Encyclopedia Astronautica
Proton-K/DM



ur500kdm.jpg
Proton 8K82K / 11S86
Proton 8K82K / 11S86 Block DM launch vehicle - cutaway drawing showing arrangement of N2O4 oxidiser tanks (green) and UDMH fuel tanks (orange) in Proton, and Liquid oxygen (blue) and kerosene (pink) tanks in the Block DM stage. Block DM guidance package is housed in the light brown compartment above the LOX tank.
Credit: © Mark Wade
Russian orbital launch vehicle. The original four stage Proton / Block D configuration was used until 1976, at which time it was replaced by a modernised version equipped with N2O4/UDMH verniers for precise placement of payloads in geosynchronous orbit and its own self-contained guidance unit. This was accepted into military service in 1978 with the first Raduga launch. The stage was first developed for launch of gesynchronous military communications and early warning satellites (Raduga, Ekran, Gorizont, Potok, SPRN). Its later versions continue in use for launch of MEO and geosynchronous comsats, and was Russia's most successful commercial launcher.

6 stage vehicle consisting of 1 x 8S810 + 1 x 8S811 + 1 x 8S812 + 1 x Perekhodnik + 1 x 11S86 + 2 x SOZ

LEO Payload: 5,000 kg (11,000 lb). Payload: 1,880 kg (4,140 lb) to a GEO. Failures: 6. Success Rate: 90.91%. First Fail Date: 1978-05-27. Last Fail Date: 1982-12-24. Launch Price $: 70.000 million in 1994 dollars.

AKA: Proton / Block DM; UR-500K; SL-12; 8K82K / 11S86; D-1e.
Status: Retired 1990.
Gross mass: 711,360 kg (1,568,280 lb).
Payload: 5,000 kg (11,000 lb).
Height: 59.00 m (193.00 ft).
Diameter: 4.15 m (13.61 ft).
Span: 7.40 m (24.20 ft).
Thrust: 8,847.00 kN (1,988,884 lbf).
Apogee: 40,000 km (24,000 mi).
First Launch: 1974.03.26.
Last Launch: 1990.06.20.
Number: 66 .

More... - Chronology...


Associated Countries
Associated Spacecraft
  • Molniya-1 Russian military communications satellite. 37 launches, 1964.06.04 (Molniya-1 s/n 2 Failure) to 1975.09.02 (Molniya 1-31). This was the first Soviet communications satellite, using the twelve-hour elliptical orbit later dubbed a 'Molniya orbit'. More...
  • Raduga First Soviet geosynchronous communications satellite. Operational, first launch 1974.03.26. A single orbital group of two Radugas could handle all communications of the Russian eastern regions. More...
  • Prognoz SPRN Russian military early warning satellite. 15 launches, 1975.10.08 (Cosmos 775) to 2008.06.26 (Cosmos 2397). Development began of the Soviet Union's Prognoz geosynchronous ballistic missile early warning satellite in 1980. More...
  • Ekran Russian communications satellite. 21 launches, 1976.10.26 (Ekran 1) to 1988.05.06 (Ekran 18). Ekran was the Soviet Union's first geosynchronous satellite. More...
  • Gorizont Russian communications satellite. 35 launches, 1978.12.19 (Gorizont 1) to 2000.06.06 (Gorizont). Gorizont-1 was designed specifically to support broadcast of the 1980 Olympic Games from Russia. More...
  • Potok Russian military communications satellite. 10 launches, 1982.05.18 (Cosmos 1366) to 2000.07.04 (Cosmos 2371). Potok was one element of the second generation global command and control system (GKKRS) developed according to a decree of 17 February 1976. More...

Associated Engines
  • RD-0212 Kosberg N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. 613 kN. Proton stage 3. Engine unit consisting of 1 RD-0213 maine engine and 4 RD-0214 vernier/steering engines. 8D48 essentially similar to 8D411 and 8D412 and has the same combustion chamber. Isp=324s. First flight 1967. More...
  • RD-0210 Kosberg N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. 582.1 kN. Isp=326s. Cluster of four similar engines used in second stage of Proton - one providing tank pressurization (8D412K/RD-0211) and three (8D411K/RD-0210). Staged combustion cycle. First flight 1965. More...
  • RD-253-11D48 Glushko N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. 1635 kN. Isp=316s. Six gimballed single chamber RD-253s provide the first stage power for the UR-500 Proton launch vehicle. First flown in 1965. More...
  • RD-58M Korolev Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 83.4 kN. Proton 8K824K / 11S824M; 11S824F; 11S86; 11S861; 17S40 stage 4 (block DM). In production. Isp=353s. First flight 1974. More...

See also
  • Proton The Proton launch vehicle has been the medium-lift workhorse of the Soviet and Russian space programs for over forty years. Although constantly criticized within Russia for its use of toxic and ecologically-damaging storable liquid propellants, it has out-lasted all challengers, and no replacement is in sight. More...

Associated Manufacturers and Agencies
  • Chelomei Russian manufacturer of rockets, spacecraft, and rocket engines. Chelomei Design Bureau, Reutov, Russia. More...

Associated Programs
Associated Launch Sites
  • Baikonur Russia's largest cosmodrome, the only one used for manned launches and with facilities for the larger Proton, N1, and Energia launch vehicles. The spaceport ended up on foreign soil after the break-up of Soviet Union. The official designations NIIP-5 and GIK-5 are used in official Soviet histories. It was also universally referred to as Tyuratam by both Soviet military staff and engineers, and the US intelligence agencies. Since the dissolution of the Soviet Union the Russian Federation has insisted on continued use of the old Soviet 'public' name of Baikonur. In its Kazakh (Kazak) version this is rendered Baykonur. More...

Associated Stages
  • Proton K-3 N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 50,747/4,185 kg. Thrust 630.17 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 325 seconds. More...
  • Proton K-2 N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 167,828/11,715 kg. Thrust 2,399.22 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 327 seconds. More...
  • Proton K-1 N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 450,510/31,100 kg. Thrust 10,470.16 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 316 seconds. More...
  • Proton 11S86 Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 17,550/2,300 kg. Thrust 85.02 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 352 seconds. Also known as Block DM; article number 11S86. With guidance unit, designed for insertion of military spacecraft into geosynchonous/ medium earth orbit. Used from 1974 to 1990. Succeeded by 11S861. More...

Proton-K/DM Chronology


1974 March 26 - . 13:35 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/23. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM. LV Configuration: Proton-K/DM 282-01.
  • Cosmos 637 - . Payload: Gran dummy s/n 21D. Mass: 2,000 kg (4,400 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Spacecraft: Raduga. Completed Operations Date: 1974-03-26 . USAF Sat Cat: 7229 . COSPAR: 1974-017A. Apogee: 35,795 km (22,241 mi). Perigee: 35,493 km (22,054 mi). Inclination: 14.3000 deg. Period: 1,428.80 min. Test of Block D stage in geosynchronous satellite delivery role. Placed dummy Raduga satellite in geosynchronous orbit. As of 4 September 2001 located at 44.61 deg E drifting at 1.835 deg E per day. As of 2007 Mar 11 located at 119.66E drifting at 1.819E degrees per day.

