Encyclopedia Astronautica
Pegasus XL



pegxl.jpg
Pegasus XL
American air-launched orbital launch vehicle. Uprated version of Pegasus air-launched winged light satellite launcher. 4 stage vehicle consisting of 1 x L-1011 + 1 x Pegasus XL stage 1 + 1 x Orion 50XL + 1 x Orion 38.

LEO Payload: 443 kg (976 lb) to a 185 km orbit at 28.50 degrees. Payload: 190 kg (410 lb) to a 800 km SSO. Failures: 3. First Fail Date: 1994-06-27. Last Fail Date: 1996-11-04. Launch Price $: 12.000 million in 1994 dollars.

Stage Data - Pegasus XL

  • Stage 0. 1 x L-1011. Gross Mass: 156,000 kg (343,000 lb). Empty Mass: 109,629 kg (241,690 lb). Thrust (vac): 561.900 kN (126,320 lbf). Isp: 9,900 sec. Burn time: 4,590 sec. Isp(sl): 9,000 sec. Diameter: 16.86 m (55.31 ft). Span: 47.00 m (154.00 ft). Length: 54.00 m (177.00 ft). Propellants: Air/Kerosene. No Engines: 3. Engine: RB-211-22B. Status: In Production. Comments: Lockheed airliner swept wing. Release conditions: Belly-mounted, 36,800 kg, 17.1 m length x 7.9 m span at 925 kph at 11,890 m altitude.
  • Stage 1. 1 x Pegasus XL-1. Gross Mass: 17,934 kg (39,537 lb). Empty Mass: 2,886 kg (6,362 lb). Thrust (vac): 589.007 kN (132,414 lbf). Isp: 293 sec. Burn time: 73 sec. Isp(sl): 180 sec. Diameter: 1.27 m (4.16 ft). Span: 6.71 m (22.01 ft). Length: 8.88 m (29.13 ft). Propellants: Solid. No Engines: 1. Engine: Pegasus XL-1. Status: In Production.
  • Stage 2. 1 x Pegasus XL-2. Gross Mass: 4,331 kg (9,548 lb). Empty Mass: 416 kg (917 lb). Thrust (vac): 153.503 kN (34,509 lbf). Isp: 290 sec. Burn time: 73 sec. Isp(sl): 240 sec. Diameter: 1.27 m (4.16 ft). Span: 1.27 m (4.16 ft). Length: 3.58 m (11.74 ft). Propellants: Solid. No Engines: 1. Engine: Pegasus XL-2. Status: In Production.
  • Stage 3. 1 x Pegasus-3. Gross Mass: 985 kg (2,171 lb). Empty Mass: 203 kg (447 lb). Thrust (vac): 34.568 kN (7,771 lbf). Isp: 293 sec. Burn time: 65 sec. Isp(sl): 240 sec. Diameter: 0.97 m (3.18 ft). Span: 0.97 m (3.18 ft). Length: 2.08 m (6.82 ft). Propellants: Solid. No Engines: 1. Engine: Pegasus-3. Status: In Production.

Status: Active.
Gross mass: 24,000 kg (52,000 lb).
Payload: 443 kg (976 lb).
Height: 17.60 m (57.70 ft).
Diameter: 1.27 m (4.16 ft).
Thrust: 486.64 kN (109,401 lbf).
Apogee: 185 km (114 mi).
First Launch: 1994.06.27.
Last Launch: 2008.10.19.
Number: 24 .

More... - Chronology...


