Encyclopedia Astronautica
Voskhod 4



vosk2air.jpg
Voskhod 2 Airlock
Voskhod 2 Airlock and space suit
Credit: © Mark Wade
Crew: Beregovoi, Katys. Planned second long-duration 20 day Voskhod flight. Cancelled in spring 1966 after near-disaster with Voskhod 2 and death of Korolev. Backup crew: Demin, Shatalov.

Planned second long-duration 20 day Voskhod flight. Cancelled in spring 1966 after near-disaster with Voskhod 2 and death of Korolev. A follow-on Voskhod 3V s/n 7 mission was also planned that would have conducted an artificial gravity experiment, unreeling a tether between the Voskhod spacecraft and the Block I final rocket stage.

First Launch: 1967 Autumn.

More... - Chronology...


Associated People
  • Beregovoi Beregovoi, Georgi Timofeyevich (1921-1995) Ukrainian pilot cosmonaut. Flew on Soyuz 3. More...
  • Demin Demin, Lev Stepanovich (1926-1998) Russian engineer cosmonaut. Flew on Soyuz 15. More...
  • Katys Katys, Georgiy Petrovich (1926-) Russian engineer cosmonaut, 1964-1972. More...
  • Shatalov Shatalov, Vladimir Aleksandrovich (1927-) Russian pilot cosmonaut. Flew on Soyuz 4, Soyuz 8, Soyuz 10. Made first Soviet space docking. More...

See also
Associated Programs
  • Voskhod The Voskhods were adaptations of the single place Vostok spacecraft meant to conduct flights with up to three crew and for space walks in advance of US Gemini program. Work on the 3KV and 3KD versions of the basic Vostok spacecraft began with the decree issued on 13 April 1964. In order to accommodate more than one crew, the seats were mounted perpendicular to the Vostok ejection seat position, so the crew had to crane their necks to read instruments, still mounted in their original orientation. The Elburs soft landing system replaced the ejection seat and allowed the crew to stay in the capsule. It consisted of probes that dangled from the parachute lines. Contact with the earth triggered a solid rocket engine in the parachute which resulted in a zero velocity landing. More...

Voskhod 4 Chronology


1964 May 12 - . LV Family: N1. Launch Vehicle: N1 1962.
  • Korolev's plans - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Korolev. Program: Voskhod; Lunar L1. Flight: Voskhod 1; Voskhod 2; Voskhod 3; Voskhod 4; Voskhod 5; Voskhod 6; Soyuz A-1; Soyuz A-2; Soyuz A-3; Soyuz A-4. Spacecraft: Voskhod; Soyuz A; Soyuz B; Soyuz V. While Kamanin is away arranging screening of Voskhod candidates, Korolev meets with the VVS General Staff. He tells them he wants to have four Voskhods completed by the anniversary of the October Resolution for the first spacewalk. He dreams of a manned lunar flyby by either docking Soyuz A-B-V modules in orbit, or in a single N1 launch (no metal has even yet been cut for the N1 at Kuibyshev). In order to further develop EVA techniques he wants to convert a further five Vostoks into the Voskhod configuration. Meanwhile Kamanin agrees to a compression of the medical screening schedule from 20-25 days to 15-17 days. The physicians will reduce it no further than this.

1964 October 28 - .
  • Voskhod plans - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Komarov; Yegorov; Feoktistov. Program: Voskhod. Flight: Voskhod 1; Voskhod 2; Voskhod 3; Voskhod 4; Voskhod 5; Voskhod 6. Spacecraft: Voskhod; Berkut. The Voskhod 1 crew have completed their post-flight debriefings and final report. Plans for 1965 are laid out. The Vykhod spacewalk flight will be made in the first quarter of 1965. Of the five Voskhod spacecraft, that are to be completed in the first quarter of 1965, the following program is laid out: two will be devoted to flights of a single cosmonaut, without a spacesuit, on endurance missions of 12 to 15 days. Two will be used for scientific research missions. One will be used to repeat the spacewalk of the Vykhod mission.

