Encyclopedia Astronautica
Kosmos 3



kosmosa.gif
Kosmos 8K63 LV
Credit: © Mark Wade
Russian orbital launch vehicle. In 1961 Isayev and Reshetnev developed the Voskhod space launch system on the basis of the R-14 IRBM. The initial version of the two stage rocket was designated Kosmos-1. The first 'Voskhod' launch complex was at Baikonur, a modification of one of the pads at the R-16 ICBM launch complex 41.

Failures: 31. Success Rate: 96.57%. First Fail Date: 1961-10-23. Last Fail Date: 2000-11-20. Launch data is: continuing.

Status: Active.
First Launch: 1959.09.30.
Last Launch: 2008.07.22.
Number: 902 .

More... - Chronology...


Associated Countries
Associated Spacecraft
  • Oscar International series of amateur radio communications satellites. Operational, first launch 1961.12.12. Launched in a variety of configurations and by many nations. More...
  • Strela-1 Russian military store-dump communications satellite. 29 launches, 1964.08.18 (Cosmos 38) to 1965.09.18 (Cosmos 90). More...
  • Strela-2 Russian military store-dump communications satellite. 5 launches, 1965.12.28 (Cosmos 103) to 1968.08.27 (Cosmos 236). More...
  • Tsiklon Russian navigation satellite. 31 launches, 1967.05.15 (Cosmos 158) to 1978.07.27 (Cosmos 1027). More...
  • Tselina-O Ukrainian military naval signals reconnaisance satellite. 42 launches, 1967.06.26 (Tselina-O GVM) to 1982.03.31 (Cosmos 1345). From 1965 to 1967 two dedicated ELINT systems were tested by the Soviet Union: Tselina and US. Both were routinely operated. More...
  • Sfera Russian earth geodetic satellite. 18 launches, 1968.02.20 (Cosmos 203) to 1978.12.26 (Cosmos 1067). The Sfera geodetic system covered a broad development for solving problems in geodetics, continental drift, and precise location of cartographic points. More...
  • DS-U3-IK Ukrainian earth magnetosphere satellite. 6 launches, 1969.10.14 (Intercosmos 1) to 1976.07.26 (Intercosmos 16). Measurements of the sun; used for Interkosmos launches. More...
  • Ionosfernaya Russian earth ionosphere satellite. 2 launches, 1969.12.27 (Ionosfernaya?) and 1970.12.02 (Cosmos 381). Ionospheric studies. Used the basic KAUR-1 bus, consisting of a 2. More...
  • Strela-1M Russian military store-dump communications satellite. 371 launches, 1970.04.25 (Cosmos 336) to 2005.10.27 (Mozhaets 5). More...
  • Strela-2M Russian military store-dump communications satellite. 52 launches, 1970.06.27 (Strela-2) to 1994.12.20 (Cosmos 2298). More...
  • DS-U2-IK Ukrainian earth ionosphere satellite. 7 launches, 1970.08.07 (Intercosmos 3) to 1975.12.11 (Intercosmos 14). Studied charged particle flows and the ionosphere; version used for Intercosmos international launches. More...
  • DS-U2-IP Ukrainian earth ionosphere satellite. One launch, 1970.11.17, Cosmos 378. Studied the ionosphere and charged particle flows. More...
  • DS-P1-M Ukrainian military anti-satellite system target satellite. 15 launches, 1970.12.22 (DS-P1-M s/n 1) to 1982.06.06 (Cosmos 1375). Target for IS ASAT systems tests. More...
  • DS-U2-K Ukrainian earth magnetosphere satellite. One launch, 1971.06.05, Cosmos 426. Studied charged particle flows and cosmic radiation. More...
  • DS-U2-MT Ukrainian gamma ray astronomy satellite. One launch, 1971.12.02, Cosmos 461. Measured micrometeoroid impacts and gamma rays. More...
  • DS-U2-GKA Soviet-French earth magnetosphere satellite. 2 launches, 1971.12.27 (Oreol) to 1973.12.26 (Oreol 2). Upper atmosphere, auroral studies. Investigation of physical phenomena in the Earth's upper atmosphere at high latitudes and study of the nature of auroras. More...
  • Taifun-1 Ukrainian military target satellite. 25 launches, 1974.06.18 (Cosmos 660) to 1994.09.27 (Cosmos 2292). From 1969 KB Yuzhnoye built the Lira targets for exercise and test of PVO air defense and space tracking systems. More...
  • Parus Russian navigation satellite. Operational, first launch 1974.12.26. Military satellite which provided navigation information and store-dump radio communications to Soviet naval forces and ballistic missile submarines. More...
  • Aryabhata Indian earth atmosphere satellite. One launch, 1975.04.19. The Soviet Union assisted India in development of Aryabhata, its first satellite, named for the Indian astronomer. The satellite conducted scientific experiments on atmospheric research. More...
  • Taifun-2 Ukrainian military target satellite. 31 launches, 1976.04.28 (Cosmos 816) to 1995.03.02 (Cosmos 2306). In 1969 KB Yuzhnoye introduced targets for exercise and test of PVO air defense and space tracking systems. More...
  • AUOS Ukrainian technology satellite. 14 launches, 1976.06.19 (Intercosmos 15) to 2009.01.30 (Koronas-F). Standardized bus for low earth orbit scientific studies and testing of new systems and components of satellite under space flight conditions. More...
  • Tsikada Russian navigation satellite. 20 launches, 1976.12.15 (Cosmos 883) to 1995.07.05 (Cosmos 2315). Tsikada was a complementary civilian version of the Parus military naval navigation satellite system for the Soviet Merchant Marine and Academy of Sciences. More...
  • GVM DS-U2-IK Ukrainian earth ionosphere satellite. One launch, 1977.02.15, Cosmos 893. Designation indicates a mass model of the DS-U2-IK (which studied charged particle flows and the ionosphere). However flown after the functional spacecraft's flights were completed. More...
  • Signe French technology satellite. One launch, 1977.06.17. More...
  • Magion Czech earth magnetosphere satellite. 5 launches, 1978.10.24 (Magion 1) to 1996.08.29 (Magion 5). The Czechoslovak satellite MAGION researched the magnetosphere and ionosphere of the earth. More...