Associated Countries
Associated Spacecraft
  • REX American earth ionosphere satellite. 2 launches, 1991.06.29 (REX) and 1996.03.09 (REX-II). The REX satellites were designed to study scintillation effects of the Earth's atmosphere on RF transmissions. More...
  • Orbcomm American communications technology satellite. 31 launches, 1991.07.17 (Orbcomm-X) to 2008.06.19 (Orbcomm FM36). Orbcomm was a commercial venture to provide global messaging services using a constellation of 26 low-Earth orbiting satellites. More...
  • Eagle American military strategic defense satellite. 3 launches, 1994.05.19 (STEP 2 (SIDEX)) to 1997.10.22 (STEP-4). More...
  • Microstar American communications technology satellite. 22 launches, 1995.04.03 (Orbcomm F1) to 2008.10.19 (Formosat 3F). Small satellite bus, specially designed for multiple launch by Pegasus or Taurus family launch vehicles. More...
  • STEP American technology satellite. 2 launches, 1995.06.22 (STEP 3) and 2000.06.07 (TSX 5). More...
  • TOMS-EP American earth atmosphere satellite. One launch, 1996.07.02. More...
  • FAST American earth magnetosphere satellite. One launch, 1996.08.21. FAST was designed to observe and measure rapidly varying electric and magnetic fields and the flow of electrons and ions above the aurora. More...
  • SAC-B Argentinan solar satellite. One launch, 1996.11.04. SAC-B, an Argentine / US mission, was designed to study solar physics and astrophysics through the examination of solar flares, gamma-ray burst sources and the diffuse soft X-ray cosmic background. More...
  • HETE American gamma ray astronomy satellite. 2 launches, 1996.11.04 (HETE) and 2000.10.09 (HETE-2). The High Energy Transient Experiment (HETE) was an international mission led by The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). More...
  • CPAC American burial satellite. One launch, 1997.04.21, Celestis. More...
  • Minisat American technology satellite. One launch, 1997.04.21. The Minisat spacecraft were built for the Spanish space Agency by CASA. More...
  • Orbview-2 American civilian surveillance satellite. One launch, 1997.08.01. The SeaStar satellite carries the SeaWiFS instrument which was designed to monitor the color of the world's oceans. More...
  • FORTE American earth magnetosphere satellite. One launch, 1997.08.29. FORTE - 'Fast On-orbit Recording of Transient Events' - was a US Los Alamos National Laboratory satellite designed to study natural and artificial radio emissions from the ionosphere. More...
  • SNOE American technology satellite. One launch, 1998.02.26. More...
  • Teledesic American communications satellite. One launch, 1998.02.26. The Teledesic system was announced in 2004, and was to have provided global communication links via a constellation of 288 LEO spacecraft. More...
  • TRACE American solar satellite. One launch, 1998.04.02. TRACE, carried a 30-cm extreme ultraviolet imaging telescope for studies of the sun. Lockheed was the lead contractor while the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory made the telescope mirrors. More...
  • SWAS American infrared astronomy satellite. One launch, 1998.12.06. SWAS, the Submillimeter Wave Astronomy Satellite, had a 0.6m telescope with a 490 to 550 GHz submillimeter receiver and an acousto-optical spectrometer. More...
  • WIRE American infrared astronomy satellite. One launch, 1999.03.05. WIRE was designed to survey the celestial sky in the infrared bands and build on the results of the IRAS mission. More...
  • TERRIERS American earth ionosphere satellite. One launch, 1999.05.18. More...
  • Orbview American civilian surveillance satellite. 2 launches, 2001.09.21 (Orbview-4) and 2003.06.26 (Orbview 3). More...
  • HESSI American solar satellite. One launch, 2002.02.05. HESSI, the sixth Small Explorer, was a Spectrum Astro satellite derived from the SA-200S design. It carried a rotating modulation collimator transform telescope. More...
  • SORCE American solar satellite. One launch, 2003.01.25. More...
  • Galex American ultraviolet astronomy satellite. One launch, 2003.04.28. The Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX) was an orbiting space telescope that was to observe galaxies in ultraviolet wavelengths. More...
  • SCISAT Canadian earth atmosphere satellite. One launch, 2003.08.13. More...
  • ST5 American technology satellite. 3 launched, 2006.03.22 (ST5-A) to (ST5-C). More...
  • RS-300 American technology satellite bus, first launched 2007.03.09. Ball Aerospace's RS-300 was a small, low-cost spacecraft aimed at cost-capped principle investigator led missions for Earth or space science. More...
  • C/NOFS American earth seismology satellite. One launch, 2008.04.16. The C/NOFS (Communication/Navigation Outage Forecasting System) satellite flew the US Defence Department's Space Test Program P00-3 space weather forecasting mission. More...

Associated Engines
  • Pegasus-3 Hercules solid rocket engine. 34.6 kN. Isp=287s. Upper stage engine for Pegasus, Pegasus XL, Taurus. First flight 1989. More...
  • Pegasus XL-1 Hercules solid rocket engine. 589 kN. Isp=293s. Used on Pegasus XL launch vehicle. First flight 1994. More...
  • Pegasus XL-2 Hercules solid rocket engine. 153.5 kN. Isp=290s. Used on Pegasus XL launch vehicle. First flight 1994. More...
  • RB-211-22B Rolls Royce turbofan engine. 29.4 kN. Thrust is maximum sea level thrust; specific impulse is sea level value at that thrust. Isp=9900s. Used on L1011 launch aircraft for Pegasus, Pegasus XL. First flight 1990. More...

See also
  • Pegasus Privately-funded, air-launched winged light satellite launcher. More...

Associated Manufacturers and Agencies
  • OSC American manufacturer of rockets, spacecraft, and rocket engines. Orbital Sciences Corporation, USA. More...

