n of cells. Conduct of astrophysical and technical experiments.

1991 March 31 - . 15:12 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/40. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K. LV Configuration: Proton-K 365-01.
  • Almaz 1 - . Payload: Almaz-K s/n 305. Mass: 18,550 kg (40,890 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Almaz. Class: Surveillance. Type: Civilian surveillance radar satellite. Spacecraft: Almaz-T. Decay Date: 1992-10-17 . USAF Sat Cat: 21213 . COSPAR: 1991-024A. Apogee: 351 km (218 mi). Perigee: 337 km (209 mi). Inclination: 72.7000 deg. Period: 91.40 min. Second flight of Almaz radar imaging satellite. Surveyed the territory of the Soviet Union and of other countries for purposes of geology, cartography, oceanology, ecology and agriculture, and studied the ice situation at high latitudes. Launched eight months after its target date into an initial operational orbit of approximately 270 km with an inclination of 72.7 degrees, slightly higher than the 71.9 degrees inclination of Cosmos 1870. Unfortunately, the failure of one of the SAR antennas to deploy fully rendered that side inoperable. Returned images of 10 to 15 meter resolution through 17 October 1992. Its radiometer provided images of 10 to 30 km radiometer resolution over a 600 km swath. Its engines completed 760,000 firings during its 18 month service life.

1991 June 17 - . 21:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/39. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K. LV Configuration: Proton-K 337-01.
  • Mak 1 - . Payload: Mak. Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Mir. Class: Earth. Type: Atmosphere satellite. Flight: Mir EO-9; Mir LD-3. Spacecraft: Mak. Decay Date: 1991-10-18 . USAF Sat Cat: 21425 . COSPAR: 1986-017DV. Apogee: 389 km (241 mi). Perigee: 377 km (234 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 92.20 min. Summary: Deployed from MIR 6/17/91. Launched from Mir airlock. Investigation of features at the Earth's atmosphere. Launched with the Mir orbital station. .

1995 May 20 - . 03:33 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/23. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K. LV Configuration: Proton-K 378-02.
  • Spektr - . Payload: 77KSO s/n 17301. Mass: 19,640 kg (43,290 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space station. Flight: Mir EO-18. Spacecraft: Spektr. Decay Date: 2001-03-23 . USAF Sat Cat: 23579 . COSPAR: 1995-024A. Apogee: 335 km (208 mi). Perigee: 221 km (137 mi). Inclination: 51.6800 deg. Period: 89.78 min. Summary: MIR experiment module. Docked to Mir Jun 1
    Officially: Docked to Mir Jun 1 .

1996 April 23 - . 11:48 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/23. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K. LV Configuration: Proton-K 385-01.
  • Priroda - . Payload: 77KSI s/n 17401. Mass: 19,000 kg (41,000 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: RAKA. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space station. Flight: Mir NASA-1; Mir EO-21. Spacecraft: Priroda. Decay Date: 2001-03-23 . USAF Sat Cat: 23848 . COSPAR: 1996-023A. Apogee: 347 km (215 mi). Perigee: 220 km (130 mi). Inclination: 51.6700 deg. Period: 89.89 min. Summary: LEO. Remote sensing module for Mir space station Docked with Mir Apr 26. .

1998 November 20 - . 06:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/23. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K. LV Configuration: Proton-K 395-01.
  • Zarya - . Payload: FGB 77KM s/n 175-01. Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Manufacturer: Chelomei. Program: ISS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space station. Spacecraft: ISS Zarya. USAF Sat Cat: 25544 . COSPAR: 1998-067A. Apogee: 403 km (250 mi). Perigee: 374 km (232 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 92.30 min. This was the first launch in the assembly of the International Space Station. The Zarya FGB was funded by NASA and built by Khrunichev in Moscow under subcontract from Boeing for NASA. Its design from the TKS military station resupply spacecraft of the 1970’s and the later 77KS Mir modules. Zarya included a multiple docking adapter, a pressurised cabin section, and a propulsion/instrument section with a rear docking port. Initial orbit was 176 lm x 343 km x 51.6 degrees. By November 25 it had manoeuvred to a 383 km x 396 km x 51.7 degree orbit, awaiting the launch of Shuttle mission STS-88 which docked the Unity node to it.

2000 July 12 - . 04:56 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/23. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K. LV Configuration: Proton-K 398-01.
  • Zvezda - . Mass: 20,295 kg (44,742 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: RAKA. Manufacturer: Chelomei; Korolev. Program: ISS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space station. Spacecraft: ISS Zvezda. USAF Sat Cat: 26400 . COSPAR: 2000-037A. Apogee: 332 km (206 mi). Perigee: 179 km (111 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Years behind schedule, the Zvezda living module of the International Space Station, built and financed by Russia, finally reached orbit. Zvezda's initial orbit was 179 x 332 km x 51.6 deg. On July 14 the orbit was raised to 288 x 357 km. ISS was then in a 365 x 372 km orbit. After matching orbits with the ISS, Zvezda then became the passive docking target for the Russian-built, US-financed Zarya module already attached to the station. The Zarya/Unity stack docked with the Zvezda module at 00:45 GMT on July 26, forming the basic core of the International Space Station. A flood of NASA missions would follow to bring the station into operation.

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