1974 July 29 - . 12:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/24. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM. LV Configuration: Proton-K/DM 287-01.
  • Molniya 1-S - . Payload: Molniya 1 s/n 38. Mass: 800 kg (1,760 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Molniya-1. Completed Operations Date: 1974-07-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 7392 . COSPAR: 1974-060A. Apogee: 35,848 km (22,274 mi). Perigee: 35,738 km (22,206 mi). Inclination: 14.8000 deg. Period: 1,436.40 min. Evidently a unique experimental satellite. Arrangements for experimental television broadcasts and establishment of long-range radio-communications. As of 29 August 2001 located at 104.72 deg E drifting at 0.115 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 41.05E drifting at 0.029W degrees per day.

1975 October 8 - . 00:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/23. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM. LV Configuration: Proton-K/DM 286-02.
  • Cosmos 775 - . Payload: SPRN No. 1. Mass: 2,000 kg (4,400 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Military. Type: Early warning satellite. Spacecraft: Prognoz SPRN. Completed Operations Date: 1975-10-08 . USAF Sat Cat: 8357 . COSPAR: 1975-097A. Apogee: 35,853 km (22,277 mi). Perigee: 35,749 km (22,213 mi). Inclination: 14.9000 deg. Period: 1,436.80 min. First launch of a prototype for a new geosynchronous ballistic missile early warning satellite. Exploded in orbit. The next launch did not come until nine years later, so this may have been a version of the Oko elliptical orbit early warning satellite. As of 29 August 2001 located at 113.71 deg E drifting at 0.044 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 54.82E drifting at 0.255W degrees per day.

1975 December 22 - . 13:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/24. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM. LV Configuration: Proton-K/DM 288-01.
  • Raduga 1 - . Payload: Raduga s/n 11L. Mass: 1,940 kg (4,270 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Raduga . Completed Operations Date: 1978-01-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 8513 . COSPAR: 1975-123A. Apogee: 35,807 km (22,249 mi). Perigee: 35,758 km (22,218 mi). Inclination: 13.3000 deg. Period: 1,435.90 min. Statsionar-1. Provision of uninterrupted round-the-clock telephone and telegraph radio-communications system in the USSR, transmission of USSR central television programmes to stations in the Orbita network and international cooperation. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit over the Indian Ocean at 85 deg E in 1975-1978? As of 27 August 2001 located at 70.55 deg E drifting at 0.084 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 11 located at 85.79E drifting at 0.009E degrees per day.

1976 September 11 - . 18:24 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/24. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM. LV Configuration: Proton-K/DM 289-01.
  • Raduga 2 - . Payload: Raduga s/n 12L. Mass: 1,940 kg (4,270 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Raduga . Completed Operations Date: 1980-01-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 9416 . COSPAR: 1976-092A. Apogee: 35,866 km (22,286 mi). Perigee: 35,704 km (22,185 mi). Inclination: 13.1000 deg. Period: 1,436.00 min. Statsionar 1. Provision of uninterrupted round the clock telephone and telegraph radiocommunication in the USSR and simultaneous transmission of colour and black-and-white USSR central television programmes to stations in the Orbita network. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit over the Indian Ocean at 86 deg E in 1976-1980? As of 28 August 2001 located at 67.16 deg E drifting at 0.070 deg E per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 72.27E drifting at 0.098W degrees per day.

1976 October 26 - . 14:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/24. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM. LV Configuration: Proton-K/DM 290-01.
  • Ekran 1 - . Payload: Ekran s/n 11L. Mass: 1,970 kg (4,340 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Ekran . Completed Operations Date: 1978-08-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 9503 . COSPAR: 1976-107A. Apogee: 36,080 km (22,410 mi). Perigee: 35,516 km (22,068 mi). Inclination: 13.0000 deg. Period: 1,436.70 min. Statsionar T. Transmission of colour and black-and-white USSR central television programmes to the network of public receiving units located in population centres in Siberia and the Far North. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit over the Indian Ocean at 99 deg E in 1976-1978 As of 29 August 2001 located at 68.75 deg E drifting at 0.171 deg E per day. As of 2007 Mar 11 located at 73.60E drifting at 0.187W degrees per day.

1977 July 23 - . 21:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/40. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM. LV Configuration: Proton-K/DM 291-01.
  • Raduga 3 - . Payload: Raduga s/n 13L. Mass: 1,940 kg (4,270 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Raduga . Completed Operations Date: 1980-07-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 10159 . COSPAR: 1977-071A. Apogee: 35,853 km (22,277 mi). Perigee: 35,763 km (22,222 mi). Inclination: 12.7000 deg. Period: 1,437.20 min. Statsionar-2. Provision of uninterrupted round the clock telephone and telegraph radiocommunication in the USSR and simultaneous transmission of colour and black-and-white USSR central television programmes to stations in the Orbita network. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit over the Indian Ocean at 35 deg E in 1977-1980 As of 30 August 2001 located at 44.45 deg E drifting at 0.191 deg W per day. As of 2007 Feb 27 located at 49.63E drifting at 0.221E degrees per day.

1977 September 20 - . 17:28 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/40. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM. LV Configuration: Proton-K/DM 291-02.
  • Ekran 2 - . Payload: Ekran s/n 12L. Mass: 1,970 kg (4,340 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Ekran . Completed Operations Date: 1978-06-23 . USAF Sat Cat: 10365 . COSPAR: 1977-092A. Apogee: 35,938 km (22,330 mi). Perigee: 35,663 km (22,159 mi). Inclination: 12.7000 deg. Period: 1,436.80 min. Statsionar T. Transmission of colour and black-and-white USSR central television programmes to the network of public receiving units located in population centres in Siberia and the Far North. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit over the Indian Ocean at 99 deg E in 1977-1978 As of 5 September 2001 located at 65.77 deg E drifting at 0.168 deg E per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 79.61E drifting at 0.200W degrees per day.

1978 May 27 - . 01:25 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/40. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM. LV Configuration: Proton-K/DM 294-02. FAILURE: Stage 1 - vehicle failed at launch.. Failed Stage: 1.
  • Ekran s/n 13L - . Payload: Ekran s/n 13L. Mass: 1,970 kg (4,340 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Ekran. COSPAR: F780527A. Summary: Failed launch of communications satellite..

1978 July 18 - . 21:59 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/40. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM. LV Configuration: Proton-K/DM 292-02.
  • Raduga 4 - . Payload: Raduga s/n 14L. Mass: 1,940 kg (4,270 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Raduga . Completed Operations Date: 1981-03-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 10987 . COSPAR: 1978-073A. Apogee: 35,854 km (22,278 mi). Perigee: 35,757 km (22,218 mi). Inclination: 12.3000 deg. Period: 1,437.10 min. Provision of uninterrupted round the clock telephone and telegraph radiocommunication in the USSR and simultaneous transmission of colour and black-and-white USSR central television programmes to stations in the Orbita network. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit over the Atlantic Ocean at 35 deg E in 1978-1981 As of 1 September 2001 located at 42.47 deg E drifting at 0.129 deg E per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 108.35E drifting at 0.106E degrees per day.

