Encyclopedia Astronautica
HVAR


whvar.jpg
American air-to-air rocket. High-Velocity Air Rocket. An unguided fighter weapon, it was later adapted for use by NACA in the early 1950's to boost subscale aerodynamic models to supersonic speed.

HVAR began with service frustration with original 5-inch FFAR. Development of a larger rocket motor, still using the same 5 inch diameter, resulted in a rocket with a velocity 1530 km-h (950 mph) while delivering a warhead of the same size. First tests began in December 1943. Dubbed Holy Moses, the rocket became operational in July 1944 and was used by both the US Army Air Force and Navy. The GP round was fitted with tail and nose fuses, the armor-piercing round with a nose fuse. After the war versions with shaped-charge anti-tank warheads and proximity fuses were developed. More than one million HVARs were built by the time production ended in 1955.

Failures: 2. Success Rate: 95.24%. First Fail Date: 1950-10-02. Last Fail Date: 1951-03-01. Launch data is: incomplete. Standard warhead: 2.40 kg (5.20 lb). Maximum range: 1.50 km (0.90 mi). Boost Propulsion: Solid rocket. Maximum speed: 1,610 kph (1,000 mph).

Historical Essay on the Military Version - © Andreas Parsch

The 5-inch FFAR suffered from insufficient speed because of its small motor. Therefore the development of a larger rocket motor with 5-inch diameter was begun, and the first test firings occurred in December 1943. When fitted with the warhead of the 5-inch FFAR, the rocket achieved a velocity of 1530 km-h (950 mph), making it a very powerful weapon for its time. It was officially designated as 5-Inch HVAR (High-Velocity Aircraft Rocket), but often called Holy Moses. It became operational in July 1944, and was used by Army Air Force and Navy aircraft.

During World War II, two versions of Holy Moses were built, one general-purpose with base and nose fuzes, and one with a semi-armour-piercing warhead and a nose fuze only. Postwar developments added a shaped-charge anti-tank warhead, and a new general purpose type with a proximity fuze. More than one million Holy Moses HVARs were built until production ended in 1955.

AKA: Holy Moses.
Status: Retired 1957.
Gross mass: 63 kg (138 lb).
Payload: 2.40 kg (5.20 lb).
Height: 1.83 m (6.00 ft).
Diameter: 0.12 m (0.39 ft).
Thrust: 25.00 kN (5,620 lbf).
Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).
First Launch: 1945.10.13.
Last Launch: 1957.02.15.
Number: 32 .

More... - Chronology...


Associated Countries
See also
  • HVAR High-Velocity Air Rocket. An unguided fighter weapon, it was later adapted for use by NACA in the early 1950's to boost subscale aerodynamic models to supersonic speed. More...

Associated Manufacturers and Agencies
  • NASA American agency overseeing development of rockets and spacecraft. National Aeronautics and Space Administration, USA, USA. More...

Bibliography
  • McDowell, Jonathan, Jonathan's Space Home Page (launch records), Harvard University, 1997-present. Web Address when accessed: here.

Associated Launch Sites
  • Wallops Island Small NASA launch site for sounding rocket launches and occasional Scout launches to orbit. Air launches are conducted from the Drop Zone Wallops Island, 37.00 N 72.0 W. With the last orbital launch in 1985 and the decline in sounding rocket launches, Wallops fell into near-disuse as a launch center. Its fortunes revised with the establishment of Mid-Atlantic Regional Spaceport in 2005 and orbital launches resumed in 2010. More...
  • White Sands White Sands Missile Range occupies an area 160 x 65 km in the Tularosa Basin of southern New Mexico, across the Sacramento Mountain range from Roswell. In the 1930's, Robert Goddard, after surveying weather conditions and population densities, had selected Roswell for his pioneering rocket tests. White Sands, a true desert area, was even more unpopulated than Roswell. German advances in rocketry during World War II impelled the US Army to begin programs to exploit this technology. The White Sands Proving Ground was established for testing German and American long-range rockets on 9 July 1945. Seven days later the first atomic bomb was exploded at Trinity Site, near the north boundary of the range. The first launch of a Tiny Tim rocket was on 26 September 1945. On 11 October a Tiny Tim boosted a WAC Corporal rocket from the tower. This was the first use of Launch Complex 33, later to be used for V-2, Nike, Viking, Corporal, Lance and Multiple Launch Rocket System testing. More...

Associated Stages
  • HVAR-1 Solid rocket stage. 25.00 kN (5,620 lbf) thrust. Mass 40 kg (88 lb). More...

HVAR Chronology


1945 October 13 - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: HVAR. Launch Vehicle: HVAR.
  • R-3 - . Nation: USA. Agency: JPL. Apogee: 5.00 km (3.10 mi).