  • Radio Russian amateur radio communications satellite. 9 launches, 1978.10.26 (Radio Sputnik 1) to 1994.12.26 (Radio-ROSTO RS-15). More...
  • Bhaskara Indian earth land resources satellite. 2 launches, 1979.06.07 (Bhaskara 1) and 1981.11.20 (Bhaskara 2). Experimental satellite for conducting earth resources survey over India. More...
  • Taifun-1Yu Ukrainian military target satellite. 13 launches, 1979.12.05 (Cosmos 1146) to 1996.04.24 (Cosmos 2332). The Taifun-1Yu, a modification of the basic design with smooth calibration surfaces, was to be in service by 1980. More...
  • MicroSat-70 British technology satellite. 14 launches, 1981.10.06 (Oscar 9) to 2002.11.28 (Picosat). Basic Surrey Microsat bus. More...
  • BOR-4 Russian manned spaceplane. 4 launches, 1982.06.04 (Cosmos 1374) to 1984.12.19 (Cosmos 1614). BOR-4 were subscale test versions of the Spiral manned spaceplanes. More...
  • Nadezhda Ukrainian navigation satellite. 10 launches, 1982.06.29 (Cosmos 1383) to 2002.09.26 (Nadezhda-M). More...
  • BOR-5 Russian spaceplane. 2 launches, 1983.07.04 (BOR-5 Flight 1) and 1984.06.06 (BOR-5 Flight 6). The aerodynamic characteristics of Buran at hypersonic speeds were validated by the BOR-5 1:8 sub-scale model of Buran. More...
  • Strela-3 Russian military store-dump communications satellite. Operational, first launch 1985.01.15. Said to have initially been developed for the GRU. More...
  • Informator Russian communications satellite. One launch, 1991.01.29, Oscar 21. Informator was the spacecraft component of the planned Koskon medium earth-orbit communications satellite system. More...
  • Orbcomm American communications technology satellite. 31 launches, 1991.07.17 (Orbcomm-X) to 2008.06.19 (Orbcomm FM36). Orbcomm was a commercial venture to provide global messaging services using a constellation of 26 low-Earth orbiting satellites. More...
  • Gonets-D1 Russian civilian store-dump communications satellite. 15 launches, 1992.07.13 (Cosmos 2199) to 2005.12.21 (Gonets D1M 1). Commercial version of GRU Strela-3 military store-dump satellite. More...
  • FAISAT American military communications satellite. 2 launches, 1995.01.24 (FAISAT) and 1997.09.23 (FAISAT-2V). Store/forward communications. More...
  • Astrid Swedish earth magnetosphere satellite. One launch, 1995.01.24. Sweden's third scientific satellite and first microsatellite, ASTRID carries an Energetic Neutral Atom analyzer, an Electron Spectrometer and two UV imagers for imaging the Earth's aurora. More...
  • MicroSat-100 British microsatellite bus. 9 launches, 1995.07.07 (CERISE) to 2009.07.29. Enlarged version of the basic Surrey Microsat bus. More...
  • Early Bird American civilian surveillance satellite. 2 launches, 1997.12.24 (Early Bird) and 2000.11.20 (QuickBird 1). Civilian earth resources / intelligence photo-imaging program. More...
  • Astrid-2 Swedish earth magnetosphere satellite. One launch, 1998.12.10. Swedish Space Corporation's second microsatellite (based on Astrid-1) was slated to perform high resolution E-field and B-filed measurements in the Earth's auroral regions. More...
  • Predvestnik Russian civilian surveillance satellite. Study 1998. The Predvestnik satellites were planned to form a space-based earthquake prediction system. More...
  • Megsat Italian communications technology satellite. 2 launches, 1999.04.28 (Megsat-0) and 2000.09.26 (MegSat-1). The first private Italian satellites, Megsats were microsatellites designed to transmit scientific and commercial data. More...
  • ABRIXAS German x-ray astronomy satellite. One launch, 1999.04.28. X-ray astronomy satellite with the mission to carry out an all-sky survey in the 1-10 keV band with 30 arcsecond resolution. More...
  • SNAP British technology satellite. One launch, 2000.06.28. Basic Surrey Nanosat bus. More...
  • MITA Italian technology satellite. One launch, 2000.07.15. MITA was an Italian Space Agency experimental microsatellite built by Carlo Gavazzi Space of Milano and carried the NINA particle detector and an experimental attitude control system. More...
  • CHAMP German earth magnetosphere satellite. One launch, 2000.07.15. CHAMP was a geophysics research satellite operated by GFZ, Potsdam, to study the earth's magnetic and gravitational field. More...
  • Rubin German technology microsatellite. 8 launches, the first on 2000.07.15 (Rubin). Rubin was developed by OHB and students of the Hochschule Bremen. More...
  • Cubesat American low-cost nanosatellite bus. Used in dozens of launches, the first on 2003.06.30. More...
  • Larets Russian . One launch, 2003.09.27. No information publicly released. TASS claimed this was a radar calibration satellite. More...
  • STSat South Korean technology satellite. First launch 2003.09.27. More...
  • Universitetskiy Russian technology satellite. One launch, 2005.01.20. Student satellite for radiation studies, ejected from Cosmos 2414. More...
  • Mesbah-2 Iranian civilian store-dump communications satellite. One launch, 2005.10.27, Sinah-1. Prototype of a store-forward communications system satellite for survivable communications. To be launched by a foreign launch vehicle, originally slated for 2005. More...
  • SSETI Express European civilian surveillance satellite. One launch, 2005.10.27. Student-built technology satellite sponsored by the ESA. It ejected three 1-kg Cubesats after separating from the booster, but then itself lost power less than 14 hours later. More...
  • SAR-Lupe German military surveillance radar satellite. 5 launches, 2006.12.19 (SAR-Lupe 1) to 2008.07.22 (SAR-Lupe 5). Germany's first satellite-based radar reconnaissance system. It consisted of five identical small satellites and a ground segment. More...