1978 August 17 - . 20:02 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/40. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM. LV Configuration: Proton-K/DM 297-02. FAILURE: Stage 1 - vehicle failed at launch.. Failed Stage: 1.
  • Ekran s/n 15L - . Payload: Ekran s/n 15L. Mass: 1,970 kg (4,340 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Ekran. COSPAR: F780817A.

1978 October 17 - . 16:04 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/40. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM. LV Configuration: Proton-K/DM 298-01. FAILURE: Second stage explosion.. Failed Stage: 2.
  • Ekran s/n 14L - . Payload: Ekran s/n 14L. Mass: 1,970 kg (4,340 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Ekran. COSPAR: F781017A.

1978 December 19 - . 12:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/40. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM. LV Configuration: Proton-K/DM 295-02. FAILURE: Block DM malfunction, wrong orbit.. Failed Stage: 4.
  • Gorizont 1 - . Payload: Gorizont s/n 11L. Mass: 2,100 kg (4,600 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Gorizont . Completed Operations Date: 1980-01-10 . USAF Sat Cat: 11158 . COSPAR: 1978-118A. Apogee: 49,371 km (30,677 mi). Perigee: 22,193 km (13,790 mi). Inclination: 22.4000 deg. Period: 1,435.90 min. Did not achieve geostationary orbit due to malfunction of Block D. Operation of telephone and telegraph radiocommunications and transmission of television programmes. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit over the Indian Ocean at 53 deg E in 1979-1980 As of 29 August 2001 located at 75.87 deg E drifting at 0.132 deg E per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 57.49E drifting at 0.119E degrees per day.

1979 February 21 - . 07:49 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/40. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM. LV Configuration: Proton-K/DM 294-01.
  • Ekran 3 - . Payload: Ekran s/n 16L. Mass: 1,970 kg (4,340 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Ekran . Completed Operations Date: 1981-05-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 11273 . COSPAR: 1979-015A. Apogee: 35,919 km (22,318 mi). Perigee: 35,623 km (22,135 mi). Inclination: 14.6000 deg. Period: 1,435.30 min. Transmission of color and black-and-white USSR central television programmes to a network of receivers for collective use. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit over the Indian Ocean at 99 deg E in 1979-1981 As of 3 September 2001 located at 51.81 deg E drifting at 0.088 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 11 located at 98.64E drifting at 0.060E degrees per day.

1979 April 25 - . 03:44 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/40. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM. LV Configuration: Proton-K/DM 298-02.
  • Raduga 5 - . Payload: Raduga s/n 15L. Mass: 1,940 kg (4,270 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Raduga . Completed Operations Date: 1982-05-27 . USAF Sat Cat: 11343 . COSPAR: 1979-035A. Apogee: 35,802 km (22,246 mi). Perigee: 35,785 km (22,235 mi). Inclination: 11.9000 deg. Period: 1,436.50 min. Provision of uninterrupted round the clock telephone and telegraph radiocommunication in the USSR and simultaneous transmission of colour and black-and-white USSR central television programmes to stations in the Orbita network. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 85 deg E in 1979-1982 As of 29 August 2001 located at 84.16 deg E drifting at 0.043 deg E per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 65.45E drifting at 0.034E degrees per day.

1979 July 5 - . 23:19 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/40. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM. LV Configuration: Proton-K/DM 299-01.
  • Gorizont 2 - . Payload: Gorizont s/n 12L. Mass: 2,100 kg (4,600 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Gorizont . Completed Operations Date: 1983-12-06 . USAF Sat Cat: 11440 . COSPAR: 1979-062A. Apogee: 35,782 km (22,233 mi). Perigee: 35,777 km (22,230 mi). Inclination: 11.5000 deg. Period: 1,435.80 min. Stationed at 14 deg W. Statsionar 4. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 14 deg W in 1979-1981; 90 deg E in 1981-1983 As of 26 August 2001 located at 59.72 deg E drifting at 0.012 deg E per day. As of 2007 Mar 8 located at 84.05E drifting at 0.107W degrees per day.

1979 October 3 - . 17:12 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/40. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM. LV Configuration: Proton-K/DM 302-02.
  • Ekran 4 - . Payload: Ekran s/n 17L. Mass: 1,970 kg (4,340 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Ekran . Completed Operations Date: 1981-03-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 11561 . COSPAR: 1979-087A. Apogee: 35,827 km (22,261 mi). Perigee: 35,725 km (22,198 mi). Inclination: 14.5000 deg. Period: 1,435.60 min. Transmission of color and black-and-white USSR central television programmes to a network of receivers for collective use. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 99 deg E in 1979-1981 As of 4 September 2001 located at 52.52 deg E drifting at 0.007 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 4 located at 96.71E drifting at 0.048W degrees per day.

1979 December 28 - . 11:51 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/40. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM. LV Configuration: Proton-K/DM 303-01.
  • Gorizont 3 - . Payload: Gorizont s/n 13L. Mass: 2,100 kg (4,600 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Gorizont . Completed Operations Date: 1989-12-28 . USAF Sat Cat: 11648 . COSPAR: 1979-105A. Apogee: 35,831 km (22,264 mi). Perigee: 35,779 km (22,231 mi). Inclination: 11.0000 deg. Period: 1,437.10 min. Summary: Stationed at 53 deg E. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 53 deg E in 1980-1984; 40 deg E in 1984-1989 As of 30 August 2001 located at 47.84 deg E drifting at 0.163 deg E per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 109.81E drifting at 0.002E degrees per day..

1980 February 20 - . 08:05 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/39. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM. LV Configuration: Proton-K/DM 297-01.
  • Raduga 6 - . Payload: Raduga s/n 16L. Mass: 1,940 kg (4,270 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Raduga . Completed Operations Date: 1986-03-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 11708 . COSPAR: 1980-016A. Apogee: 35,816 km (22,254 mi). Perigee: 35,780 km (22,230 mi). Inclination: 11.4000 deg. Period: 1,436.70 min. Provision of uninterrupted round the clock telephone and telegraph radiocommunication in the USSR and simultaneous transmission of colour and black-and-white USSR central television programmes to stations in the Orbita network. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 35 deg E in 1980-1982; 45 deg E in 1982-1986 As of 1 September 2001 located at 41.36 deg E drifting at 0.001 deg W per day. As of 2007 Feb 27 located at 101.46E drifting at 0.146E degrees per day.

1980 June 14 - . 00:49 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/39. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM. LV Configuration: Proton-K/DM 303-02.
  • Gorizont 4 - . Payload: Gorizont s/n 15L. Mass: 2,100 kg (4,600 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Gorizont . Completed Operations Date: 1988-10-25 . USAF Sat Cat: 11841 . COSPAR: 1980-049A. Apogee: 36,269 km (22,536 mi). Perigee: 36,239 km (22,517 mi). Inclination: 14.3000 deg. Period: 1,460.10 min. Stationed at 14 deg W. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 14 deg W in 1980-1984; 11 deg W in 1984-1985; 14 deg W in 1985; 11 deg W in 1985-1988 As of 3 September 2001 located at 106.01 deg W drifting at 5.930 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 9 located at 145.19W drifting at 5.924W degrees per day.