1945 October 13 - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: HVAR. Launch Vehicle: HVAR.
  • R-4 - . Nation: USA. Agency: JPL. Apogee: 5.00 km (3.10 mi).

1945 October 13 - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: HVAR. Launch Vehicle: HVAR.
  • R-2 - . Nation: USA. Agency: JPL. Apogee: 5.00 km (3.10 mi).

1945 October 13 - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: HVAR. Launch Vehicle: HVAR.
  • R-1 - . Nation: USA. Agency: JPL. Apogee: 5.00 km (3.10 mi).

1945 October 14 - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: HVAR. Launch Vehicle: HVAR.
  • R-5 - . Nation: USA. Agency: JPL. Apogee: 5.00 km (3.10 mi).

1945 October 14 - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: HVAR. Launch Vehicle: HVAR.
  • R-6 - . Nation: USA. Agency: JPL. Apogee: 5.00 km (3.10 mi).

1947 May 1 - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: HVAR. Launch Vehicle: HVAR.
  • FR-2 model test flight - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 5.00 km (3.10 mi).

1948 October 1 - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: HVAR. Launch Vehicle: HVAR.
  • E14 Model test flight - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 5.00 km (3.10 mi).

1949 January 11 - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: HVAR. Launch Vehicle: HVAR.
  • D13 model test flight - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 5.00 km (3.10 mi).

1950 May 18 - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: HVAR. Launch Vehicle: HVAR.
  • E2 Model test flight - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 5.00 km (3.10 mi).

1950 August 24 - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: HVAR. Launch Vehicle: HVAR.
  • D28 model test flight - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 5.00 km (3.10 mi).

1950 September 15 - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: HVAR. Launch Vehicle: HVAR.
  • D27 Model test flight - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 5.00 km (3.10 mi).

1950 October 2 - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: HVAR. Launch Vehicle: HVAR. FAILURE: Failure.
  • D35 Model test flight - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 5.00 km (3.10 mi).

1950 December 1 - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: HVAR. Launch Vehicle: HVAR.
  • Rascal Model test flight - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 5.00 km (3.10 mi).

1950 December 19 - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: HVAR. Launch Vehicle: HVAR.
  • D35 Model test flight - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 5.00 km (3.10 mi).

1951 July 9 - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: HVAR. Launch Vehicle: HVAR.
  • D27 Model test flight - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 5.00 km (3.10 mi).

1951 July 27 - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: HVAR. Launch Vehicle: HVAR.
  • Hermes A3A model test flight - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 5.00 km (3.10 mi).

1951 August 22 - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: HVAR. Launch Vehicle: HVAR.
  • D32 Model test flight - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 5.00 km (3.10 mi).

1951 September 12 - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: HVAR. Launch Vehicle: HVAR.
  • E2 Model test flight - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 5.00 km (3.10 mi).

1952 May 16 - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: HVAR. Launch Vehicle: HVAR.
  • D18 model test flight - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 5.00 km (3.10 mi).

1952 June 3 - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: HVAR. Launch Vehicle: HVAR.
  • F12 model test flight - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 5.00 km (3.10 mi).

1952 September 5 - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: HVAR. Launch Vehicle: HVAR.
  • Rascal Model test flight - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 5.00 km (3.10 mi).

1952 November 24 - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: HVAR. Launch Vehicle: HVAR.
  • D32 Model test flight - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 5.00 km (3.10 mi).

1953 - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: HVAR. Launch Vehicle: HVAR.
  • D32 Model test flight - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 5.00 km (3.10 mi).

1953 October 7 - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: HVAR. Launch Vehicle: HVAR.
  • D18 F8U-1 Model test flight - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

1953 November 3 - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: HVAR. Launch Vehicle: HVAR.
  • D37 model test flight - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 5.00 km (3.10 mi).

1954? - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: HVAR. Launch Vehicle: HVAR.
  • E14 Model test flight - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 5.00 km (3.10 mi).

1954 January 21 - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: HVAR. Launch Vehicle: HVAR.
  • Turbojet study test - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 5.00 km (3.10 mi).

1954 March 2 - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: HVAR. Launch Vehicle: HVAR.
  • D18 F8U-1 Model test flight - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

1954 September 29 - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Vehicle: HVAR.
  • - . Nation: USA. Apogee: 5.00 km (3.10 mi).

1954 September 29 - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Vehicle: HVAR.
  • - . Nation: USA. Apogee: 5.00 km (3.10 mi).

1957 February 15 - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: HVAR. Launch Vehicle: HVAR.
  • D27 Model test flight - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 5.00 km (3.10 mi).

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