1965 March 5 - .
  • Voskhod plans - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Korolev; Khrunov; Tereshkova; Volynov; Beregovoi; Rudenko. Program: Voskhod. Flight: Voskhod 2; Voskhod 3; Voskhod 4; Voskhod 5; Voskhod 6. Spacecraft: Voskhod. Only on this day does Kamanin receive a copy of Korolev's "Preliminary Plan for Voskhod spacecraft (3KV and 3KD) series in 1965", issued in February. His plan is:
    • 3KV Number 5 - to be completed in June, launched by August, an unmanned biological flight with life forms, to be kept in orbit for 15-30 days, with experimental equipment in the cabin to monitor the organisms and a self-destruct system
    • 3KV Number 6 - to be completed in August, and flown by October on a 15-day mission with a two-man crew: a flight commander and scientist
    • 3KV number 7 - to be completed in December, and flown by April 1966 on a 15-20 day mission with a pilot and physician aboard. The spacecraft would also conduct artificial gravity experiments for 3-4 days of the flight
    • 3KD numbers 8 and 9 - a prime spacecraft and a backup, fitted with the airlock system. A spacecraft commander and pilot would make a flight or flights of 3 to 5 days. 2 or 3 spacewalks would be conducted on each flight, with the EVA cosmonaut using a manoeuvring apparatus to back away as far as 50 to 100 m from the spacecraft. Manually controlled landing of the capsule would also be demonstrated
    Kamanin is disappointed that there are few experiments of military significance in Korolev's plan. Kamanin calls Korolev to complain, and Korolev rightly replies that if the Ministry of Defence would authorise him to build more than nine spacecraft, then he could conduct other experiments... Meanwhile, Leonov is conducting his final practice sessions on exiting and re-entering the airlock aboard the Tu-104 zero-G aircraft. Khrunov will have his final sessions the next day.

    Kamanin is preparing the final press packet, with the cosmonaut biographies, which will be delivered to TASS but only released by them after confirmation that the spacecraft is in orbit. Later Kamanin and forty other guests, including hero-cosmonauts and future hero-cosmonauts, throw a party for Tereshkova's 28th birthday. There is tension in the room as the cosmonauts eye each other as competitors for the flights after Voskhod-2. Volynov is the leading candidate to command the next flight, and has already been a back-up four times, but Marshal Rudenko keeps blocking his selection for flight (Volynov is a Jew). Rudenko is pushing Beregovoi for the next flight, and everyone in the room knows it...


1965 April 2 - .
  • VVS role in space - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Belyayev; Leonov; Korolev; Brezhnev; Volynov; Katys; Beregovoi; Demin; Shatalov; Artyukhin; Rudenko; Tereshkova; Solovyova; Ponomaryova. Program: Voskhod; Lunar L1. Flight: Voskhod 3; Voskhod 4; Voskhod 5. Spacecraft: Soyuz A. Kamanin visits Korolev and tells him that in an upcoming meeting between the cosmonauts and Brezhnev and Kosygin, they are going to push for the VVS to be given a leading role in the exploration of space, including the necessity to improve the cosmonaut training centre with 8 to 10 simulators for Voskhod and Soyuz spacecraft, and development within the VVS of competence in space technology. Korolev is not opposed to this, but says he doubts the VVS leadership will support acquiring the new mission. Kamanin then indicates to Korolev his proposed crews for the upcoming Voskhod missions: Volynov-Katys, Beregovoi-Demin, Shatalov-Artyukhin. Kamanin hopes that Korolev will support Volynov as the prime candidate against Marshall Rudenko's favouring of Beregovoi. Kamanin then raises the delicate issue of Korolev's unfavourable opinion of Tereshkova. After her flight, Korolev angrily said: "I never want to have anything to do with these women again". Kamanin does not believe his remarks were meant seriously, and broaches the subject of training Soloyova and Ponomaryova for a female version of Leonov's spacewalk flight. Korolev says he will seriously consider the suggestion.

1965 April 13 - .
  • Voskhod crews - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Rudenko; Volynov; Katys; Beregovoi; Demin; Shatalov; Artyukhin; Solovyova; Ponomaryova; Khrunov; Gorbatko; Zaikin; Korolev; Keldysh; Vershinin. Program: Voskhod. Flight: Voskhod 3; Voskhod 4; Voskhod 5; Voskhod 6. Kamanin meets with Marshall Rudenko to present his cosmonaut crew plans. For the experimental gravity flight he proposes Volynov-Katys (prime crew), Beregovoi-Demin, and Shatalov-Artyukhin (back-up crew). Rudenko wants Beregovoi's as the first crew, but Kamanin, sensing the Marshall is unsure in his position, pushes for Volynov. He then presents his plan for the next Voskhod EVA mission: Solovyova and Ponomaryova as the female prime crew, Khrunov and Gorbatko, and Zaikin as the male back-up crew. Kamanin says he already has Korolev, Keldysh, and Vershinin behind this plan. But Rudenko says he will decide this later - he has to take his daughter to the hospital.