1980 July 14 - . 22:35 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/40. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM. LV Configuration: Proton-K/DM 301-01.
  • Ekran 5 - . Payload: Ekran s/n 19L. Mass: 1,970 kg (4,340 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Ekran . Completed Operations Date: 1980-07-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 11890 . COSPAR: 1980-060A. Apogee: 35,834 km (22,266 mi). Perigee: 35,737 km (22,205 mi). Inclination: 0.0000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min. Transmission of color and black-and-white USSR central television programmes to a network of receivers for collective use. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 99 deg E in 1980 Last known longitude (14 March 1994) 95.12 deg E drifting at 0.122 deg W per day.

1980 October 5 - . 17:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/39. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM. LV Configuration: Proton-K/DM 300-01.
  • Raduga 7 - . Payload: Raduga s/n 17L. Mass: 1,940 kg (4,270 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Raduga . Completed Operations Date: 1986-10-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 12003 . COSPAR: 1980-081A. Apogee: 35,805 km (22,248 mi). Perigee: 35,755 km (22,217 mi). Inclination: 14.0000 deg. Period: 1,435.80 min. Radio, telegraph, TV. Provision of uninterrupted round the clock telephone and telegraph radiocommunication in the USSR and simultaneous transmission of colour and black-and-white USSR central television programmes to stations in the Orbita network. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 85 deg E in 1980-1981; 25 deg W in 1982-1986 As of 30 August 2001 located at 103.91 deg W drifting at 0.397 deg E per day. As of 2007 Mar 3 located at 30.06W drifting at 0.092W degrees per day.

1980 December 26 - . 11:49 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/40. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM. LV Configuration: Proton-K/DM 304-01.
  • Ekran 6 - . Payload: Ekran s/n 20L. Mass: 1,970 kg (4,340 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Ekran . Completed Operations Date: 1981-12-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 12120 . COSPAR: 1980-104A. Apogee: 35,801 km (22,245 mi). Perigee: 35,783 km (22,234 mi). Inclination: 14.0000 deg. Period: 1,436.40 min. Transmission of color and black-and-white USSR central television programmes to a network of receivers for collective use. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 99 deg E in 1981 As of 3 September 2001 located at 96.55 deg E drifting at 0.071 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 2 located at 55.67E drifting at 0.097E degrees per day.

1981 March 18 - . 04:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/40. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM. LV Configuration: Proton-K/DM 306-01.
  • Raduga 8 - . Payload: Raduga s/n 18L. Mass: 1,940 kg (4,270 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Raduga . Completed Operations Date: 1981-04-11 . USAF Sat Cat: 12351 . COSPAR: 1981-027A. Apogee: 36,115 km (22,440 mi). Perigee: 35,411 km (22,003 mi). Inclination: 10.8000 deg. Period: 1,434.90 min. Provision of uninterrupted round the clock telephone and telegraph radiocommunication in the USSR and simultaneous transmission of colour and black-and-white USSR central television programmes to stations in the Orbita network. As of 3 September 2001 located at 8.37 deg E drifting at 0.322 deg E per day. As of 2007 Mar 11 located at 69.95E drifting at 0.520E degrees per day.

1981 June 25 - . 23:55 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/40. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM. LV Configuration: Proton-K/DM 305-01.
  • Ekran 7 - . Payload: Ekran s/n 21L. Mass: 1,970 kg (4,340 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Ekran . Completed Operations Date: 1982-08-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 12564 . COSPAR: 1981-061A. Apogee: 35,819 km (22,256 mi). Perigee: 35,787 km (22,236 mi). Inclination: 10.5000 deg. Period: 1,437.00 min. Transmission of Central Television programmes to a network of receivers for collective use. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 99 deg E in 1981-1982 As of 1 September 2001 located at 78.87 deg E drifting at 0.201 deg E per day. As of 2007 Mar 11 located at 66.59E drifting at 0.197W degrees per day.

1981 July 30 - . 21:38 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/39. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM. LV Configuration: Proton-K/DM 301-02.
  • Raduga 9 - . Payload: Raduga s/n 19L. Mass: 1,940 kg (4,270 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Raduga . Completed Operations Date: 1986-05-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 12618 . COSPAR: 1981-069A. Apogee: 35,828 km (22,262 mi). Perigee: 35,791 km (22,239 mi). Inclination: 13.8000 deg. Period: 1,437.20 min. Provision of uninterrupted round the clock telephone and telegraph radiocommunication in the USSR and simultaneous transmission of colour and black-and-white USSR central television programmes to stations in the Orbita network. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 35 deg E in 1981-1986 As of 30 August 2001 located at 112.14 deg E drifting at 0.090 deg E per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 76.83E drifting at 0.307W degrees per day.

1981 October 9 - . 16:59 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/39. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM. LV Configuration: Proton-K/DM 310-01.
  • Raduga 10 - . Payload: Raduga s/n 20L. Mass: 1,940 kg (4,270 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Raduga . Completed Operations Date: 1987-10-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 12897 . COSPAR: 1981-102A. Apogee: 35,820 km (22,250 mi). Perigee: 35,764 km (22,222 mi). Inclination: 13.7000 deg. Period: 1,436.40 min. Provision of uninterrupted round the clock telephone and telegraph radiocommunication in the USSR and simultaneous transmission of colour and black-and-white USSR central television programmes to stations in the Orbita network. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 85 deg E in 1981-1987 As of 5 September 2001 located at 76.66 deg E drifting at 0.069 deg E per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 65.57E drifting at 0.042W degrees per day.

1982 February 5 - . 09:12 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/40. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM. LV Configuration: Proton-K/DM 308-01.
  • Ekran 8 - . Payload: Ekran s/n 22L. Mass: 1,970 kg (4,340 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Ekran . Completed Operations Date: 1984-01-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 13056 . COSPAR: 1982-009A. Apogee: 36,010 km (22,370 mi). Perigee: 35,756 km (22,217 mi). Inclination: 10.0000 deg. Period: 1,441.00 min. Transmission of Central Television programmes to a network of receivers for collective use. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 99 deg E in 1982-1983 As of 28 August 2001 located at 30.39 deg W drifting at 1.165 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 11 located at 85.74E drifting at 1.235W degrees per day.

1982 March 15 - . 04:39 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/39. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM. LV Configuration: Proton-K/DM 305-02.
  • Gorizont 5 - . Payload: Gorizont s/n 14L. Mass: 2,100 kg (4,600 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Gorizont . Completed Operations Date: 1989-11-24 . USAF Sat Cat: 13092 . COSPAR: 1982-020A. Apogee: 36,427 km (22,634 mi). Perigee: 36,139 km (22,455 mi). Inclination: 9.7000 deg. Period: 1,461.50 min. Stationed at 53 deg E. Provision of telephone and telegraph radiocommunications and transmission of television programmes. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 53 deg E in 1982-1986; 96 deg E in 1986-1989 As of 28 August 2001 located at 156.27 deg E drifting at 6.267 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 91.82E drifting at 6.281W degrees per day.