Associated Programs
  • SAC SAC (Satélite de Aplicaciones Científicas) was a series of Argentine satellites devoted to proving and developing Argentinan space technology. More...
  • Small Explorer A series of relatively low-cost satellites launched by NASA for solar and astronomical studies. More...
  • STEDI The small STEDI (Student Explorer Demonstration Initiative) program was also known as the University Explorer (UNEX) series. First launch was the HETE astronomy satellite built by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. This was followed by SNOE, the Student Nitric Oxide Explorer, built by the University of Colorado. More...
  • STEP Space Test Experiment Program; series of USAF technology test satellites. More...

Associated Launch Sites
  • Cape Canaveral America's largest launch center, used for all manned launches. Today only six of the 40 launch complexes built here remain in use. Located at or near Cape Canaveral are the Kennedy Space Center on Merritt Island, used by NASA for Saturn V and Space Shuttle launches; Patrick AFB on Cape Canaveral itself, operated the US Department of Defense and handling most other launches; the commercial Spaceport Florida; the air-launched launch vehicle and missile Drop Zone off Mayport, Florida, located at 29.00 N 79.00 W, and an offshore submarine-launched ballistic missile launch area. All of these take advantage of the extensive down-range tracking facilities that once extended from the Cape, through the Caribbean, South Atlantic, and to South Africa and the Indian Ocean. More...
  • Point Arguello WADZ Air-launched rocket drop zone known to have been used for 28 launches from 1990 to 2007, reaching up to 4539 kilometers altitude. More...
  • Mayport DZ Air-launched rocket drop zone known to have been used for 5 launches from 1993 to 2003, reaching up to 794 kilometers altitude. More...
  • Wallops Island DZ Air-launched rocket drop zone known to have been used for 6 launches from 1996 to 1999, reaching up to 834 kilometers altitude. More...
  • Gran Canaria DZ Air-launched rocket drop zone known to have been used for 1 launch in 1997, reaching up to 580 kilometers altitude. More...
  • Kwajalein DZ Air-launched rocket drop zone known to have been used for 1 launch in 2000, reaching up to 641.4927 kilometers altitude. More...

Associated Stages
  • L-1011 Subsonic rocket launch aircraft. Loaded/empty mass 156,000/109,629 kg. Thrust 561.90 kN. Specific impulse 9900 seconds. Lockheed airliner swept wing. Release conditions: Belly-mounted, 36,800 kg, 17.1 m length x 7.9 m span at 925 kph at 11,890 m altitude More...
  • Orion 50SXL Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 17,934/2,886 kg. Thrust 589.01 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 293 seconds. More...
  • Pegasus XL-2 Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 4,331/416 kg. Thrust 153.50 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 290 seconds. More...
  • Pegasus-3 Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 985/203 kg. Thrust 34.57 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 293 seconds. More...

Pegasus XL Chronology


1994 June 27 - . 21:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Point Arguello WADZ. Launch Pad: 36.0 N x 123.0 W. Launch Platform: L-1011. LV Family: Pegasus. Launch Vehicle: Pegasus XL. LV Configuration: Pegasus XL F6. FAILURE: Destroyed on launch . Failed Stage: 1.
  • STEP 1 - . Payload: STEP M1 / P90-1. Nation: USA. Agency: OSC. Program: STEP. Class: Military. Type: Strategic defense satellite. Spacecraft: Eagle. COSPAR: F940627A. Apogee: 38 km (23 mi). Summary: Destroyed on launch .

1995 June 22 - . 19:58 GMT - . Launch Site: Point Arguello WADZ. Launch Pad: 36.0 N x 123.0 W. Launch Platform: L-1011. LV Family: Pegasus. Launch Vehicle: Pegasus XL. LV Configuration: Pegasus XL F9. FAILURE: Second stage failure; destroyed by range safety.. Failed Stage: 2.
  • STEP 3 - . Payload: STEP M3. Mass: 267 kg (588 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Program: STEP. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft: STEP. Decay Date: 1995-06-22 . COSPAR: F950622A. Apogee: 144 km (89 mi). Summary: Space Test Experiment Platform..

1996 March 9 - . 01:53 GMT - . Launch Site: Point Arguello WADZ. Launch Pad: 36.0 N x 123.0 W. Launch Platform: L-1011. LV Family: Pegasus. Launch Vehicle: Pegasus XL. LV Configuration: Pegasus XL F10.
  • REX-II - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF STP. Class: Earth. Type: Ionosphere satellite. Spacecraft: REX. USAF Sat Cat: 23814 . COSPAR: 1996-014A. Apogee: 835 km (518 mi). Perigee: 799 km (496 mi). Inclination: 90.0000 deg. Period: 101.20 min. Summary: LEO .

