Encyclopedia Astronautica

Credit: © Mark Wade
Russian surface-to-air missile. Ramjet-powered long-range surface-to-air missile, deployed by the Soviet Union and its allies.

Preliminary work on the concept used the artillery-launched KRI flying shell (a flying laboratory used to develop ramjets and surface-to-air missiles by Bondaryuk in the mid-1950's). This eventually evolved into the 2K11 Krug surface-to-air missile. Development into an operational system was authorised by decree 188-88 of 13 February 1958. NII-20 GKRE (later NIEMI, later Antey) was prime contractor, under the management of Chief Designer V P Efremov. The 1S12 observation and targeting system was developed by V V Raizberg at NII-208 GKRE (later NIIIP); the 1S32 guidance system by I M Drize at NII-20 GKRE; the 2P24 launcher and 3M8 surface-to-air missile by L V Lyulev at OKB-8 GKAT (later EMKB Novator named for L V Lyulev); the self-propelled launcher was developed by General Designer A I Autonomov at the Kharkov Machine Works named for V A Malyshev. OKB-8 GKAT occupied a single industrial area within the OAO M I Kalinin Machine Works.

The missile had a two-stage aerodynamic layout with the cruciform wings of each stage at 45 degrees to each other. The wings and stabilisers were lightweight and easily removable for transport of the missile. The rocket was accelerated to ramjet ignition speed by four solid booster rockets. There were two surface-to-air missiles per launcher. The launcher itself was in contact with the guidance station by a radio data link; the missiles talked back over the link, indicating their readiness for launch.

The missile took six years to develop, including development of the 3Ts4 Bondaryuk ramjet, which operated on kerosene. The chief difficulty was that the ramjet only operated well at low angles of attack. Any abrupt manoeuvre would cause a reduction in thrust or even flameout. Solving this was an enormous challenge. In early tests the missile would become uncontrollable as soon as the first guidance command was received. The electronics aboard the missile were also not adequately shock- and vibration- resistant at first. There were also problems with arrangement of the guidance antennae, which would become masked as the missile manoeuvred, also causing it to go out of control.

All of these problems were eventually overcome, and the Krug was accepted for PVO service in 1964.

Maximum target speed 2880 kph. 5 minutes from arrival at a new location to launch readiness; 5 minutes required to depart in 'shoot and scoot' mode. Two missiles per launcher.

Radars: P-40 Long Track target acquisition radar, E band, range 175 km. 1S32 Pat Hand target tracking radar, H band, range 130 km. Thin Skin height finding radar, H band, range 240 km.

Standard warhead: 150 kg (330 lb). Maximum range: 45 km (27 mi). Maximum speed: 3,060 kph (1,900 mph). Minimum range: 11 km (6 mi). Initial Operational Capability: 1965. Floor: 3,000 m (9,800 ft). Surveillance Radar: Long Track/E. Tracking Radar: Pat Hand/H.

AKA: SA-4; 2K11; Ganef; Krug; 9M8.
Location: Moscow.
Status: Active.
Gross mass: 2,450 kg (5,400 lb).
Payload: 150 kg (330 lb).
Height: 8.80 m (28.80 ft).
Diameter: 0.86 m (2.82 ft).
Span: 2.56 m (8.39 ft).
Apogee: 24 km (15 mi).

More... - Chronology...

Associated Countries
See also
  • Russian SAMs and ABMs Perhaps no missiles ever produced had as much historical influence as the surface-to-air missiles of the Soviet Union. Originally conceived to provide a defence against the American bomber fleets of the early Cold War, they decisively affected the turn of events when they shot down American U-2 reconnaissance aircraft over Russia and Cuba. Soviet-provided missiles accounted for a hundred American aircraft over North Vietnam and set the terms of the air battle. A new generation of missiles presented a huge technological surprise and took an awful toll of Israeli aircraft in the 1973 war. To this day, Russian surface-to-air missiles provide the only defence available to most countries against American bombers, and Russian man-portable anti-aircraft missiles are a major part of the terrorist threat. More...
  • missile Guided self-propelled military weapon (as opposed to rocket, an unguided self-propelled weapon). More...

Associated Manufacturers and Agencies
  • Efremov Russian manufacturer of rockets. Efremov Design Bureau, Russia. More...
  • Lyulev Russian manufacturer of rockets. Lyulev Design Bureau, Ekaterinburg, Russia. More...

  • Parsch, Andreas, DesignationSystems.Net, Web Address when accessed: here.
  • Yeftifyev, M D, Iz istorii sozdaniya zenito-raketnovo shchita rossii, Vuzovskaya kniga, Moscow, 2000. Web Address when accessed: here.

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