Encyclopedia Astronautica
EKR



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EKR ramjet 2 view
Credit: © Mark Wade
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EKR ramjet 160 pixel
Credit: © Mark Wade
Russian intermediate range cruise missile. B Chertok of NII-8 took the preliminary German R-13 cruise missile design and elaborated it, including consideration of the key problem of long-range automatic astronavigation. By 1951 to 1953 Korolev's design bureau had prepared an experimental design, the EKR. I Lisovich had developed a prototype astronavigation system that met the necessary specifications, and solution of basic problems in use of steel and titanium hot airframe technology had been solved at VIAM (All-Union Institute of Aviation Materials) and MVTU Bauman Institute. An expert commission in 1953 examined the EKR design and felt that there were still many technical problems to be solved, most of which were better handled by an aircraft designer rather than Korolev.

Further, Korolev had to place the highest priority on development of the R-7 ICBM. Therefore a final government decree on 20 May 1954 authorised the Lavochkin and Myasishchev aircraft design bureaux to proceed in parallel with full-scale development of trisonic intercontinental cruise missiles. The Eksperimentalniy krilatiy raket (experimental winged rocket) as designed by Korolev would have been a Mach 3 ramjet, accelerated to supersonic cruise speed by an R-11 booster. Smaller than the operational vehicle proposed by the Germans, it would have a range of 730 km with flight time of 927 seconds, a lift to drag ratio of 2.51, and a wing area 3.31 square meters.

to a: 730 km. Standard warhead: 200 kg (440 lb). Maximum range: 730 km (450 mi).

Stage Data - EKR

  • Stage 1. 1 x EKR Stage 1. Gross Mass: 6,390 kg (14,080 lb). Empty Mass: 1,564 kg (3,448 lb). Thrust (vac): 107.333 kN (24,129 lbf). Isp: 250 sec. Burn time: 127 sec. Isp(sl): 217 sec. Diameter: 0.88 m (2.88 ft). Span: 3.06 m (10.05 ft). Length: 8.29 m (27.19 ft). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene. No Engines: 1. Engine: S2.253 derivative. Status: Study 1953. Comments: First stage for Eksperimentalnaya krilataya raketa (experimental winged rocket), Mach 3 ramjet. Boosted second stage to ramjet ignition conditions.
  • Stage 2. 1 x EKR Stage 2. Gross Mass: 1,484 kg (3,271 lb). Empty Mass: 1,167 kg (2,572 lb). Thrust (vac): 6.129 kN (1,378 lbf). Isp: 1,580 sec. Burn time: 800 sec. Isp(sl): 0.0000 sec. Diameter: 0.65 m (2.13 ft). Span: 2.02 m (6.62 ft). Length: 9.43 m (30.95 ft). Propellants: Air/Kerosene. No Engines: 1. Engine: EKR Ramjet. Status: Study 1953. Comments: Second stage for Eksperimentalnaya krilataya raketa (experimental winged rocket), Mach 3 ramjet. Range 730 km with flight time of 927 seconds. Lift to drag 2.51, wing area 3.31 square meters. Not developed but formed basis for Burya and Buran missiles.

Status: Study 1953.
Gross mass: 7,874 kg (17,359 lb).
Payload: 200 kg (440 lb).
Height: 21.00 m (68.00 ft).
Diameter: 0.88 m (2.88 ft).
Thrust: 93.00 kN (20,907 lbf).

More... - Chronology...


Associated Countries
Associated Engines
  • EKR Ramjet Bondaryuk ramjet engine. 6.130 kN. EKR Stage 2. Study 1953. Isp=1580s. Study for an experimental winged cruise missile. Not developed but formed basis for Burya and Buran missiles. More...
  • S2.253 derivative Isayev Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 93.2 kN. EKR (experimental winged missile). Study 1953. Derivative of S2.253 was proposed for use in EKR Stage 1 (project for an experimental winged missile). Isp=250s. More...

See also
  • Soviet Strategic Cruise Missiles As in America, in the 1946 assessments of German military technology, the technical problems of the intercontinental ballistic missile seemed far less than a high-speed cruise missile for the same mission. The Soviet Union developed several such missiles, counterparts to the American Navaho. As in America, it turned out that the ICBM was ready before the cruise missiles were - the navigation and propulsion issues of Mach 3 intercontinental flight were much more difficult than those for Mach 22 ballistic flight. As in America, the projects were cancelled, although they contributed greatly to the national technological base. More...
  • missile Guided self-propelled military weapon (as opposed to rocket, an unguided self-propelled weapon). More...

Associated Manufacturers and Agencies
  • Korolev Russian manufacturer of rockets, spacecraft, and rocket engines. Korolev Design Bureau, Kaliningrad, Russia. More...

Bibliography
  • Semenov, Yu. P., S P Korolev Space Corporation Energia, RKK Energia, 1994.
  • Vetrov, G S, S. P. Korolev i evo delo, Nauka, Moscow, 1998.

Associated Stages
  • EKR Stage 1 Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 6,390/1,564 kg. Thrust 107.33 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 250 seconds. First stage for Eksperimentalnaya krilataya raketa (experimental winged rocket), Mach 3 ramjet. Boosted second stage to ramjet ignition conditions. More...
  • EKR Stage 2 Ramjet test vehicle stage. Loaded/empty mass 1,484/1,167 kg. Thrust 6.13 kN. Specific impulse 1580 seconds. Second stage for Eksperimentalnaya krilataya raketa (experimental winged rocket), Mach 3 ramjet. Range 730 km with flight time of 927 seconds. Lift to drag 2.51, wing area 3.31 square meters. Not developed but formed basis for Burya and Buran missiles. More...

EKR Chronology


1949 October - . Launch Vehicle: Buran; Burya; EKR; G-3.
  • Albring G-3 cruise missile - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Groettrup; Ustinov; Albring; Saenger. Program: Navaho. German aerodynamicist Albring designed the G-3 missile for the Russians. This would use a rocket-powered Groettrup-designed G-1 as the first stage. The cruise stage would have an aerodynamic layout like that of the Saenger-Bredt rocket-powered antipodal bomber of World War II. Cruising at 13 km altitude, the supersonic missile would carry a 3000 kg warhead to a range of 2900 km. This was an alternate approach to Ustinov's 3000 kg over 3000 km range missile requirement of April 1949. This design would be elaborated at Korolev's bureau into the EKR ramjet design of 1953.

1953 January - . Launch Vehicle: Buran; Burya; EKR.
  • Expert commission examined the EKR design - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Korolev; Lavochkin; Myasishchev. Program: Navaho. Spacecraft: M-42. In 1951 to 1953 Korolev's design bureau had prepared an experimental trisonic ramjet design, the EKR.The expert commission ifelt that there were still many technical problems to be solved, most of which were better handled by an aircraft designer rather than Korolev. Further, Korolev had to place the highest priority on development of the R-7 ICBM. Therefore a final government decree on 20 May 1954 authorised the Lavochkin and Myasishchev aircraft design bureaux to proceed in parallel with full-scale development of trisonic intercontinental cruise missiles.

1953 February 13 - . LV Family: Kosmos 2; R-11; R-5; R-7. Launch Vehicle: EKR.
  • Authorisation for development of Soviet intermediate and intercontinental range missiles. - . Nation: USSR. Council of Soviet Ministers (SM) Decree 'On approval of work on themes T1 and T2, on approval of work on the R-5, R-11, and EKR missiles, and on transferring draft project work for the R-12 from NII-88 to SKB-586' was issued. The decree set forth three phases of state trials tests for the R-5 missile.

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