1996 July 2 - . 07:48 GMT - . Launch Site: Point Arguello WADZ. Launch Pad: 36.0 N x 123.0 W. Launch Platform: L-1011. LV Family: Pegasus. Launch Vehicle: Pegasus XL. LV Configuration: Pegasus XL F12.
  • TOMS-EP - . Mass: 248 kg (546 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Class: Earth. Type: Atmosphere satellite. Spacecraft: TOMS-EP. USAF Sat Cat: 23940 . COSPAR: 1996-037A. Apogee: 746 km (463 mi). Perigee: 705 km (438 mi). Inclination: 98.3000 deg. Period: 99.30 min. Summary: LEO. Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer-Earth Probe; atmospheric ozone mapping..

1996 August 21 - . 09:47 GMT - . Launch Site: Point Arguello WADZ. Launch Pad: 36.0 N x 123.0 W. Launch Platform: L-1011. LV Family: Pegasus. Launch Vehicle: Pegasus XL. LV Configuration: Pegasus XL F13.
  • FAST - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Program: Small Explorer. Class: Earth. Type: Magnetosphere satellite. Spacecraft: FAST. USAF Sat Cat: 24285 . COSPAR: 1996-049A. Apogee: 4,163 km (2,586 mi). Perigee: 353 km (219 mi). Inclination: 83.0000 deg. Period: 132.70 min. Summary: Second Small Explorer mission..

1996 November 4 - . 17:08 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island DZ. Launch Pad: 37.0 N x 72.0 W. Launch Platform: L-1011. LV Family: Pegasus. Launch Vehicle: Pegasus XL. LV Configuration: Pegasus XL F14. FAILURE: The rocket functioned perfectly but the separation system failed to release the payload.. Failed Stage: P.
  • HETE - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Program: STEDI. Class: Astronomy. Type: X-ray astronomy satellite. Spacecraft: HETE. Decay Date: 2002-04-07 . USAF Sat Cat: 24645 . COSPAR: 1996-061A. Apogee: 555 km (344 mi). Perigee: 487 km (302 mi). Inclination: 38.0000 deg. Period: 95.00 min. The High Energy Transient Experiment (HETE) was an international mission led by The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). Its prime objective was to carry out the first multiwavelength study of gamma ray bursts (GRBs) with UV, X-ray, and gamma ray instruments. A unique feature of the mission was its capability to localise bursts with several arcsecond accuracy, in near real-time aboard the spacecraft. These positions were to be transmitted to the ground, and picked up by a global network of primary and secondary ground stations (SGS), enabling sensitive follow-up studies. However the satellite was never released from its payload fitting. Although signals were received, the solar panels could not deploy, and it went silent after a few days when its batteries ran down.
  • SAC-B - . Nation: Argentina. Agency: CONAE. Program: SAC. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft: SAC-B. Decay Date: 2002-04-07 . USAF Sat Cat: 24645 . COSPAR: 1996-061A. Apogee: 555 km (344 mi). Perigee: 487 km (302 mi). Inclination: 38.0000 deg. Period: 95.00 min.

1997 April 21 - . 11:59 GMT - . Launch Site: Gran Canaria DZ. Launch Pad: 27.0 N x 15.3 W. Launch Platform: L-1011. LV Family: Pegasus. Launch Vehicle: Pegasus XL. LV Configuration: Pegasus XL F15.
  • Minisat-01 - . Mass: 209 kg (460 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: INTA. Manufacturer: CASA. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft: Minisat. Decay Date: 2002-02-26 . USAF Sat Cat: 24779 . COSPAR: 1997-018A. Apogee: 580 km (360 mi). Perigee: 561 km (348 mi). Inclination: 151.0000 deg. Period: 96.00 min. Summary: Minisat-01 carried the EURD extreme ultraviolet spectrograph to study interstellar gas, the LEGRI gamma ray burst detector, and the CPLM microacceleration in liquids experiment..
  • Celestis - . Payload: CPAC. Nation: USA. Agency: OSC. Manufacturer: Germantown. Program: Celestis. Class: Burial . Type: Burial satellite. Spacecraft: CPAC. Decay Date: 2002-05-21 . USAF Sat Cat: 24780 . COSPAR: 1997-018B. Apogee: 581 km (361 mi). Perigee: 553 km (343 mi). Inclination: 151.0000 deg. Period: 96.00 min.

