Encyclopedia Astronautica
Mace



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Mace
Credit: via Andreas Parsch
American intermediate range cruise missile. Intermediate range cruise missile. Only Cape Canaveral launches are listed here, but over 30 launches were also conducted from Launch Area Able-51 by Det 1, 4504th CCTW at Holloman AFB, New Mexico from October 1959 throurgh 1963.

Mace was an improved version of the Matador cruise missile. The Matador's radio guidance was replaced by an innovative autonomous radar-mapping, terrain matching system. A redesigned airframe accommodated more fuel, increasing range to 1300 km (800 miles), while at the same time allowing the mobile missile to be transported fully assembled on its zero-length launch trailer. Flight testing began in 1956, and the first squadron became operational in 1959, replacing Matador missiles in Army service.

Development of the Mace B began in 1959. A new inertial guidance system was installed, which allowed the missile to cruise at high altitude, doubling the range. The drawback was that the missile had to be launched from previously-surveyed, semi-hardened, fixed shelters. First test launch was on 11 July 1960, with deployment from 1961. The Mace was withdrawn from service in 1966-1971, being replaced by the Pershing ballistic missile. Surplus Maces were used as target drones.

Failures: 1. Success Rate: 97.73%. First Fail Date: 1961-03-28. Last Fail Date: 1961-03-28. Launch data is: incomplete. Initial Operational Capability: 1959.

Historical Essay © Andreas Parsch

Martin TM-76-MGM-13-CGM-13 Mace

The Mace was a development of the TM-61 Matador missile, and as such was initially designated TM-61B Matador B. The main reasons for the new development were the Matador's radio-controlled guidance system, which was limited in range and easily jammable, and the fact that the Matador missile system was very cumbersome to move and set up for firing.

The Mace missile had redesigned airframe, with smaller wings and a longer fuselage. The larger internal volume increased range to about 1300 km (800 miles). Additionally, the missile was transported fully assembled (except booster) on its zero-length launch trailer.

The most important change, however, was the new guidance system, called ATRAN (Automatic Terrain Recognition And Navigation). The ATRAN system, developed by Goodyear, matched the radar return of the surface with pre-preprogrammed radar images, thereby enabling the missile to follow a predetermined course. ATRAN was essentially the first application of the modern TERCOM (Terrain Contour Matching) guidance principle. The system was fully autonomous and jamming-resistant. The disadvantage, however, was the necessity to obtain radar images of the potential target areas, which was not an easy task in the 1950's.

Flight testing of the YTM-61B began in 1956. Because the missile was significantly different from the original TM-61 Matador, the YTM-61B-TM-61B Matador B was redesignated as YTM-76-TM-76 Mace in early 1958. The production version was designated TM-76A. The first squadron of TM-76A became operational in 1959, and Mace soon replaced many existing Matador missiles.

The TM-76B Mace B, development of which started in 1959, had an AC Spark Plug "AChiever" inertial guidance system instead of ATRAN. This allowed the Mace B to fly at high-altitude, which almost doubled the missile's range. An inertial guidance system requires the exact coordinates of the launch location. In the 1950's-60's, this required an accurate survey of the launch site which ruled out mobile use of the TM-76B. It was therefore based in fixed, semi-hardended shelters. As a compensation, launch times could be very short. The first TM-76B launch occurred on 11 July 1960, and the first operational missiles were deployed in 1961.

Im 1963, the TM-76 Mace was redesignated in the M-13 series. Originally, the TM-76 development vehicles became MGM-13A, the TM-76A became MGM-13B, and the TM-76B became CGM-13C. The change of the TM-76A-B suffix letters to B-C caused some confusion, and because the developmental vehicles were no longer relevant anyway, the designations were changed again in 1964. The TM-76-MGM-13A was dropped, the TM-76A-MGM-13B became MGM-13A, and the TM-76B-CGM-13C became CGM-13B. The following table should clarify this:

1956-1958 1958-1963 1963-1964 post-1964
TM-61B TM-76 MGM-13A -
- TM-76A MGM-13B MGM-13A
- TM-76B CGM-13C CGM-13B

In 1965, Secretary of Defense Robert McNamary decided that the Army's MGM-31A Pershing missile should replace the USAF's Mace, mainly because of the Pershing's high-speed launch ability. By 1966, the MGM-13A had been withdrawn, and by 1971 the Mace was no longer in active service. The remaining missiles were used as full-size target drones. As such, the MGM-13A was redesignated MQM-13A, and the CGM-13B became MQM-13B. Specifications

Note: Data given by several sources show slight variations. Figures given below may therefore be inaccurate!

