Encyclopedia Astronautica
Baranov SAM


Russian surface-to-air missile. First Soviet anti-aircraft barrage rocket, fired in limited numbers during siege of Leningrad, and downing two German aircraft.

In the fall of 1941, tests were antiaircraft rockets were conducted a the 4th Command of the 69th Battalion of the 14th Air Army by Junior Lieutenant N I Baranov. He completed eight SAM rocket launchers for the RS-82 and RS-132 rockets (these were 'Katyusha' 82 mm and 132 mm diameter surface-to-surface unguided missiles). These were mounted on a ZIS-5 automobile chassis and could be elevated to an 85 degree analogue. Two or more rockets could be launched at a time. Baranov developed special ballistics tables showing at at 100 m intervals the firing time needed to achieve a given altitude. The barrage rockets were deployed near the city of Tikhvin and a Lake Ladoga. They managed to shoot down a Ju-88 bomber and Me-109 fighter.

Initial Operational Capability: 1941.

Status: Retired 1945.

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Associated Countries
See also
  • Russian SAMs and ABMs Perhaps no missiles ever produced had as much historical influence as the surface-to-air missiles of the Soviet Union. Originally conceived to provide a defence against the American bomber fleets of the early Cold War, they decisively affected the turn of events when they shot down American U-2 reconnaissance aircraft over Russia and Cuba. Soviet-provided missiles accounted for a hundred American aircraft over North Vietnam and set the terms of the air battle. A new generation of missiles presented a huge technological surprise and took an awful toll of Israeli aircraft in the 1973 war. To this day, Russian surface-to-air missiles provide the only defence available to most countries against American bombers, and Russian man-portable anti-aircraft missiles are a major part of the terrorist threat. More...
  • missile Guided self-propelled military weapon (as opposed to rocket, an unguided self-propelled weapon). More...

Bibliography
  • Yeftifyev, M D, Iz istorii sozdaniya zenito-raketnovo shchita rossii, Vuzovskaya kniga, Moscow, 2000. Web Address when accessed: here.

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