1997 August 1 - . 20:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Point Arguello WADZ. Launch Pad: 36.0 N x 123.0 W. Launch Platform: L-1011. LV Family: Pegasus. Launch Vehicle: Pegasus XL. LV Configuration: Pegasus XL F16.
  • Orbview-2 - . Payload: Seastar. Nation: USA. Agency: Orbimage. Manufacturer: Germantown. Program: Orbview. Class: Surveillance. Type: Civilian surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Orbview-2. USAF Sat Cat: 24883 . COSPAR: 1997-037A. Apogee: 708 km (439 mi). Perigee: 707 km (439 mi). Inclination: 98.2000 deg. Period: 98.90 min.

1997 August 29 - . 15:02 GMT - . Launch Site: Point Arguello WADZ. Launch Pad: 36.0 N x 123.0 W. Launch Platform: L-1011. LV Family: Pegasus. Launch Vehicle: Pegasus XL. LV Configuration: Pegasus XL 019/F17.
  • FORTE - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF STP. Manufacturer: Los Alamos. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft: FORTE. USAF Sat Cat: 24920 . COSPAR: 1997-047A. Apogee: 833 km (517 mi). Perigee: 799 km (496 mi). Inclination: 70.0000 deg. Period: 101.20 min. FORTE - 'Fast On-orbit Recording of Transient Events' - was a US Los Alamos National Laboratory satellite designed to study natural and artificial radio emissions from the ionosphere. This data was needed to develop technology for monitoring nuclear test ban treaties.

1997 October 22 - . 13:13 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island DZ. Launch Pad: 37.0 N x 72.0 W. Launch Platform: L-1011. LV Family: Pegasus. Launch Vehicle: Pegasus XL. LV Configuration: Pegasus XL F18.
  • STEP-4 - . Payload: STEP M4. Nation: USA. Agency: USAF STP. Program: STEP. Class: Military. Type: Strategic defense satellite. Spacecraft: Eagle. Decay Date: 2001-03-31 . USAF Sat Cat: 25013 . COSPAR: 1997-063A. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi). Perigee: 432 km (268 mi). Inclination: 45.0000 deg. Period: 93.80 min.

1998 February 26 - . 07:07 GMT - . Launch Site: Point Arguello WADZ. Launch Pad: 36.0 N x 123.0 W. Launch Platform: L-1011. LV Family: Pegasus. Launch Vehicle: Pegasus XL. LV Configuration: Pegasus XL F20.
  • SNOE - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Manufacturer: Colorado. Program: STEDI. Class: Earth. Type: Seismology satellite. Spacecraft: SNOE. Decay Date: 2003-12-13 . USAF Sat Cat: 25233 . COSPAR: 1998-012A. Apogee: 581 km (361 mi). Perigee: 529 km (328 mi). Inclination: 97.7000 deg. Period: 95.80 min. Summary: SNOE, the Student Nitric Oxide Explorer. Small satellite built by the University of Colorado to measure the Nitric Oxide density as a function of altitude. First satellite in the STEDI (Student Explorer Demonstration Initiative) program..
  • Teledesic 1 - . Payload: BATSAT. Nation: USA. Agency: Teledesic. Manufacturer: Germantown. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Teledesic. Decay Date: 2000-10-09 . USAF Sat Cat: 25234 . COSPAR: 1998-012B. Apogee: 577 km (358 mi). Perigee: 532 km (330 mi). Inclination: 97.7000 deg. Period: 95.70 min. Summary: Communications Technology Demonstrator..

1998 April 2 - . 02:42 GMT - . Launch Site: Point Arguello WADZ. Launch Pad: 36.0 N x 123.0 W. Launch Platform: L-1011. LV Family: Pegasus. Launch Vehicle: Pegasus XL. LV Configuration: Pegasus XL F21.
  • TRACE - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Program: Small Explorer. Class: Astronomy. Type: Solar astronomy satellite. Spacecraft: TRACE. USAF Sat Cat: 25280 . COSPAR: 1998-020A. Apogee: 652 km (405 mi). Perigee: 602 km (374 mi). Inclination: 97.8000 deg. Period: 97.10 min. NASA's third Small Explorer, the Transition Region and Coronal Explorer (TRACE), was successfully launched by an Orbital Pegasus XL. The L-1011 carrier aircraft took off from Vandenberg and dropped the Pegasus over the Pacific Ocean. TRACE, a project led by Lockheed's solar physics group, carried a 30-cm extreme ultraviolet imaging telescope which will study the Sun. The telescope mirrors were made by the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory. TRACE had an 8.5 arcmin field of view and 1 arcsecond resolution.