Data for TM-76A (MGM-13A), except where noted:

Length 13.6 m (44 ft 9 in)
Wingspan 7.0 m (22 ft 11 in)
Diameter 1.2 m (4 ft 6 in)
Weight 8500 kg (18750 lb)
Speed 1040 km-h (650 mph); Mach 0.9
Ceiling 12200 m (40000 ft)
Range 1300 km (800 miles); TM-76B: 2400 km (1500 miles)
Propulsion Cruise: Allison J33-A-41; 23 kN (5200 lb)
Booster: Thiokol solid-fuel rocket; 430 kN (97000 lb)
Warhead W-28 thermonuclear warhead (1.1 MT)
Main Sources

[1] James N. Gibson: "Nuclear Weapons of the United States", Schiffer Publishing Ltd, 1996
[2] Kenneth P.Werrell: "The Evolution of the Cruise Missile", Air University Press, 1985
[3] Bill Gunston: "The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Rockets and Missiles", Salamander Books Ltd, 1979


Status: Retired 1971.
Gross mass: 8,500 kg (18,700 lb).
Height: 14.30 m (46.90 ft).
Diameter: 1.40 m (4.50 ft).
Apogee: 12 km (7 mi).
First Launch: 1959.10.29.
Last Launch: 1963.07.17.
Number: 44 .

More... - Chronology...


Associated Countries
See also
  • Mace Intermediate range cruise missile family. More...
  • missile Guided self-propelled military weapon (as opposed to rocket, an unguided self-propelled weapon). More...

Associated Manufacturers and Agencies
  • Martin American manufacturer of rockets, spacecraft, and rocket engines. Martin Marietta Astronautics Group (1956), Denver, CO, USA. More...

Bibliography
  • McDowell, Jonathan, Jonathan's Space Home Page (launch records), Harvard University, 1997-present. Web Address when accessed: here.
  • Parsch, Andreas, DesignationSystems.Net, Web Address when accessed: here.
  • "Personal communication", Personal communication from family member or person directly involved with the article..

Associated Launch Sites
  • Cape Canaveral America's largest launch center, used for all manned launches. Today only six of the 40 launch complexes built here remain in use. Located at or near Cape Canaveral are the Kennedy Space Center on Merritt Island, used by NASA for Saturn V and Space Shuttle launches; Patrick AFB on Cape Canaveral itself, operated the US Department of Defense and handling most other launches; the commercial Spaceport Florida; the air-launched launch vehicle and missile Drop Zone off Mayport, Florida, located at 29.00 N 79.00 W, and an offshore submarine-launched ballistic missile launch area. All of these take advantage of the extensive down-range tracking facilities that once extended from the Cape, through the Caribbean, South Atlantic, and to South Africa and the Indian Ocean. More...
  • Cape Canaveral LC22 Mace launch complex. Cruise missile launch complex. Supported 20 Bull Goose and Goose missile launches 1957-1958. Rebuilt to support 44 Mace missile launches 1959-1963. More...
  • Cape Canaveral LC21/2 Mace launch complex. Launcher 2. In the mid-1950s, a launch area near the Cape Lighthouse was set aside for complexes 21 and 22 to support the Air Force's winged Bull Goose decoy missile project. Construction started in 1956, and the Air Force accepted both complexes on 26 February 1957. In all, the complexes supported five dummy and 15 live Bull Goose and Goose missile launches between 13 March 1957 and 6 December 1958. In 1959 and 1960, the sites were rebuilt to support a total of 44 Mace and Mace B winged cruise missile launches. The last Mace B was launched on 17 July 1963, and the complexes remained dormant pending reassignment to another program. Both complexes were finally deactivated in the early 1970s. More...
  • Cape Canaveral LC21/1 Mace launch complex. Launcher 1. In the mid-1950s, a launch area near the Cape Lighthouse was set aside for complexes 21 and 22 to support the Air Force's winged Bull Goose decoy missile project. Construction started in 1956, and the Air Force accepted both complexes on 26 February 1957. In all, the complexes supported five dummy and 15 live Bull Goose and Goose missile launches between 13 March 1957 and 6 December 1958. In 1959 and 1960, the sites were rebuilt to support a total of 44 Mace and Mace B winged cruise missile launches. The last Mace B was launched on 17 July 1963, and the complexes remained dormant pending reassignment to another program. Both complexes were finally deactivated in the early 1970s. More...

