Encyclopedia Astronautica
Cora



coraserr.jpg
Cora
Credit: via Jean-Jacques Serra
European orbital launch vehicle. Cora was an experimental rocket to test the second and third stages of the Europa launch vehicle.

Launchings of the test vehicle were carried out under the auspices of ELDO (European Launcher Development Organization). The Cora 1 version used only the French Coralie stage, while the Cora 2 version added the German Astris stage. The Italian Europa nose fairing was also tested. For these tests the Coralie exist nozzle was shortened to allow sea-level operation and four fins were added for stability.

In the event, only the Cora 1 version was tested, and this failed on two out of three attempts. It was unfortunate that the test series could not be completely carried out, since later tests of the all-up Europa booster had a string of failures due to upper-stage problems, dooming the entire programme.

Failures: 2. First Fail Date: 1966-11-27. Last Fail Date: 1967-10-25.

Gross mass: 16,500 kg (36,300 lb).
Height: 11.50 m (37.70 ft).
Diameter: 2.01 m (6.59 ft).
Thrust: 220.00 kN (49,450 lbf).
Apogee: 55 km (34 mi).
First Launch: 1966.11.27.
Last Launch: 1967.10.25.
Number: 3 .

More... - Chronology...


Associated Countries
See also
  • Europa Europe's first space launcher. The first stage was a British Blue Streak IRBM, the second stage the French Coralie, and the third stage the German Astris. All orbital launch attempts failed due to unreliability of the third stage. The project was cancelled after withdrawal of British support and replaced by the Ariane. More...

Associated Manufacturers and Agencies
  • ELDO European agency overseeing development of rockets and spacecraft. European Launcher Development Organisation, Europe. More...

Associated Launch Sites
  • Hammaguira The constellation of launch complexes and nuclear weapons test sites established by France in Algeria began with the Special Weapons Test Center (CIEES). This began operations at Colomb-Bechar, Algeria, on April 24, 1947. Development of the larger Veronique series required a new facility. This went into operation at Hammaguir, 120 km southwest of Colomb-Bechar, in May 1952. The evacuation of these launch sites was a condition of the final agreement signed in March 1962 that ended the Algerian Civil War. The sites continued in use until finally turned over to the Algerian government on 1 July 1967. French missile test activities moved to Biscarosse, in France, and orbital launches to Kourou, in French Guiana. Hammaguira was known to have been used for at least 271 launches from 1952 to 1967. More...
  • Biscarosse In April 1962 France signed the final agreements with Algeria, requiring them to evacuate their rocket test ranged there by July 1967. Three months later a site on French soil on the Bay of Biscay, at Landes, near Biscarosse, was selected. The site would allow the testing of missiles over the Atlantic out to a range of 3000 km. This would put the RV impact area near the Azores, and a tracking station was opened in October 1966 on Flores island. More...

Associated Stages
  • Astris N2O4/Aerozine-50 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 3,370/610 kg. Thrust 23.33 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 310 seconds. More...
  • Europa-2 N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 11,894/2,099 kg. Thrust 274.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 277 seconds. More...

Cora Chronology


1966 November 27 - . Launch Site: Hammaguira. Launch Complex: Hammaguira Beatrice. LV Family: Europa. Launch Vehicle: Cora. LV Configuration: Cora G1. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Test mission - . Nation: France. Agency: CNES. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

1966 December 18 - . 09:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Hammaguira. Launch Complex: Hammaguira Beatrice. LV Family: Europa. Launch Vehicle: Cora. LV Configuration: Cora G2.
  • - . Nation: France. Agency: CNES. Apogee: 55 km (34 mi). Summary: Only completely successful test..

1967 October 25 - . Launch Site: Biscarosse. LV Family: Europa. Launch Vehicle: Cora. LV Configuration: Cora G3. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Test mission - . Nation: France. Agency: CNES. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

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