1982 May 17 - . 23:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/39. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM. LV Configuration: Proton-K/DM 310-02.
  • Cosmos 1366 - . Payload: Potok no. 1 s/n 11L. Mass: 2,000 kg (4,400 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Potok. Completed Operations Date: 1987-10-30 . USAF Sat Cat: 13177 . COSPAR: 1982-044A. Apogee: 35,805 km (22,248 mi). Perigee: 35,777 km (22,230 mi). Inclination: 13.7000 deg. Period: 1,436.30 min. Stationed at 80 deg E. Investigation of outer space; experiments in relaying telegraph and telephone information in the centimetre wavelength range. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 80 deg E in 1982-1987 As of 4 September 2001 located at 81.31 deg E drifting at 0.033 deg E per day. As of 2007 Mar 11 located at 68.65E drifting at 0.023E degrees per day.

1982 July 22 - . 22:11 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/40. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM. LV Configuration: Proton-K/DM 307-02. FAILURE: Stage 1 - vehicle failed at launch.. Failed Stage: 1.
  • Ekran s/n 23L - . Payload: Ekran s/n 23L. Mass: 1,970 kg (4,340 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: UNKS. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Ekran. COSPAR: F820722A.

1982 September 16 - . 18:31 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/40. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM. LV Configuration: Proton-K/DM 309-01.
  • Ekran 9 - . Payload: Ekran s/n 24L. Mass: 1,970 kg (4,340 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Ekran . Completed Operations Date: 1983-12-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 13554 . COSPAR: 1982-093A. Apogee: 35,877 km (22,292 mi). Perigee: 35,704 km (22,185 mi). Inclination: 13.1000 deg. Period: 1,436.30 min. Transmission of Central Television programmes to a network of receivers for collective use. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 99 deg E in 1982-1983 As of 3 September 2001 located at 99.83 deg E drifting at 0.132 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 45.75E drifting at 0.063E degrees per day.

1982 October 20 - . 16:26 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/40. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM. LV Configuration: Proton-K/DM 312-01.
  • Gorizont 6 - . Payload: Gorizont s/n 16L. Mass: 2,100 kg (4,600 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Gorizont . Completed Operations Date: 1989-03-28 . USAF Sat Cat: 13624 . COSPAR: 1982-103A. Apogee: 35,814 km (22,253 mi). Perigee: 35,779 km (22,231 mi). Inclination: 12.8000 deg. Period: 1,436.60 min. Provision of telephone and telegraph radiocommunications and transmission of television programmes. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 90 deg E in 1982-1984; 140 deg E in 1984-1988; 170 deg W in 1988-1989 As of 31 August 2001 located at 45.17 deg W drifting at 0.179 deg E per day. As of 2007 Mar 9 located at 146.19W drifting at 0.287W degrees per day.

1982 November 26 - . 14:13 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/39. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM. LV Configuration: Proton-K/DM 313-01.
  • Raduga 11 - . Payload: Raduga s/n 21L. Mass: 1,940 kg (4,270 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Raduga . Completed Operations Date: 1989-01-17 . USAF Sat Cat: 13669 . COSPAR: 1982-113A. Apogee: 36,702 km (22,805 mi). Perigee: 36,341 km (22,581 mi). Inclination: 12.8000 deg. Period: 1,473.80 min. Provision of uninterrupted round the clock telephone and telegraph radiocommunication in the USSR and simultaneous transmission of colour and black-and-white USSR central television programmes to stations in the Orbita network. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 35 deg E in 1982-1989 As of 3 September 2001 located at 70.20 deg W drifting at 9.239 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 51.72E drifting at 9.241W degrees per day.

1982 December 24 - . 12:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/39. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM. LV Configuration: Proton-K/DM 314-01. FAILURE: Stage 1 - vehicle failed at launch.. Failed Stage: 1.
  • Raduga s/n 22L - . Payload: Raduga s/n 22L. Mass: 1,940 kg (4,270 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: UNKS. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Raduga. Decay Date: 1982-12-24 . COSPAR: F821224A.

1983 March 12 - . 14:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/40. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM. LV Configuration: Proton-K/DM 304-02.
  • Ekran 10 - . Payload: Ekran s/n 18L. Mass: 1,970 kg (4,340 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Ekran . Completed Operations Date: 1984-10-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 13878 . COSPAR: 1983-016A. Apogee: 37,453 km (23,272 mi). Perigee: 37,194 km (23,111 mi). Inclination: 14.3000 deg. Period: 1,515.30 min. Transmission of Central Television programmes to a network of receivers for collective use. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 99 deg E in 1983-1984 As of 5 September 2001 located at 6.05 deg E drifting at 18.878 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 9 located at 154.32W drifting at 18.879W degrees per day.

1983 April 8 - . 04:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/40. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM. LV Configuration: Proton-K/DM 315-02.
  • Raduga 12 - . Payload: Raduga s/n 23L. Mass: 1,940 kg (4,270 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Raduga . Completed Operations Date: 1985-06-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 13974 . COSPAR: 1983-028A. Apogee: 35,789 km (22,238 mi). Perigee: 35,772 km (22,227 mi). Inclination: 8.4000 deg. Period: 1,435.80 min. Provision of uninterrupted round the clock telephone and telegraph radiocommunication in the USSR and simultaneous transmission of colour and black-and-white USSR central television programmes to stations in the Orbita network. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 85 deg E in 1983-1984 As of 4 September 2001 located at 65.56 deg E drifting at 0.028 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 82.54E drifting at 0.059W degrees per day.

1983 June 30 - . 23:56 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/39. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM. LV Configuration: Proton-K/DM 314-02.
  • Gorizont 7 - . Payload: Gorizont s/n 17L. Mass: 2,100 kg (4,600 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Gorizont . Completed Operations Date: 1989-06-30 . USAF Sat Cat: 14160 . COSPAR: 1983-066A. Apogee: 36,374 km (22,601 mi). Perigee: 36,296 km (22,553 mi). Inclination: 12.3000 deg. Period: 1,464.20 min. Stationed at 14 deg W. Radio telephone and telegraph communications and television broadcasting. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 14 deg W in 1983-1986; 16 deg W in 1986-1987; 11 deg W in 1987-1989 As of 3 September 2001 located at 105.97 deg E drifting at 6.939 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 169.25W drifting at 6.932W degrees per day.

1983 August 25 - . 20:02 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/40. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM. LV Configuration: Proton-K/DM 316-02.
  • Raduga 13 - . Payload: Raduga s/n 24L. Mass: 1,940 kg (4,270 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Raduga . Completed Operations Date: 1987-10-13 . USAF Sat Cat: 14307 . COSPAR: 1983-088A. Apogee: 36,447 km (22,647 mi). Perigee: 36,323 km (22,570 mi). Inclination: 8.0000 deg. Period: 1,466.80 min. Operation of telephone and telegraph radiocommunications and transmission of television programmes. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 45 deg E in 1983-1987 As of 28 August 2001 located at 174.92 deg W drifting at 7.555 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 42.12E drifting at 7.563W degrees per day.