Associated Stages

Mace Chronology


1959 October 29 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC22. LV Family: Mace. Launch Vehicle: Mace. LV Configuration: Mace 56-2884.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 12 km (7 mi).

1959 December 4 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC22. LV Family: Mace. Launch Vehicle: Mace. LV Configuration: Mace 56-2893.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 12 km (7 mi).

1960 February 11 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC22. LV Family: Mace. Launch Vehicle: Mace. LV Configuration: Mace 57-2445.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 12 km (7 mi).

1960 March 31 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC22. LV Family: Mace. Launch Vehicle: Mace. LV Configuration: Mace 57-2452.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 12 km (7 mi).

1960 April 27 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC22. LV Family: Mace. Launch Vehicle: Mace. LV Configuration: Mace 58-1408.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 12 km (7 mi).

1960 June 3 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC22. LV Family: Mace. Launch Vehicle: Mace. LV Configuration: Mace 58-1391.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 12 km (7 mi).

1960 June 24 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC22. LV Family: Mace. Launch Vehicle: Mace. LV Configuration: Mace 56-2898.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 12 km (7 mi).

1960 July 11 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC21/1. Launch Pad: LC21/pad?. LV Family: Mace. Launch Vehicle: Mace. LV Configuration: Mace 58-1417 (20).
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 12 km (7 mi).

1960 September 21 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC21/1. Launch Pad: LC21/pad?. LV Family: Mace. Launch Vehicle: Mace. LV Configuration: Mace 58-1226 (21).
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 12 km (7 mi).

1960 October 7 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC21/1. Launch Pad: LC21/pad?. LV Family: Mace. Launch Vehicle: Mace. LV Configuration: Mace 58-1427 (22).
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 12 km (7 mi).

1960 October 21 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC21/1. Launch Pad: LC21/pad?. LV Family: Mace. Launch Vehicle: Mace. LV Configuration: Mace 59-4976 (23).
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 12 km (7 mi).

1960 November 15 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC21/1. Launch Pad: LC21/pad?. LV Family: Mace. Launch Vehicle: Mace. LV Configuration: Mace 59-4980 (27).
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 12 km (7 mi).

1960 December 16 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC21/1. Launch Pad: LC21/pad?. LV Family: Mace. Launch Vehicle: Mace. LV Configuration: Mace 56-2889 (8).
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 12 km (7 mi).

1961 March 7 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC21/1. Launch Pad: LC21/pad?. LV Family: Mace. Launch Vehicle: Mace. LV Configuration: Mace 59-4979 (26).
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 12 km (7 mi).

1961 March 16 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC21/1. Launch Pad: LC21/pad?. LV Family: Mace. Launch Vehicle: Mace. LV Configuration: Mace 59-4977 (24).
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 12 km (7 mi).

1961 March 28 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC21/1. Launch Pad: LC21/pad?. LV Family: Mace. Launch Vehicle: Mace. LV Configuration: Mace 59-4978 (25). FAILURE: Failure.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 0 km ( mi).

1961 April 28 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC21/1. Launch Pad: LC21/pad?. LV Family: Mace. Launch Vehicle: Mace. LV Configuration: Mace 59-4874 (46).
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 12 km (7 mi).

1961 June 2 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC21/1. Launch Pad: LC21/pad?. LV Family: Mace. Launch Vehicle: Mace. LV Configuration: Mace 59-4876 (48).
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 12 km (7 mi).

1961 June 16 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC21/1. Launch Pad: LC21/pad?. LV Family: Mace. Launch Vehicle: Mace. LV Configuration: Mace 59-4879 (51).
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 12 km (7 mi).

1961 June 21 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC21/1. Launch Pad: LC21/pad?. LV Family: Mace. Launch Vehicle: Mace. LV Configuration: Mace 59-4883 (55).
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 12 km (7 mi).

1961 July 18 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC21/1. Launch Pad: LC21/pad?. LV Family: Mace. Launch Vehicle: Mace. LV Configuration: Mace 60-5397.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 12 km (7 mi).