1965 April 17 - .
  • Voskhod plans - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Volynov; Katys; Beregovoi; Demin; Ponomaryova; Solovyova. Program: Voskhod. Flight: Voskhod 3; Voskhod 4; Voskhod 5. Despite opposition, Kamanin goes ahead with his plans. The 10-day duration artificial gravity flight is planned for October 1965, with Volynov and Katys as the crew. In the first half of 1966 Beregovoi and Demin will fly the long-duration mission, and Ponomaryova and Solovyova will fly an all-female spacewalk mission. However the Americans have announced they will fly a Gemini mission for a 7 to 8 day duration by the end of the year; the Soviets may have to adjust this plan to ensure that they retain the lead in manned spaceflight. Kamanin has told the female cosmonauts of their planned flight, but also warned them there is serious opposition in some quarters.

1965 June 26 - .
  • Poor progress on space trainers - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Dementiev; Titov; Smirnov. Program: Voskhod; Lunar L1. Flight: Soyuz 1; Soyuz 2A; Voskhod 3; Voskhod 4; Voskhod 5; Voskhod 6. Spacecraft: Soyuz A; Spiral OS; TMK-E; TMK-1; LK-1. Titov and Kamanin visit LII to review the status of simulator construction. The engineers haven't had any time to even consider trainers for winged spacecraft. The Soyuz trainer will only be completed by July 1966, and the trainer for the new Voskhod configuration is still on paper only. Simulators for manned lunar or planetary flights have not even been discussed yet. It is clear that Kamanin is going to have to go up the chain of command to Dementiev and Smirnov to get resources allocated for the work to be accelerated.

1965 July 28 - .
  • Voskhod production - . Nation: USSR. Program: Voskhod. Flight: Voskhod 3; Voskhod 4; Voskhod 5; Voskhod 6. The All-Soviet national economic commission on Military-Industrial Matters issues resolution 145, "On completion of the Voskhod spacecraft". Voskhod s/n 5, 6, and 7 are to be completed in October, November, and December 1965; and s/n 8 and 9 in February and March 1966. The new-design spacecraft will be designed for flight of two cosmonauts up to 15 days, with provisions for multiple spacewalks outside of the capsule over periods of 3 to 6 days, provisions for artificial gravity tests, and equipment for medical, biological, physics, technical, and military experiments. All concerned ministries are instructed to complete development and deliver all needed subsystem and experimental equipment 45 days before the completion dates of the spacecraft. The trainer for the 3KV Voskhod is to be delivered by October 1965, and the 3KD trainer in the first quarter of 1966.

1965 August 1 - .
  • Development of military versions of Voskhod and Soyuz approved. - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Smirnov; Krylov; Vershinin. Program: Voskhod. Flight: Voskhod 3; Voskhod 4; Voskhod 5; Voskhod 6; Soyuz VI Flight 1. Spacecraft: Voskhod; Soyuz VI. Military-Industrial Commission (VPK) Decree 'On creation of military Voskhod and Soyuz spacecraft' was issued. Eight days later, Kamanin receives the resolution, signed by Marshal Zharkov, countersigned by Smirnov. Krylov, Vershinin, Sudts, and Gorshkov are ordered to immediately begin military space research aboard Voskhod and also develop a special version of the Soyuz spacecraft for visual and photographic military reconnaissance, satellite inspection, interception in orbit, as well as development of nuclear missile early warning systems. This is old hat to Kamanin. Krylov has no interest in military spacecraft, and will not implement the order.

1965 August 1 - .
  • Space simulators - . Nation: USSR. Program: Voskhod. Flight: Voskhod 3; Voskhod 4; Voskhod 5; Voskhod 6. After intervention at the highest level over the holiday period, it develops that the best that can be done is that a Voskhod 3KV trainer will be completed by October 1965, and a 3KD trainer by the first quarter of 1966 - essentially the planned flight dates, and therefore useless...

