Encyclopedia Astronautica
Ariane 5



aria5her.jpg
Ariane 5
Original design of Ariane 5 with Hermes manned spaceplane and first production Ariane 5G.
Credit: © Mark Wade
French orbital launch vehicle. The Ariane 5 was a completely new design, unrelated to the earlier Ariane 1 to 4. It consisted of a single-engine Lox/LH2 core stage flanked by two solid rocket boosters. Preparatory work began in 1984. Full scale development began in 1988 and cost $ 8 billion. The design was sized for the Hermes manned spaceplane, later cancelled. This resulted in the booster being a bit too large for the main commercial payload, geosynchronous communications satellites. As a result, development of an uprated version capable of launching two such satellites at a time was funded in 2000.

Failures: 2. Success Rate: 95.24%. First Fail Date: 1996-06-04. Last Fail Date: 2002-12-11. Launch data is: continuing.

Status: Active.
First Launch: 1996.06.04.
Last Launch: 2008.12.20.
Number: 36 .

More... - Chronology...


Associated Countries
Associated Spacecraft
  • Oscar International series of amateur radio communications satellites. Operational, first launch 1961.12.12. Launched in a variety of configurations and by many nations. More...
  • HS 376 American communications satellite. 56 launches, 1980.11.15 (SBS 1) to 2003.09.27 (E-Bird). Mass 654 kg at beginning-of-life in geosynchronous orbit. Spin stabilized at 50 rpm by 4 hydrazine thrusters with 136 kg propellant. More...
  • ATV ICC European space tug. Study 1985. The Integrated Cargo Carrier was located at the forward end of the ATV. It represented 60% of the total ATV volume and carried all of the cargo for resupplying the Station. More...
  • ATV SM European space tug. Study 1985. The unpressurized ATV Service Module included propulsion systems, electrical power (including solar arrays), computers, communications and most of the avionics. More...
  • ESA Polar Platform European manned space station. Study 1986. Britain initially expressed strong interest in developing an unmanned Polar Platform for Earth observation as part of the European Columbus package. In 1986 the platform was scheduled for a 1995 launch. More...
  • Eurostar 2000 French communications satellite. 24 launches, 1988.03.11 (Telecom 1C) to 2006.11.08 (Badr 4 ARABSAT 4B). More...
  • FS-1300 American communications satellite bus. Operational, first launch 1989.06.05. More...
  • Italsat Italian communications satellite. 6 launches, 1991.01.15 (Italsat 1) to 2009-04-20. More...
  • ESA MTFF-Derived Space Station European manned space station. Study 1987. Back in the heady days of 1987, Europe was making plans to build an autonomous space station derived from the Columbus Man-Tended Free-Flying (MTFF) platform as the next logical step after Space Station Freedom. More...
  • ESA ACRV European manned spacecraft. Study 1992. As Hermes gradually faded into oblivion, the European Space Agency started to take a closer a look at cheaper and less complicated manned space capsules. More...
  • Hermes French manned spaceplane. Cancelled 1992. The Hermes spaceplane would have provided independent European manned access to space. Hermes was designed to take three astronauts to orbits of up to 800 km altitude on missions of 30 to 90 days in space. More...
  • STRV British technology satellite. 4 launches, 1994.06.17 (STRV-1B) to 2000.11.16 (STRV-1d). More...
  • Cluster European earth magnetosphere satellite. 4 launches, 1996.06.04 (Cluster F4) to (Cluster F4). The Cluster satellites were a series of sophisticated earth-observation platforms that were to be launched aboard the first Ariane 5. More...
  • AS 2100 American communications satellite. Operational, first launch 1996.09.08 (GE 1). Cost per satellite $100 million for the spacecraft including ground support equipment, but not including launch costs. 3-axis stabilized. More...
  • YES European tether technology satellite. 2 launches, 1997.10.30 (YES) and 2007.09.14 (YES). Young Engineers Satellite sponsored by the European Space Tech. More...
  • MAQSAT European technology satellite. 4 launches, 1997.10.30 (MAQSAT-H/TEAMSAT) to 2005.02.12 (Maqsat 3). MAQSATs were mass model and technology satellites built by Kayser-Threde, Munich, and lofted during the test flights of the Ariane 5. More...
  • Star bus American communications satellite bus. Operational, first launch 1997.11.12 (Cakrawarta 1). The Orbital Star bus was designed for reliable and robust performance in a variety of LEO and GEO missions. More...
  • ARD French re-entry vehicle technology satellite. One launch, 1998.10.21. The ARD was an 80 percent scale model of the Apollo Command Module, and a technology test for a possible International Space Station Crew Rescue Vehicle. More...
  • XMM European x-ray astronomy satellite. One launch, 1999.12.10. ESA's X-ray Multi-Mirror space observatory was the biggest science satellite ever built in Europe. The spacecraft's X-ray optics covered a spectral range of 1-120 nanometers (12keV-0.1keV). More...
  • HS 702 American communications satellite bus. Operational, first launched 1999.12.22. More...
  • Insat 3 Indian communications satellite bus. Operational, first launch 2000.03.21. The multipurpose satellite design provided telecommunications, television broadcasting, meteorological and search and rescue services. More...
  • LDREX Japanese communications technology satellite. 2 launches, 2000.12.20 (LDREX) and 2006.10.13 (LDREX). Japan's NASDA space agency sponsored the LDREX experimental antenna. More...
  • Artemis European communications technology satellite. One launch, 2001.07.12. Artemis was a European Space Agency satellite to test new communications technologies. More...
  • Envisat European earth resources radar satellite. One launch, 2002.03.01. The European Space Agency's Envisat polar platform was originally envisaged as an automated polar orbiting segment of the Space Station. More...
  • MSG European earth weather satellite. 2 launches, 2002.08.28 (MSG 1) and 2005.12.21 (MSG 2). MSG (Meteosat Second Generation 1) was a European (EUMETSAT consortium) geostationary weather satellite. More...
  • Rosetta European comet probe. One launch, 2004.03.02. European comet orbiter/landing mission. More...
  • Myriade Micro-satellite product line developed jointly by EADS Astrium and the French Space Agency CNES beginning in 1998. Operational, first launch 2004.12.18. More...
  • Helios 2 French military surveillance satellite. One launch, 2004.12.18. French military surveillance satellite series which began service in 2004. More...
  • Nanosat 01 Spanish technology satellite. One launch, 2004.12.18. Experimental nanosat built by the Spanish space agency (INTA). More...
  • Spacebus 4000 European communications satellite bus. Operational, first launch 2005.02.03. The Spacebus 4000 represented a new larger platform to meet customer demand. More...
  • SLOSHSAT Dutch technology satellite. One launch, 2005.02.12. Test satellite to study the sloshing of fluids in zero gravity, developed by the Netherlands Aerospace Laboratory. Equipped with a tank with 33.5 liters of water and an attitude control system. More...
  • Eurostar 3000 French communications satellite bus. Operational, first launch 2005.03.11 (Inmarsat 4-F1). Third generation of Matra Marconi Space GEO satellite platforms serving mainly commercial telecommunications applications. More...
  • ATV European logistics spacecraft and space tug. The Automated Transfer Vehicle was first proposed in the mid-1980s as a way to transport unmanned cargo to a Space Station. Operational in that role, first launch 2008.03.09. Studies for a manned version with a re-entry capsule conducted, but no funding for development. More...
  • CTV CM European manned spacecraft module. Study 2018. Re-entry vehicle portion of the proposed European CTV manned spacecraft. More...
  • CTV European manned spacecraft. Study 2018. Proposed European manned spacecraft to shuttle crews to the International Space Station from 2018. More...
  • Mini Space Station European manned space station. Study 2020. Potential European independent space station consisting of two docked ATV's with additional life support systems. More...
  • Safe Haven European manned space station. Study 2020. The ATV could evolve towards an unmanned free-flying laboratory providing a better microgravity level than the ISS. More...