1961 August 4 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC21/1. Launch Pad: LC21/pad?. LV Family: Mace. Launch Vehicle: Mace. LV Configuration: Mace 60-5399.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 12 km (7 mi).

1961 September 1 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC21/1. Launch Pad: LC21/pad?. LV Family: Mace. Launch Vehicle: Mace. LV Configuration: Mace 60-5398.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 12 km (7 mi).

1961 September 22 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC21/1. Launch Pad: LC21/pad?. LV Family: Mace. Launch Vehicle: Mace. LV Configuration: Mace 60-5400.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 12 km (7 mi).

1961 November 14 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC21/1. Launch Pad: LC21/pad?. LV Family: Mace. Launch Vehicle: Mace. LV Configuration: Mace 60-5396.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 12 km (7 mi).

1961 December 5 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC21/1. Launch Pad: LC21/pad?. LV Family: Mace. Launch Vehicle: Mace. LV Configuration: Mace 59-4887.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 12 km (7 mi).

1962 January 12 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC21/1. Launch Pad: LC21/pad?. LV Family: Mace. Launch Vehicle: Mace. LV Configuration: Mace 60-5401.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 12 km (7 mi).

1962 January 12 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC21/1. Launch Pad: LC21/pad?. LV Family: Mace. Launch Vehicle: Mace. LV Configuration: Mace 60-5405.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 12 km (7 mi).

1962 January 24 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC21/1. Launch Pad: LC21/pad?. LV Family: Mace. Launch Vehicle: Mace. LV Configuration: Mace 59-4885.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 12 km (7 mi).

1962 January 26 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC21/1. Launch Pad: LC21/pad?. LV Family: Mace. Launch Vehicle: Mace. LV Configuration: Mace 59-2468.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 12 km (7 mi).

1962 February 1 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC21/1. Launch Pad: LC21/pad?. LV Family: Mace. Launch Vehicle: Mace. LV Configuration: Mace 60-5403.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 12 km (7 mi).

1962 February 8 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC21/1. Launch Pad: LC21/pad?. LV Family: Mace. Launch Vehicle: Mace. LV Configuration: Mace 60-5406.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 12 km (7 mi).

1962 February 15 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC21/1. Launch Pad: LC21/pad?. LV Family: Mace. Launch Vehicle: Mace. LV Configuration: Mace 59-4886.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 12 km (7 mi).

1962 February 21 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC21/1. Launch Pad: LC21/pad?. LV Family: Mace. Launch Vehicle: Mace. LV Configuration: Mace 59-4889.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 12 km (7 mi).

1962 March 1 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC21/1. Launch Pad: LC21/pad?. LV Family: Mace. Launch Vehicle: Mace. LV Configuration: Mace 58-1425.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 12 km (7 mi).

1962 March 2 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC21/1. Launch Pad: LC21/pad?. LV Family: Mace. Launch Vehicle: Mace. LV Configuration: Mace 59-4888.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 12 km (7 mi).

1962 October 31 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC21/1. LV Family: Mace. Launch Vehicle: Mace. LV Configuration: Mace 58-1443.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 12 km (7 mi).

1962 November 8 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC21/1. LV Family: Mace. Launch Vehicle: Mace. LV Configuration: Mace 59-4891.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 12 km (7 mi).

1962 December 4 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC21/2. LV Family: Mace. Launch Vehicle: Mace. LV Configuration: Mace 59-4892.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 12 km (7 mi).

1962 December 11 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC21/2. LV Family: Mace. Launch Vehicle: Mace. LV Configuration: Mace 59-4890.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 12 km (7 mi).

1963 June 5 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC21/1. LV Family: Mace. Launch Vehicle: Mace. LV Configuration: Mace 58-1423.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 12 km (7 mi).

1963 June 12 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC21/1. LV Family: Mace. Launch Vehicle: Mace. LV Configuration: Mace 58-1435.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 12 km (7 mi).

1963 June 28 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC21/2. LV Family: Mace. Launch Vehicle: Mace. LV Configuration: Mace 59-2484.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 12 km (7 mi).

1963 July 17 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC21/1. Launch Pad: LC21/pad?. LV Family: Mace. Launch Vehicle: Mace. LV Configuration: Mace 59-4981.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 12 km (7 mi).

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