1965 August 28 - .
  • Korolev secretly puts Voskhod production on back burner. - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Korolev. Program: Voskhod; Soyuz. Flight: Gemini 5; Voskhod 3; Voskhod 4; Voskhod 5; Voskhod 6; Soyuz 1; Soyuz 2A. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-OK; Voskhod. It is becoming clear that in order to ever get Soyuz into space it is necessary to clear all decks at OKB-1. After Voskhod-2 the Soviet manned space plans are in confusion. The Americans have flown Gemini 5, setting a new 8-day manned space endurance record - the first time the Americans are ahead in the space race. They rubbed salt into the Soviet wound by sending astronauts Cooper and Conrad on a triumphal world tour. This American success is very painful to Korolev, and contributes to his visibly deteriorating health. In the absence of any coherent instructions from the Soviet leadership, Korolev makes a final personal decision between the competing manned spacecraft priorities. Work on completing a new series of Voskhod spacecraft and conducting experiments with artificial gravity are unofficially dropped and development and construction of the new Soyuz spacecraft is accelerated. The decision is shared only with the OKB-1 shop managers. One of Korolev's "conspirators" lays on Chertok's table the resulting new Soyuz master schedule. The upper left of the drawing has the single word "Agreed" with Korolev's signature. The only other signatures are those of Gherman Semenov, Turkov and Topol - Korolev has ordered all other signature blocks removed. Chertok is enraged. The plan provides for the production of thirteen spacecraft articles for development and qualification tests by December 1965! These include articles for thermal chamber runs, aircraft drop tests, water recovery tests, SAS abort systems tests, static and vibration tests, docking system development rigs, mock-ups for zero-G EVA tests aboard the Tu-104 flying laboratory, and a full-scale mock-up to be delivered to Sergei Darevskiy for conversion to a simulator. Chertok is enraged because the plan does not include dedicating one spaceframe to use as an 'iron bird' hot mock-up on which the electrical and avionics systems can be integrated and tested. Instead two completed Soyuz spacecraft are to be delivered to OKB-1's KIS facility in December and a third in January 1966. These will have to be used for systems integrations tests there before being shipped to Tyuratam for spaceflights.

1965 August 30 - .
  • Soviet space plans - . Nation: USSR. Program: Voskhod. Flight: Voskhod 3; Voskhod 4; Voskhod 5; Voskhod 6. Kamanin continues to fume that the Americans have surpassed the Soviets with their Mariner, Gemini, and Ranger spacecraft. This was totally unnecessary, but lack of support by the leadership has crippled the Soviet program. He has been asked to put together his version of the work program for the upcoming Voskhod flights, and beyond that, for the next 4-5 years. For the Voskhods, his plan is:
    • Voskhod 3: to launch in November 1965 with two cosmonauts; artificial gravity and military experiments will be conducted
    • Voskhod 4: a single cosmonaut will fly for 25 days and complete artificial gravity research
    • Voskhod 5 and Voskhod 6: will each fly for 15 days in May-June 1966; multiple spacewalks will be completed, in addition to military experiments

1965 September 18 - .
  • Lunokhod - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Korolev. Program: Voskhod. Flight: Voskhod 4. Spacecraft: Lunokhod. The cosmonauts visit Lyapin's institute to view progress in developing a lunar rover. During the day Kamanin has a series of unpleasant conversations with Korolev. The military want the second Voskhod flight changed from a 15-day mission with a crew of two and a physician aboard to a 20-25 day mission, with a single pilot cosmonaut and a variety of military experiments. Korolev responds that there is no unity of support within the VVS for the mission or manned spaceflight; and that he can get along quite well without the VVS, and its cosmonaut training centre, and the VVS pilot-cosmonauts.

1965 September 23 - .
  • Voskhod 3 plans - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Korolev; Yegorov; Anokhin. Program: Voskhod. Flight: Voskhod 3; Voskhod 4; Gemini 7. Spacecraft: Voskhod. Korolev is charging ahead with the plan to fly Voskhod 3 for 20 days. Kamanin is doubtful - the life support system is rated for only 12-15 days, and testing to certify it for 25 days cannot be done in time. Korolev is also planning for a 15 November launch (to fly before Gemini 7). Kamanin believes instead a series of three flights should be flown - first to 12-15 days, then to 20 days, then to 25 days. It is essential the military experiments are flown on these flights. Yegorov and Anokhin have been sent to negotiate a protocol to be signed by Kamanin that he will prepare a crew consisting of a spacecraft commander and scientist-astronaut for a 20 day flight in time to support a 15 November launch. Kamanin refuses to sign the document - it is absurd and impossible.

1965 September 27 - .
  • Voskhod ECS - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Voronin. Program: Voskhod. Flight: Voskhod 3; Voskhod 4. Kamanin discusses the environmental control system for the 20-day Voskhod fight. Chief Constructor Voronin tells him that to develop such a system to support two crew for 20 days is fully possible; but it will take months of development and testing to certify it for flight. There is no way it will be ready until the first quarter of 1966.

