Russian air-launched orbital launch vehicle. Air launched from catamaran heavy-life aircraft, predecessor of later Gerakl / Molniya-1000 design. 900 tonnes takeoff mass. Release conditions: Suspended load, Mach 0.7 at 8 to 9 km altitude. Effective velocity gain compared to vertical launch 270 m/s.
LEO Payload: 9,000 kg (19,800 lb) to a 200 km orbit at 51.00 degrees.
Status: Study 1981.
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Gross mass: 200,000 kg (440,000 lb).
Payload: 9,000 kg (19,800 lb).
Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).
Associated Manufacturers and Agencies
Molniya Russian manufacturer of rockets and spacecraft. Molniya Design Bureau, Russia. More...
Lozino-Lozinskiy, G E, editor, Aviationno-kosmicheskiye sistemy, MAI, Moscow, 1997.
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