See also
  • Kosmos 3 In 1961 Isayev and Reshetnev developed the Voskhod space launch system on the basis of the R-14 IRBM. The initial version of the two stage rocket was designated Kosmos-1. The first 'Voskhod' launch complex was at Baikonur, a modification of one of the pads at the R-16 ICBM launch complex 41. More...

Associated Manufacturers and Agencies
  • Polyot Russian manufacturer of rockets. AKO Polyot, Omsk, Omsk, Russia. More...

Bibliography
  • McDowell, Jonathan, Jonathan's Space Home Page (launch records), Harvard University, 1997-present. Web Address when accessed: here.
  • JPL Mission and Spacecraft Library, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 1997. Web Address when accessed: here.
  • Isakowitz, Steven J,, International Reference to Space Launch Systems Second Edition, AIAA, Washington DC, 1991 (succeeded by 2000 edition).
  • Zak, Anatoly, "Cosmos Launcher", Spaceflight, 1996, Volume 38, page 416.
  • Matthews, Henry, The Secret Story of the Soviet Space Shuttle, X-Planes Book 1, Beirut, Lebanon, 1994.
  • Semenov, Yu. P., S P Korolev Space Corporation Energia, RKK Energia, 1994.
  • Agapov, V, "K zapusku pervovo ISZ serii 'DS'", Novosti Kosmonavtiki, 1997, Issue 6.
  • "Rossiya. V polyote 'Kosmos-2345'", Novosti Kosmonavtiki, 1997, Issue 17, page 31.
  • "AUOSi prodolzhayut rabotu", Novosti Kosmonavtiki, 1995, Issue 21, page 43.
  • Zheleznyakov, Aleksandr, "Istrebitel Sputnikov", Istoriya Rossiyskoi Sovetskoi Kosmonavtiki, Aleksandr Krasnikov Web Page, 1998. Web Address when accessed: here.
  • NASA GSFC Orbital Parameters,
  • McDowell, Jonathan, Launch Log, October 1998. Web Address when accessed: here.
  • National Space Science Center Planetary Page, As of 19 February 1999.. Web Address when accessed: here.
  • Melnik, T G, Voenno-Kosmicheskiy Siliy, Nauka, Moscow, 1997..
  • Siddiqi, Asif A, The Soviet Space Race With Apollo, University Press of Florida, 2003.
  • Pervov, Mikhail, Raketnoye Oruzhiye RVSN, Violanta, Moscow, 1999..
  • Karpenko, A V, Utkin, A F and Popov,A D, Otechestvenniye strategischeskiye raketnoye kompleks, Sankt-Peterburg: Nevskii bastion; Gangut 1999..
  • NASA/GSFC Orbital Information Group Website, Web Address when accessed: here.
  • Space-Launcher.com, Orbital Report News Agency. Web Address when accessed: here.
  • "Personal communication", Personal communication from family member or person directly involved with the article..

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