1965 October 4 - .
  • Voskhod 3 - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Tsybin; Malinovskiy; Keldysh; Vershinin; Grechko, Andrei; Gagarin; Rudenko. Program: Voskhod. Flight: Voskhod 3; Voskhod 4; Voskhod 5; Voskhod 6. A major programme review is held on plans for Voskhod s/n 5, 6, and 7. Tsybin insists that to conduct all of the experiments requested by the Ministry of Defence will take ten spacecraft and missions, but only five have been authorised. Spacecraft s/n 5 will fly with dogs, on a biosat mission. Spacecraft s/n 6 and 7 are being completed for 15-day flights with two crew, outfitted for artificial gravity experiments and medical and military research. The readiness of the military experiments is very poor, due to the fact that in the past Malinovskiy over and over again prohibited any work on military uses of space, at least until the ideal military platform was developed. It was only on Keldysh's initiative that any preliminary work had been done at all. Kamanin replies to Tsybin that it was not the business of OKB-1 to develop military experiments; this was the concern of the Military of Defence. Yet, Kamanin admits to himself, there is no single organisation within the Ministry that is supervising this work. Later Kamanin takes Gagarin to a meeting with Vershinin and Marshal Grechko. The Marshal is unimpressed with Gagarin's understanding of the issues involved in the issue of whether the VVS or RVSN should handle manned spaceflight. Kamanin resolves not to take cosmonauts to such high-level meetings in the future. Grechko does understand finally how poorly Malinovskiy and his deputies have handled military spaceflight. But Malinovskiy, and his supporters, Marshal Rudenko, and Colonel-General Ponomaryov, will not give up in their effort to prevent the VVS from becoming the responsible organisation for military spaceflight.

1965 November 1 - .
  • Soviets losing space race - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Brezhnev; Gagarin; Korolev; Tsybin. Program: Voskhod. Flight: Voskhod 3; Voskhod 4; Voskhod 5; Voskhod 6. Brezhnev has not yet had even one hour to glance at Gagarin's letter. Kamanin and the cosmonauts are frustrated - the country has the means - the rockets, the spacecraft designs - to be beating the Americans, but nothing is done due to zero planning, poor organisation and management. Korolev still talks about flying a Voskhod in November, but neither the equipment for the artificial gravity experiment or the 3KD spacecraft for the EVA have been completed. Kamanin hears from Tsybin that Korolev is considering abandoning the Voskhod flights completely so that OKB-1 can concentrate on completing development of the Soyuz...

1965 November 24 - .
  • Kamanin and Korolev - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Korolev; Tyulin; Afanasyev, Sergei; Pashkov; Smirnov. Program: Voskhod; Soyuz; Lunar L1. Flight: Voskhod 3; Voskhod 4; Voskhod 5; Voskhod 6; Soyuz 1; Soyuz 2A; Soyuz s/n 3/4. Spacecraft: Voskhod; Soyuz 7K-OK; Soyuz 7K-L1. Kamanin has his first face-to-face meeting with Korolev in 3 months - the longest delay in three years of working together. Their relationship is at low ebb. Despite having last talked about the next Voskhod flight by the end of November, Korolev now reveals that the spacecraft are still incomplete, and that he has abandoned plans to finish the last two (s/n 8 and 9), since these would overlap with planned Soyuz flights. By the first quarter of 1966 OKB-1 expects to be completing two Soyuz spacecraft per quarter, and by the end of 1966, one per month. Voskhod s/n 5, 6, and 7 will only be completed in January-February 1966. Korolev has decided to delete the artificial gravity experiment from s/n 6 and instead fly this spacecraft with two crew for a 20-day mission. The artificial gravity experiment will be moved to s/n 7. Completion of any of the Voskhods for spacewalks has been given up; future EVA experiments will be conducted from Soyuz spacecraft. Korolev says he has supported VVS leadership of manned spaceflight in conversations with Tyulin, Afanasyev, Pashkov, and Smirnov.