1998 December 6 - . 00:57 GMT - . Launch Site: Point Arguello WADZ. Launch Pad: 36.0 N x 123.0 W. Launch Platform: L-1011. LV Family: Pegasus. Launch Vehicle: Pegasus XL. LV Configuration: Pegasus XL F25.
  • SWAS - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Program: Small Explorer. Class: Astronomy. Type: X-ray astronomy satellite. Spacecraft: SWAS. USAF Sat Cat: 25560 . COSPAR: 1998-071A. Apogee: 611 km (379 mi). Perigee: 599 km (372 mi). Inclination: 69.9000 deg. Period: 96.80 min. On December 3 the Orbital Sciences L-1011 Stargazer took off from Vandenberg AFB Runway 30/12 carrying a Pegasus XL launch vehicle with the SWAS satellite aboard. It reached the drop box at 36.0N 123.0W over the Pacific, but due to a software-related problem the range ordered the launch scrubbed and the L-1011 returned to base. After a further delay due to weather, the L-1011 took off at 23:58 GMT on December 5 and SWAS reached orbit and separated from the third stage at 01:09 GMT. SWAS, the Sub-millimetre Wave Astronomy Satellite, had a 0.6m telescope with a 490 to 550 GHz sub-millimetre receiver and an acousto-optical spectrometer. SWAS was used to study the cooling of molecular cloud cores, the sites of star formation in our galaxy, by measuring lines from molecular oxygen and water.

1999 March 5 - . 02:56 GMT - . Launch Site: Point Arguello WADZ. Launch Pad: 36.0 N x 123.0 W. Launch Platform: L-1011. LV Family: Pegasus. Launch Vehicle: Pegasus XL. LV Configuration: Pegasus XL F26/M-22.
  • WIRE - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Class: Astronomy. Type: X-ray astronomy satellite. Spacecraft: WIRE. Decay Date: 2011-05-10 . USAF Sat Cat: 25646 . COSPAR: 1999-011A. Apogee: 582 km (361 mi). Perigee: 537 km (333 mi). Inclination: 97.5000 deg. NASA's long-delayed WIRE (Wide Field Infrared Explorer) astronomy satellite was the fifth Small Explorer (SMEX) mission managed by NASA-Goddard. The L-1011 Stargazer launch aircraft took off from Vandenberg's runway 30/12 at 01:55 GMT on March 2 for the first launch attempt. The planned 02:56 GMT launch was cancelled at T-46 seconds due to a problem with the tail fin release mechanism of the Pegasus XL launch vehicle. The second attempt was successful, with the Pegaus XL being dropped at 36 degrees N x 123 degrees W over the Pacific Ocean at 02:56 GMT. However the WIRE ran into serious trouble shortly after orbit injection. The cover of the solid hydrogen telescope ejected prematurely, and the cryogenic coolant evaporated and vented, spinning the satellite out of control. WIRE was going to make an infrared photometry survey, generating a large catalog of galaxies and quasars.

2000 June 7 - . 13:19 GMT - . Launch Site: Point Arguello WADZ. Launch Pad: 36.0 N x 123.0 W. Launch Platform: L-1011. LV Family: Pegasus. Launch Vehicle: Pegasus XL. LV Configuration: Pegasus XL F29.
  • TSX 5 - . Payload: P95-2. Mass: 247 kg (544 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: USAF STP. Manufacturer: McLean. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: STEP. USAF Sat Cat: 26374 . COSPAR: 2000-030A. Apogee: 1,695 km (1,053 mi). Perigee: 412 km (256 mi). Inclination: 68.9379 deg. Period: 106.19 min. Military Technology satellite. Launch delayed from May 20 and June 6. Fifth STEP (Space Test Experiments Program) satellite. The satellite's main section was the STRV-2 experiment module, sponsored by the Ballistic Missile Defense Organization and the UK Ministry of Defense. This was to take infrared images of UK military aircraft at perigee, and then downlink data via laser. STRV-2 also carried vibration isolation and debris impact sensors. A secondary payload was the S97-1 CEASE (Compact Environmental Anomaly Sensor). This was an AFRL prototype sensor package to provide warning of spacecraft charging and radiation events.

