Encyclopedia Astronautica
Norma



norma234.jpg
NORMA Spaceplane
Credit: Mark Lindroos
Russian winged orbital launch vehicle. Semi-reusable vertically launched two-stage-to-orbit vehicle. The flight profile featured a reusable flyback booster launched from a modular launch platform, an expendable second stage with a reusable orbiter that would have landed vertically. Development cost estimated at $13 billion.

Status: Study 1997.

More... - Chronology...


Associated Countries
See also
  • Winged In the beginning, nobody (except Jules Verne) thought anybody would be travelling to space and back in ballistic cannon balls. The only proper way for a space voyager to return to earth was at the controls of a real winged airplane. More...

Home - Browse - Contact
© / Conditions for Use