1965 November 30 - .
  • Problems with the Igla system for Soyuz - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Gagarin; Mnatsakanian; Korolev. Program: Voskhod; Soyuz. Flight: Voskhod 3; Voskhod 4; Voskhod 5; Voskhod 6; Soyuz 1; Soyuz 2A. Spacecraft: Voskhod; Soyuz 7K-OK. After a meeting with Kamanin, Korolev tells Chertok in confidence that Gagarin is training for a flight on a Soyuz mission. Chertok responds that it will take him at least a year to complete training, but that doesn't matter, since Mnatsakanian's Igla docking system will not be ready than any earlier than that. Korolev explodes on hearing this. "I allowed all work on Voskhod stopped so that the staff can be completely dedicated to Soyuz. I will not allow the Soyuz schedule to slip a day further". Turkov had been completing further Voskhods only on direct orders from the VPK and on the insistence of the VVS. Aside from military experiments, further Voskhod flights were meant to take back the space endurance record from the Americans. Korolev has derailed those plans without openly telling anyone in order to get the Soyuz flying.

1965 December 18 - .
  • VPK Emergency Meeting - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Smirnov; Pashkov; Korolev. Program: Voskhod. Flight: Gemini 6; Gemini 7; Voskhod 3; Voskhod 4; Voskhod 5; Voskhod 6. Spacecraft: Voskhod. Smirnov calls the Military Industrial Commission and the Chief Designers together to consider Pashkov's letter and how to respond to the American Gemini successes. Korolev is ill and unable to attend. His deputies are unable to provide any firm schedule for completion and fight of Voskhod or Soyuz spacecraft. Soviet projections are that over the next year the Americans will fly manned missions of 20 to 30 days duration and conduct many military experiments from manned spacecraft. It is decided that a crash effort needs to be applied to Soyuz development. However no further Voskhods will be built beyond the five already being assembled, but those Voskhods will be dedicated to setting record duration flights of 15 to 30 days and conducting military experiments.

1965 December 20 - .
  • Falling behind - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Korolev. Program: Voskhod. Flight: Gemini 7; Voskhod 3; Voskhod 4; Voskhod 5; Soyuz 1; Soyuz 2A; Soyuz 7K-L1 mission 1. Spacecraft: Voskhod. Gemini 7 has landed. The Americans achieved every manned spaceflight objective they had set for themselves in 1965, and made 50% more launches than the Soviet Union. On the other side, the Russians have only been able to fly Voskhod 2. Korolev promised that three Voskhod and two Soyuz spacecraft would be completed in 1965, and that two of each would fly before November 7. The year has ended, and not a single spacecraft has been delivered. Kamanin calls Korolev, who says that the unfinished Voskhods will not be completed, and that the four completed spacecraft will be used for long-duration flights. All of his bureau's energies will be concentrated on developing Soyuz spacecraft to perfect space docking and to perform lunar flyby missions.

1966 January 3 - .
  • Space plans unclear - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Smirnov; Kerimov; Zakharov. Program: Voskhod. Flight: Voskhod 3; Voskhod 4. Spacecraft: Voskhod. The new year begins, with no clear space plans. Although Smirnov has ordered the American 14-day space endurance record to be broken by a Soviet fight before the 23rd Party Congress, it is clear this will not happen. Trials of the long-duration oxygen regeneration system at IMBP qualified the system for a 16-day flight. But VVS specialists hesitate to certify it for 20-22 day missions. Kerimov is pushing to get the system qualified by February, but it simply won't be ready in time. Even such a simple thing as getting the two Admira movie cameras from Czechoslovakia required for the Voskhod 4 mission require writing to Marshal Zakharov. The cosmonauts don't even have one in order to learn how to operate them.

1966 January 6 - .
  • No sign of Soviets catching up in space - . Nation: USSR. Program: Voskhod. Flight: Gemini 8; Gemini 10; Gemini 11; Voskhod 3; Voskhod 4; Soyuz 1; Soyuz 2A. Spacecraft: Voskhod; Soyuz 7K-OK. Kamanin reviews the American and Soviet space plans as known to him. In 1965 the Americans flew five manned Gemini missions, and the Soviets, a single Voskhod. In 1966, the Americans plan to accomplish the first space docking with Gemini 8, demonstrate a first-orbit rendezvous and docking with Gemini 10, demonstrate powered flight using a docked Agena booster stage with Gemini 11, and rendezvous with an enormous Pegasus satellite. Against this, the Soviets have no program, no flight schedule. Kamanin can only hope that during the year 2-3 Voskhod flights and 2-3 Soyuz flights may be conducted.