1983 September 29 - . 17:37 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/40. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM. LV Configuration: Proton-K/DM 318-01.
  • Ekran 11 - . Payload: Ekran s/n 25L. Mass: 1,970 kg (4,340 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Ekran . Completed Operations Date: 1984-11-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 14377 . COSPAR: 1983-100A. Apogee: 35,815 km (22,254 mi). Perigee: 35,788 km (22,237 mi). Inclination: 8.6000 deg. Period: 1,436.90 min. Launch date suspect Transmission of Central Television programmes to a network of receivers for collective use. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 99 deg E in 1983-1984 As of 28 August 2001 located at 73.31 deg E drifting at 0.215 deg E per day. As of 2007 Mar 11 located at 73.35E drifting at 0.222W degrees per day.

1983 November 30 - . 13:51 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/39. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM. LV Configuration: Proton-K/DM 308-02.
  • Gorizont 8 - . Payload: Gorizont s/n 18L. Mass: 2,100 kg (4,600 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Gorizont . Completed Operations Date: 1988-11-28 . USAF Sat Cat: 14532 . COSPAR: 1983-118A. Apogee: 36,462 km (22,656 mi). Perigee: 36,254 km (22,527 mi). Inclination: 7.4000 deg. Period: 1,465.40 min. Stationed at 90 deg E. Radio telephone and telegraph communications and television broadcasting. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 90 deg E in 1983-1987; 140 deg E in 1987-1988 As of 2 September 2001 located at 3.86 deg W drifting at 7.211 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 143.68W drifting at 7.218W degrees per day.

1984 February 15 - . 08:46 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/39. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM. LV Configuration: Proton-K/DM 318-02.
  • Raduga 14 - . Payload: Raduga s/n 25L. Mass: 2,000 kg (4,400 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Raduga . Completed Operations Date: 1987-09-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 14725 . COSPAR: 1984-016A. Apogee: 35,817 km (22,255 mi). Perigee: 35,771 km (22,227 mi). Inclination: 11.8000 deg. Period: 1,436.50 min. Stationed at 84 deg. E. Radio telephone and telegraph communications and transmission of television programmes. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 85 deg E in 1984-1987 As of 29 August 2001 located at 83.95 deg E drifting at 0.059 deg E per day. As of 2007 Mar 11 located at 64.01E drifting at 0.027E degrees per day.

1984 March 2 - . 03:54 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/40. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM. LV Configuration: Proton-K/DM 316-01.
  • Cosmos 1540 - . Payload: Potok no. 2 s/n 12L. Mass: 2,000 kg (4,400 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Potok. Completed Operations Date: 1988-02-05 . USAF Sat Cat: 14783 . COSPAR: 1984-022A. Apogee: 35,807 km (22,249 mi). Perigee: 35,761 km (22,220 mi). Inclination: 8.1000 deg. Period: 1,436.00 min. Stationed at 79 deg E. Investigation of outer space; experiments in relaying telegraph and telephone information in the centimetre wavelength range. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 80 deg E in 1984-1988 As of 28 August 2001 located at 75.35 deg E drifting at 0.041 deg E per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 69.92E drifting at 0.020W degrees per day.

1984 March 16 - . 14:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/39. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM. LV Configuration: Proton-K/DM 322-01.
  • Ekran 12 - . Payload: Ekran s/n 26L. Mass: 1,970 kg (4,340 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Ekran . Completed Operations Date: 1986-07-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 14821 . COSPAR: 1984-028A. Apogee: 37,048 km (23,020 mi). Perigee: 36,973 km (22,973 mi). Inclination: 9.1000 deg. Period: 1,499.10 min. Stationed at 99 deg E. Transmission of Central Television programmes to a network of receivers for collective use. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 99 deg E in 1984-1986 As of 4 September 2001 located at 148.57 deg W drifting at 15.168 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 82.29W drifting at 15.169W degrees per day.

1984 March 29 - . 05:53 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/40. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM. LV Configuration: Proton-K/DM 319-02.
  • Cosmos 1546 - . Payload: SPRN No. 2. Mass: 2,000 kg (4,400 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Military. Type: Early warning satellite. Spacecraft: Prognoz SPRN. Completed Operations Date: 1986-10-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 14867 . COSPAR: 1984-031A. Apogee: 35,856 km (22,279 mi). Perigee: 35,709 km (22,188 mi). Inclination: 11.7000 deg. Period: 1,435.90 min. Geosynchronous ballistic missile early warning satellite. Stationed at 24 deg W in 1984-1985; 80 deg E in 1986 As of 5 September 2001 located at 72.67 deg E drifting at 0.068 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 2 located at 81.39E drifting at 0.003E degrees per day.

1984 April 22 - . 04:21 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/39. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM. LV Configuration: Proton-K/DM 312-02.
  • Gorizont 9 - . Payload: Gorizont s/n 19L. Mass: 2,100 kg (4,600 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Gorizont . Completed Operations Date: 1987-04-06 . USAF Sat Cat: 14940 . COSPAR: 1984-041A. Apogee: 35,805 km (22,248 mi). Perigee: 35,740 km (22,200 mi). Inclination: 11.5000 deg. Period: 1,435.40 min. Stationed at 53 deg E. Provision of telephone and telegraph radiocommunications and television broadcasting. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 53 deg E in 1984-1987 As of 3 September 2001 located at 55.62 deg E drifting at 0.094 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 2 located at 96.90E drifting at 0.028E degrees per day.

1984 June 22 - . 00:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/39. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM. LV Configuration: Proton-K/DM 319-01.
  • Raduga 15 - . Payload: Raduga s/n 27L. Mass: 1,940 kg (4,270 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Raduga . Completed Operations Date: 1988-09-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 15057 . COSPAR: 1984-063A. Apogee: 35,782 km (22,233 mi). Perigee: 35,750 km (22,210 mi). Inclination: 7.2000 deg. Period: 1,435.10 min. Stationed at 128 deg. E. Radio telephone and telegraph communications and transmission of television programmes. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 128 deg E in 1984-1988 As of 4 September 2001 located at 29.81 deg E drifting at 0.199 deg E per day. As of 2007 Mar 8 located at 18.52E drifting at 0.067E degrees per day.

1984 August 1 - . 21:37 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/40. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM. LV Configuration: Proton-K/DM 324-01.
  • Gorizont 10 - . Payload: Gorizont s/n 20L. Mass: 2,100 kg (4,600 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Gorizont . Completed Operations Date: 1990-08-22 . USAF Sat Cat: 15144 . COSPAR: 1984-078A. Apogee: 35,810 km (22,250 mi). Perigee: 35,793 km (22,240 mi). Inclination: 6.8000 deg. Period: 1,436.90 min. Stationed at 80 deg E. Provision of telephone and telegraph radiocommunications and television broadcasting. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 80 deg E in 1984-1989; 170 deg W in 1989-1990 As of 5 September 2001 located at 157.76 deg W drifting at 0.193 deg E per day. As of 2007 Mar 8 located at 46.55W drifting at 0.187W degrees per day.