Associated Engines
  • L7 MBB N2O4/MMH rocket engine. 27.4 kN. In Production. Isp=320s. Used on Ariane 5 launch vehicle. First flight 1996. More...
  • P230 SNPE solid rocket engine. 6472.3 kN. In production. Isp=286s. Used on Ariane 5 launch vehicle. First flight 1996. More...
  • Vulcain SEP, Ottobrunn lox/lh2 rocket engine. 1075 kN. In production. Isp=431s. Powered the cryogenic core stage of Ariane 5. First flight 1996. More...

See also
  • Ariane 5 The Ariane 5 was a completely new design, unrelated to the earlier Ariane 1 to 4. It consisted of a single-engine Lox/LH2 core stage flanked by two solid rocket boosters. Preparatory work began in 1984. Full scale development began in 1988 and cost $ 8 billion. The design was sized for the Hermes manned spaceplane, later cancelled. This resulted in the booster being a bit too large for the main commercial payload, geosynchronous communications satellites. As a result, development of an uprated version capable of launching two such satellites at a time was funded in 2000. More...

Associated Manufacturers and Agencies
  • EADS French manufacturer of rockets. EADS, France. More...

Bibliography
  • McDowell, Jonathan, Jonathan's Space Home Page (launch records), Harvard University, 1997-present. Web Address when accessed: here.
  • McDowell, Jonathan, Jonathan's Space Report (Internet Newsletter), Harvard University, Weekly, 1989 to Present. Web Address when accessed: here.
  • Isakowitz, Steven J,, International Reference to Space Launch Systems Second Edition, AIAA, Washington DC, 1991 (succeeded by 2000 edition).
  • Wilson, Andrew, editor,, Jane's/Interavia Space Directory, Jane's Information Group, Coulsdon, Surrey, 1992 et al.
  • National Space Science Center Planetary Page, As of 19 February 1999.. Web Address when accessed: here.
  • NASA/GSFC Orbital Information Group Website, Web Address when accessed: here.
  • Space-Launcher.com, Orbital Report News Agency. Web Address when accessed: here.

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