1966 January 8 - .
  • Space trainers - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Tyulin; Mozzhorin; Korolev. Program: Voskhod; Soyuz. Flight: Voskhod 3; Voskhod 4; Voskhod 5; Soyuz 1; Soyuz 2A. Spacecraft: Voskhod; Soyuz 7K-OK. Tyulin and Mozzhorin review space simulators at TsPK. The 3KV and Volga trainers are examined. Tyulin believes the simulators need to be finished much earlier, to be used not just to train cosmonauts, but as tools for the spacecraft engineers to work together with the cosmonauts in establishing the cabin arrangement. This was already done on the 3KV trainer, to establish the new, more rational Voskhod cockpit layout. Tyulin reveals that the female Voskhod flight now has the support of the Central Committee and Soviet Ministers. He also reveals that MOM has promised to accelerate things so that four Voskhod and five Soyuz flights will be conducted in 1966. For 1967, 14 manned flights are planned, followed by 21 in 1968, 14 in 1969, and 20 in 1970. This adds up to 80 spaceflights, each with a crew of 2 to 3 aboard. Tyulin also supports the Kamanin position on other issues - the Voskhod ECS should be tested at the VVS' IAKM or Voronin's factory, not the IMBP. The artificial gravity experiment should be removed from Voskhod and replaced by military experiments. He promises to take up these matters with Korolev.

1966 January 12 - .
  • IAKM flight preparations - . Nation: USSR. Program: Voskhod. Flight: Voskhod 3; Voskhod 4. Spacecraft: Voskhod. Kamanin is told that medical support for the coming manned flights will indeed be moved from IMBP to IAKM. He is ordered to accelerate medical preparations for such a flight. This will include: prediction of the radiation dose a crew will receive on a 20-day flight in an orbit with an apogee of 1000 km; prediction and sampling plan to determine the crew's loss of calcium and other changes to the body over 20 days in zero gravity; prepare an exercise plan to keep the crew in condition on a 20-day flight; determine the medical data to be collected for a 15-20 day female flight.

1966 January 13 - .
  • VVS role limited - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Tyulin. Program: Voskhod. Flight: Voskhod 3; Voskhod 4. The VVS General Staff informs Tyulin that they will not accept the additional tasks agreed with Kamanin. IMBP will retain the leading role in biological support of manned missions. Kamanin is forced to call Tyulin and tell him he nevertheless will provide trained crews for three Voskhod and two Soyuz flights in 1966, one of them with a female crew.

1966 January 31 - .
  • Voskhod sinks from sight - . Nation: USSR. Program: Voskhod. Flight: Voskhod 3; Voskhod 4; Voskhod 5. Spacecraft: Voskhod. Summary: After Korolev's death, the leadership simply "forgets" about the instructions to fly a new series of Voskhods. The decrees ordering the flights are never rescinded, but the issue is not seriously raised again..

1966 February 10 - .
  • State Commission - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Tyulin; Mishin; Tsybin; Shabarov; Kerimov; Volynov; Shonin; Beregovoi; Shatalov; Pravetskiy; Katys; Keldysh. Program: Voskhod. Flight: Voskhod 3; Voskhod 4; Voskhod 5. Spacecraft: Voskhod. The commission, chaired by Tyulin, with attendance by Mishin, Tsybin, Shabarov, Kerimov, and others considers manned flight plans for 1966. The 20-day dog flight of Voskhod s/n 5 is expected to launch on 22-23 February. Kamanin notes that although he is not against the flight, it has no interest to the military. Launch of Voskhod 3 is set for 20-23 March. Kamanin names his crews for the flight - Volynov/Shonin and Beregovoi/Shatalov as back-ups. Only Pravetskiy objects to these selections, pushing Katys for the prime crew. This settled, Mishin announces he still intends to pursue the artificial gravity experiment on the flights of Voskhod s/n 7 and/or 8. Kamanin informs Mishin that he has requested for more than a year that this experiment be moved to a Soyuz flight - there are 700 kg of new military scientific equipment that has to be flown aboard Voskhod, leaving little room for nothing else.

    It is decided that the flights of Voskhod s/n 5 and 6 will be run from Moscow rather than from the cosmodrome. The state commission will return to Moscow immediately after launch for this purpose. Four groups of staff will follow the flight on four-hour shifts.

    Tyulin, Keldysh, and Mishin want engineer and scientist cosmonauts to be trained for early Soyuz flights. Kamanin agrees, telling them he will submit suitable candidates. The meeting goes well, possibly since in the absence of Korolev the commission is stacked with military representatives - of 17 members, 9 are military.