1984 August 24 - . 19:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/39. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM. LV Configuration: Proton-K/DM 324-02.
  • Ekran 13 - . Payload: Ekran s/n 27L. Mass: 1,970 kg (4,340 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Ekran . Completed Operations Date: 1987-04-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 15219 . COSPAR: 1984-090A. Apogee: 37,087 km (23,044 mi). Perigee: 36,957 km (22,963 mi). Inclination: 8.2000 deg. Period: 1,499.70 min. Stationed at 99 deg E. Transmission of Central Television programmes to a network of receivers for collective use. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 99 deg E in 1984-1987 As of 2 September 2001 located at 163.33 deg W drifting at 15.302 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 35.81W drifting at 15.302W degrees per day.

1985 January 18 - . 10:25 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/39. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM. LV Configuration: Proton-K/DM 326-02.
  • Gorizont 11 - . Payload: Gorizont s/n 21L. Mass: 2,100 kg (4,600 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Gorizont . Completed Operations Date: 1991-09-02 . USAF Sat Cat: 15484 . COSPAR: 1985-007A. Apogee: 35,803 km (22,246 mi). Perigee: 35,764 km (22,222 mi). Inclination: 11.0000 deg. Period: 1,435.90 min. Stationed at 140 deg E. Provision of telephone and telegraph radiocommunications and television broadcasting. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 140 deg E in 1985-1987; 53 deg E in 1987-1989; 11 deg W in 1989-1991 As of 5 September 2001 located at 22.94 deg W drifting at 0.085 deg E per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 14.60W drifting at 0.040W degrees per day.

1985 February 21 - . 07:57 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/39. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM. LV Configuration: Proton-K/DM 327-01.
  • Cosmos 1629 - . Payload: SPRN No. 3. Mass: 2,000 kg (4,400 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Military. Type: Early warning satellite. Spacecraft: Prognoz SPRN. Completed Operations Date: 1986-10-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 15574 . COSPAR: 1985-016A. Apogee: 35,773 km (22,228 mi). Perigee: 35,738 km (22,206 mi). Inclination: 6.5000 deg. Period: 1,434.50 min. Geosynchronous ballistic missile early warning satellite. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 35 deg E in 1985; 24 deg W in 1985-1986 As of 5 September 2001 located at 151.95 deg W drifting at 0.251 deg E per day. As of 2007 Mar 3 located at 24.42W drifting at 0.038E degrees per day.

1985 March 22 - . 05:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/40. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM. LV Configuration: Proton-K/DM 328-01.
  • Ekran 14 - . Payload: Ekran s/n 28L. Mass: 1,970 kg (4,340 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Ekran . Completed Operations Date: 1987-11-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 15626 . COSPAR: 1985-024A. Apogee: 37,457 km (23,274 mi). Perigee: 37,333 km (23,197 mi). Inclination: 12.7000 deg. Period: 1,519.00 min. Stationed at 99 deg E. Transmission of Central Television programmes to a network of receivers for collective use. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 99 deg E in 1985-1987 As of 5 September 2001 located at 178.66 deg E drifting at 19.729 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 122.42E drifting at 19.716W degrees per day.

1985 August 8 - . 21:01 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/39. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM. LV Configuration: Proton-K/DM 317-02.
  • Raduga 16 - . Payload: Raduga s/n 26L. Mass: 1,940 kg (4,270 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Raduga . Completed Operations Date: 1988-10-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 15946 . COSPAR: 1985-070A. Apogee: 35,818 km (22,256 mi). Perigee: 35,788 km (22,237 mi). Inclination: 10.8000 deg. Period: 1,436.90 min. Stationed at 45 deg. E. Provision of telephone and telegraph radiocommunications and television broadcasting. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 45 deg E in 1985-1987; 170 deg W in 1987-1988 As of 1 September 2001 located at 34.20 deg W drifting at 0.087 deg E per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 161.95W drifting at 0.182W degrees per day.

1985 November 15 - . 14:29 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/39. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM. LV Configuration: Proton-K/DM 326-01.
  • Raduga 17 - . Payload: Raduga s/n 28L. Mass: 1,940 kg (4,270 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Raduga . Completed Operations Date: 1992-12-18 . USAF Sat Cat: 16250 . COSPAR: 1985-107A. Apogee: 35,873 km (22,290 mi). Perigee: 35,774 km (22,228 mi). Inclination: 5.8000 deg. Period: 1,438.00 min. Stationed at 49 deg. E. Provision of telephone and telegraph radiocommunications and television broadcasting. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 35 deg E in 1985-1988; 69 deg E in 1988-1990; 85 deg E in 1990-1991; 49 deg E in 1991-1992 As of 5 September 2001 located at 174.18 deg W drifting at 0.357 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 98.19E drifting at 0.512W degrees per day.

1986 January 17 - . 10:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/40. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM. LV Configuration: Proton-K/DM 331-02.
  • Raduga 18 - . Payload: Raduga s/n 29L. Mass: 1,940 kg (4,270 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Raduga . Completed Operations Date: 1991-12-04 . USAF Sat Cat: 16497 . COSPAR: 1986-007A. Apogee: 36,493 km (22,675 mi). Perigee: 35,909 km (22,312 mi). Inclination: 5.8000 deg. Period: 1,457.30 min. Stationed at 335 deg. E. Provision of telephone and telegraph radiocommunications and television broadcasting. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 25 deg W in 1986-1989; 170 deg W in 1989-1991 As of 28 August 2001 located at 163.25 deg W drifting at 5.255 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 22.49E drifting at 5.257W degrees per day.

1986 April 4 - . 03:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/40. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM. LV Configuration: Proton-K/DM 302-01.
  • Cosmos 1738 - . Payload: Potok no. 3 s/n 13L. Mass: 2,000 kg (4,400 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Potok. Completed Operations Date: 1989-04-07 . USAF Sat Cat: 16667 . COSPAR: 1986-027A. Apogee: 35,847 km (22,274 mi). Perigee: 35,712 km (22,190 mi). Inclination: 5.6000 deg. Period: 1,435.70 min. Stationed at 13.5 deg W. Continuation of the investigation of outer space; experimental retransmission of telephone and telegraph data in the centimetre band. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 14 deg W in 1986-1989 As of 3 September 2001 located at 0.26 deg W drifting at 0.077 deg E per day. As of 2007 Mar 9 located at 55.28W drifting at 0.287W degrees per day.

1986 May 24 - . 01:42 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/39. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM. LV Configuration: Proton-K/DM 333-01.
  • Ekran 15 - . Payload: Ekran s/n 30L. Mass: 1,970 kg (4,340 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Ekran . Completed Operations Date: 1988-01-18 . USAF Sat Cat: 16729 . COSPAR: 1986-038A. Apogee: 36,905 km (22,931 mi). Perigee: 36,824 km (22,881 mi). Inclination: 11.6000 deg. Period: 1,491.50 min. Stationed at 99 deg E. Transmission of Central Television programmes to a network of receivers for collective use. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 99 deg E in 1986-1988 As of 5 September 2001 located at 80.69 deg W drifting at 13.420 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 9 located at 63.41W drifting at 13.419W degrees per day.