2002 February 5 - . 20:58 GMT - . Launch Site: Mayport DZ. Launch Pad: 29.0 N x 78.5 W. Launch Platform: L-1011. LV Family: Pegasus. Launch Vehicle: Pegasus XL. LV Configuration: Pegasus XL F31.
  • HESSI - . Payload: SA-200S. Mass: 449 kg (989 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Manufacturer: Gilbert. Class: Astronomy. Type: Solar astronomy satellite. Spacecraft: HESSI. USAF Sat Cat: 27370 . COSPAR: 2002-004A. Apogee: 599 km (372 mi). Perigee: 574 km (356 mi). Inclination: 38.0000 deg. Period: 96.40 min. HESSI, the sixth Small Explorer, carried a rotating modulation collimator transform telescope, imaging solar flares in the hard X-ray spectrum. The launch marked the return to flight of Pegasus after the Hyper-X failure. The launch was originally to have occurred on 28 March 2001. The L-1011 launch aircraft took off at 19:29 GMT from the Cape Canaveral Skid Strip RW30/12, and headed out to the drop area at 28.0 N 78.5 W over the Atlantic. Drop of the Pegasus in the Atlantic Drop Zone at 28.0 N 78.5 W was at 20:58 GMT, with ignition 5 seconds later. The Pegasus reached orbit at 21:07 GMT. On the first pass it was confirmed that the solar panels had opened.

    The satellite rotated at 15 rpm, imaging by reconstructing the Fourier components from the time modulation of the solar x-ray flux through a set of 9 grids each 9 cm in diameter. It was expected to make images with a resolution of 2 arcseconds at 40 keV energies and 36 arcseconds at 1 MeV energies. The launch delays meant that HESSI missed some of the best flares at solar max.


2003 January 25 - . 20:13 GMT - . Launch Site: Mayport DZ. Launch Pad: 29.0 N x 78.5 W. LV Family: Pegasus. Launch Vehicle: Pegasus XL. LV Configuration: Pegasus XL F32.
  • SORCE - . Payload: Solstice/SAVE. Mass: 268 kg (590 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Manufacturer: OSC. Class: Astronomy. Type: Solar astronomy satellite. Spacecraft: SORCE. USAF Sat Cat: 27651 . COSPAR: 2003-004A. Apogee: 657 km (408 mi). Perigee: 617 km (384 mi). Inclination: 39.9946 deg. Period: 97.31 min. Summary: Solar irradiance monitoring, climatology mission. Launch delayed from December 1 and 13, 2002..

2003 April 28 - . 12:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Mayport DZ. Launch Pad: 29.0 N x 78.5 W. LV Family: Pegasus. Launch Vehicle: Pegasus XL. LV Configuration: Pegasus XL F33.
  • Galex - . Mass: 280 kg (610 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Manufacturer: OSC. Class: Astronomy. Type: Ultraviolet astronomy satellite. Spacecraft: Galex. USAF Sat Cat: 27783 . COSPAR: 2003-017A. Apogee: 699 km (434 mi). Perigee: 694 km (431 mi). Inclination: 29.0000 deg. Period: 98.70 min. Summary: Much delayed launch (from January 19, May 19, July 16, 21 and 30, August 14 and October 17, 2002; January 27, March 25 and 30, April 15 and 26 2003)..

2003 June 26 - . 18:55 GMT - . Launch Site: Point Arguello WADZ. Launch Pad: 36.0 N x 123.0 W. LV Family: Pegasus. Launch Vehicle: Pegasus XL. LV Configuration: Pegasus XL F34.
  • Orbview 3 - . Mass: 304 kg (670 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: McLean. Program: Orbview. Class: Earth. Type: Earth resources satellite. Spacecraft: Orbview. Decay Date: 2011-03-13 . USAF Sat Cat: 27838 . COSPAR: 2003-030A. Apogee: 455 km (282 mi). Perigee: 452 km (280 mi). Inclination: 97.3000 deg. Period: 93.70 min. One-meter-resolution commercial imaging satellite. Orbview-3 used an Orbital Leostar bus and had a launch mass of 304 kg (including ca. 50 kg of hydrazine for orbit raising and the 66 kg science instrument). Launch had been delayed from September 2002, April 30, May 9 and 23

2003 August 13 - . 02:09 GMT - . Launch Site: Point Arguello WADZ. Launch Pad: 36.0 N x 123.0 W. LV Family: Pegasus. Launch Vehicle: Pegasus XL. LV Configuration: Pegasus XL F35.
  • Scisat 1 - . Mass: 260 kg (570 lb). Nation: Canada. Agency: CSA. Class: Earth. Type: Ionosphere satellite. Spacecraft: SCISAT. USAF Sat Cat: 27858 . COSPAR: 2003-036A. Apogee: 654 km (406 mi). Perigee: 642 km (398 mi). Inclination: 73.9000 deg. Period: 97.70 min. Canadian Space Agency spacecraft which carried the ACE-FTS spectrometer to study the chemistry of the upper troposphere and stratosphere and the MAESTRO instrument to study ozone and aerosol levels in the atmosphere. Originally to have launched June 25, 2002. Delayed five more times.