1986 June 10 - . 00:49 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/40. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM. LV Configuration: Proton-K/DM 322-02.
  • Gorizont 12 - . Payload: Gorizont s/n 24L. Mass: 2,100 kg (4,600 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Gorizont . Completed Operations Date: 1991-01-23 . USAF Sat Cat: 16769 . COSPAR: 1986-044A. Apogee: 35,794 km (22,241 mi). Perigee: 35,763 km (22,222 mi). Inclination: 10.1000 deg. Period: 1,435.70 min. Stationed at 345 deg E. Provision of telephone and telegraph radiocommunications and television broadcasting. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 14 deg W in 1986-1989; 40 deg E in 1989-1990 As of 28 August 2001 located at 84.75 deg E drifting at 0.265 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 45.79E drifting at 0.142E degrees per day.

1986 October 25 - . 15:43 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/40. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM. LV Configuration: Proton-K/DM 335-02.
  • Raduga 19 - . Payload: Raduga s/n 30L. Mass: 1,965 kg (4,332 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Raduga . Completed Operations Date: 1993-09-30 . USAF Sat Cat: 17046 . COSPAR: 1986-082A. Apogee: 36,353 km (22,588 mi). Perigee: 36,252 km (22,525 mi). Inclination: 5.1000 deg. Period: 1,462.60 min. Stationed at 36 deg E. Provision of telephone and telegraph radiocommunications and television broadcasting. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 45 deg E in 1986-1991; 34 deg E in 1991-1993. Raduga 19 performed an end-of-life maneuver in September, 1993. As of 28 August 2001 located at 160.57 deg E drifting at 6.520 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 57.63W drifting at 6.529W degrees per day.

1986 November 18 - . 14:08 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/39. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM. LV Configuration: Proton-K/DM 334-01.
  • Gorizont 13 - . Payload: Gorizont s/n 22L. Mass: 2,100 kg (4,600 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Gorizont . Completed Operations Date: 1991-04-18 . USAF Sat Cat: 17083 . COSPAR: 1986-090A. Apogee: 36,863 km (22,905 mi). Perigee: 36,759 km (22,840 mi). Inclination: 10.3000 deg. Period: 1,488.80 min. Stationed at 90 deg E. Provision of telephone and telegraph radiocommunications and television broadcasting. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 90 deg E in 1986-1991 As of 5 September 2001 located at 132.70 deg W drifting at 12.791 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 94.81E drifting at 12.778W degrees per day.

1987 March 19 - . 03:54 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/40. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM. LV Configuration: Proton-K/DM 323-01.
  • Raduga 20 - . Payload: Raduga s/n 31L. Mass: 1,965 kg (4,332 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Raduga . Completed Operations Date: 1991-12-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 17611 . COSPAR: 1987-028A. Apogee: 37,159 km (23,089 mi). Perigee: 36,922 km (22,942 mi). Inclination: 5.1000 deg. Period: 1,500.60 min. Stationed at 85 deg E. Provision of telephone and telegraph radiocommunications and television broadcasting. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 85 deg E in 1987-1991 As of 30 August 2001 located at 6.40 deg W drifting at 15.515 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 6.61W drifting at 15.520W degrees per day.

1987 May 11 - . 14:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/39. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM. LV Configuration: Proton-K/DM 338-02.
  • Gorizont 14 - . Payload: Gorizont s/n 23L. Mass: 2,100 kg (4,600 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Gorizont . Completed Operations Date: 1992-06-25 . USAF Sat Cat: 17969 . COSPAR: 1987-040A. Apogee: 36,658 km (22,778 mi). Perigee: 36,416 km (22,627 mi). Inclination: 6.6000 deg. Period: 1,474.60 min. Stationed at 140 deg E. Provision of telephone and telegraph radiocommunications and television broadcasting. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 140 deg E in 1987-1989; 103 deg E in 1989-1992 As of 28 August 2001 located at 132.07 deg W drifting at 9.420 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 9 located at 61.02W drifting at 9.418W degrees per day.

1987 September 3 - . 19:26 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/39. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM. LV Configuration: Proton-K/DM 337-02.
  • Ekran 16 - . Payload: Ekran s/n 29L. Mass: 1,970 kg (4,340 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Ekran. Completed Operations Date: 1989-10-06 . USAF Sat Cat: 18328 . COSPAR: 1987-073A. Apogee: 36,895 km (22,925 mi). Perigee: 36,871 km (22,910 mi). Inclination: 5.1000 deg. Period: 1,492.50 min. Stationed at 99 deg E. Transmission of Central Television programmes to a network of receivers for collective use. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 99 deg E in 1987-1989 As of 31 August 2001 located at 146.34 deg W drifting at 13.641 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 69.25E drifting at 13.645W degrees per day.

1988 March 31 - . 04:18 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/40. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM. LV Configuration: Proton-K/DM 343-02.
  • Gorizont 15 - . Payload: Gorizont s/n 26L. Mass: 2,100 kg (4,600 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Gorizont . Completed Operations Date: 1992-09-14 . USAF Sat Cat: 19017 . COSPAR: 1988-028A. Apogee: 36,630 km (22,760 mi). Perigee: 36,343 km (22,582 mi). Inclination: 3.7000 deg. Period: 1,472.00 min. Stationed at 346 deg E. Radio telephone and telegraph communications and television broadcasting. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 14 deg W in 1988-1991; 11 deg W in 1991-1992 As of 31 August 2001 located at 29.28 deg W drifting at 8.804 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 11 located at 152.02W drifting at 8.807W degrees per day.

1988 May 6 - . 02:47 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/39. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM. LV Configuration: Proton-K/DM 349-01.
  • Ekran 18 - . Payload: Ekran s/n 31L. Mass: 1,970 kg (4,340 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Ekran . Completed Operations Date: 1990-12-27 . USAF Sat Cat: 19090 . COSPAR: 1988-036A. Apogee: 37,337 km (23,200 mi). Perigee: 37,236 km (23,137 mi). Inclination: 4.5000 deg. Period: 1,513.40 min. Stationed at 99 deg E. Transmission of Central Television programmes to a network of receivers for collective use. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 99 deg E in 1988-1990 As of 2 September 2001 located at 7.21 deg E drifting at 18.450 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 9 located at 80.93W drifting at 18.443W degrees per day.

1990 June 20 - . 23:36 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/40. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM. LV Configuration: Proton-K/DM 342-02.
  • Gorizont 20 - . Payload: Gorizont s/n 30L. Mass: 2,125 kg (4,684 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Gorizont . Completed Operations Date: 1999-02-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 20659 . COSPAR: 1990-054A. Apogee: 35,801 km (22,245 mi). Perigee: 35,771 km (22,227 mi). Inclination: 1.5000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min. Stationed at 90 deg E. Provision of telephone and telegraph communications and transmission of television programmes, continuation of work in the context of the 'Intercosmos' programme for the development of new frequency ranges and the creation of long-range systems of space c ommunications jointly with the Byelorussian SSR, GDR, Hungary and Czechoslovakia. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 90 deg E in 1990; 14 deg W in 1990-1995; 26 deg E in 1995-1998; 96 deg E in 1998-1999 As of 4 September 2001 located at 77.53 deg E drifting at 0.186 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 8 located at 83.10E drifting at 0.160E degrees per day.

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