2006 March 22 - . 14:03 GMT - . Launch Site: Point Arguello WADZ. Launch Pad: 36.0 N x 123.0 W. LV Family: Pegasus. Launch Vehicle: Pegasus XL. LV Configuration: Pegasus XL F37.
  • ST5-A - . Mass: 22 kg (48 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft: ST5. USAF Sat Cat: 28980 . COSPAR: 2006-008A. Apogee: 4,539 km (2,820 mi). Perigee: 302 km (187 mi). Inclination: 105.6000 deg. Period: 136.90 min. Space Technology 5 was one of NASA's New Millenium Program projects. It consisted of three small spacecraft, each a half meter in each dimension, with a small extensible magnetometer boom. Study of the magnetosphere was however secondary to the Nanosat Constellation Trailblazer technology mission. This was to demonstrate fully functional nanosatellites, which included a cold gas microthruster and miniaturized telemetry/command and power systems. The Pegasus rocket was dropped from the L-1011 carrier aircraft over the Pacific at 123 deg W x 36 deg N.
  • ST5-B - . Mass: 22 kg (48 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft: ST5. USAF Sat Cat: 28981 . COSPAR: 2006-008B. Apogee: 4,540 km (2,820 mi). Perigee: 301 km (187 mi). Inclination: 105.6000 deg. Period: 136.90 min.
  • ST5-C - . Mass: 22 kg (48 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft: ST5. USAF Sat Cat: 28982 . COSPAR: 2006-008C. Apogee: 4,539 km (2,820 mi). Perigee: 303 km (188 mi). Inclination: 105.6000 deg. Period: 136.90 min.

2007 April 25 - . 20:26 GMT - . Launch Site: Point Arguello WADZ. Launch Pad: 36.0 N x 123.0 W. LV Family: Pegasus. Launch Vehicle: Pegasus XL. LV Configuration: Pegasus XL F38.
  • AIM - . Mass: 150 kg (330 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA; Hampton. Manufacturer: OSC; Ball. Spacecraft: RS-300. USAF Sat Cat: 31304 . COSPAR: 2007-015A. Apogee: 602 km (374 mi). Perigee: 584 km (362 mi). Inclination: 97.8000 deg. Period: 96.50 min. Summary: NASA Small Explorer mission, for Aeronomy of Ice in the Mesosphere. AIM carried three scientific instruments to study polar mesospheric clouds: a solar occultation camera, an ultraviolet imager, and a cosmic dust experiment..

2008 April 16 - . 17:02 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Platform: L1011. LV Family: Pegasus. Launch Vehicle: Pegasus XL. LV Configuration: Pegasus XL F39.
  • C/NOFS - . Mass: 395 kg (870 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: McLean. Class: Earth. Type: Seismology satellite. Spacecraft: C/NOFS. USAF Sat Cat: 32765 . COSPAR: 2008-017A. Apogee: 852 km (529 mi). Perigee: 405 km (251 mi). Inclination: 13.0000 deg. Period: 97.30 min. The C/NOFS (Communication/Navigation Outage Forecasting System) satellite flew the US Defence Department's Space Test Program P00-3 space weather forecasting mission. The L-1011 launch aircraft staged from Kwajalein atoll to a release point for the Pegasus booster somewhere over the Pacific at 10.5229 N 167.7562 E. The research satellite carring ionospheric instruments, including Aerospace Corporation's CORISS receiver which used GPS signals to determine electron densities in the ionosphere, and the Naval Research Laboratory's CERTO ionospheric radio beacon. The spacecraft was built by General Dynamics C4 Systems (former Spectrum Astro) and was managed by DoD-STP and the Air Force Research Lab. The objective was to provide data that would allow better forecasts of ionospheric scintillation which causes problems with communications and GPS signals. The satellite deployed six 10-meter booms after release from the final booster stage.

2008 October 19 - . 17:47 GMT - . Launch Site: Kwajalein DZ. Launch Pad: 7.7 N x 167.7 E. Launch Platform: L-1011. LV Family: Pegasus. Launch Vehicle: Pegasus XL.
  • IBEX - . Mass: 107 kg (235 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Manufacturer: OSC. Class: Astronomy. Type: X-ray astronomy satellite. Spacecraft: Microstar. USAF Sat Cat: 33401 . COSPAR: 2008-051A. Apogee: 299,827 km (186,303 mi). Perigee: 12,415 km (7,714 mi). Inclination: 14.0000 deg. Period: 10,865.20 min. Summary: Interstellar Boundary Explorer. Mission was to map, from its high earth orbit, the boundary of the heliosphere, the point at the limits of the solar system where the solar wind is overcome by the interstellar medium..

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