1966 February 15 - .
  • L1 trainers - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Tyulin. Program: Voskhod; Lunar L1. Flight: Voskhod 3; Voskhod 4; Voskhod 5. Spacecraft: Voskhod; Soyuz 7K-L1. Summary: Tyulin lays out the military experiments that are to be conducted aboard Voskhod during 1966. Plans for completion of an L1 trainer for preparations for a Soviet circumlunar flight are discussed..

1966 March 12 - .
1966 March 28 - .
  • Korolev tether projects cancelled - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Korolev; Mishin. Flight: Voskhod 3; Voskhod 4. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-OK Tether; Voskhod. Korolev was always interested in application of artificial gravity for large space stations and interplanetary craft. After Korolevís death, the projects to develop tether experiments to be flown aboard Voskhod and Soyuz spacecraft were closed by Mishin and not pursued further.

1966 March 30 - .
  • Voskhod military space projects - . Nation: USSR. Program: Voskhod. Flight: Voskhod 4; Voskhod 5; Voskhod 6; Voskhod 3. Spacecraft: Voskhod. The military has over a tonne of military experiments they want flown, which would require at a minimum manned flights of Voskhod s/n 6, 7, 8, and 9. Development of a military version of Soyuz is proceeding slowly. It would be best to use these existing spacecraft to fly these experiments as soon as possible, but MOM and OKB-1 have decided only to complete spacecraft s/n 6 and 7.

1966 March 31 - .
  • Voskhod 3 in limbo - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Tyulin. Program: Voskhod. Flight: Voskhod 3; Voskhod 4. Spacecraft: Voskhod. Tyulin has not yet left for Baikonur to organize the launch campaign, and OKB-1 is silent about any schedule or plan for launch of s/n 7, the subsequent spacecraft. In fact, despite all the resolutions passed, they have not produced any plan for manned flights during 1966 yet...

1966 April 1 - .
  • Voskhod 4 to 6 in jeopardy - . Nation: USSR. Program: Voskhod. Flight: Voskhod 4; Voskhod 5; Voskhod 6. Spacecraft: Voskhod. In a meeting of Soviet Ministers, it is revealed that Voskhod s/n 7, 8, and 9 will likely not be completed. Kamanin objects - he wants these flights to be used for manned test of military equipment in space. He does not trust waiting even further for the availability of the untested and unflown 7K-OK spacecraft.

1966 April 4 - .
  • L1 and Voskhod - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Bushuyev; Gagarin; Komarov. Program: Voskhod; Lunar L1. Flight: Voskhod 4; Voskhod 5; Voskhod 6. Spacecraft: Voskhod; Luna E-6S; Soyuz 7K-L1. The Luna 10 robot orbiter has successfully entered moon orbit, conducted two radio communications sessions, including broadcast back to the earth of the "International", the Socialist hymn, to the 23rd Party Congress. Bushuev from OKB-1 is seeking cosmonaut representatives for the commission that will inspect the mock-up of the L1 circumlunar spacecraft. Kamanin nominates Gagarin, Komarov, Nikitin, Frolov, Smirnov, and others. Kamanin informs OKB-1 that he has obtained the support of the PVO and RVSN for the completion and flight of Voskhod s/n 7, 8, and 9. A letter to Smirnov asking for those fights to be conducted will be drafted.

1966 April 8 - .
  • Voskhod 3 further delayed - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Tyulin. Program: Voskhod. Flight: Voskhod 3; Voskhod 4; Voskhod 5. Tyulin reveals that Voskhod 3 should be completely integrated and ready to go by the end of April, but the flight will be pushed back even farther than that. Mishin is also raising questions about Voskhod 4 and Voskhod 5. The cosmonauts are ready, but have nothing to do but wait. Who will supervise future manned space missions is in question. Korolev was de facto leader in the past. The others - the President of the State Commission, the President of the Academy of Sciences - were in fact just there in support roles. Without Korolev, this may change in the future, and the question has become controversial.

1966 July 9 - .
  • Struggle for space leadership - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Vershinin; Rudenko; Malinovskiy; Smirnov; Ustinov. Program: Soyuz; Voskhod. Flight: Voskhod 3; Voskhod 4; Voskhod 5; Voskhod 6; Soyuz 1; Soyuz 2A; Soyuz s/n 3/4. Spacecraft: Voskhod. In the previous days Kamanin has been preparing Vershinin and Rudenko for the struggle to ensure the Ministry of Defence's interests in space are preserved and defended. Malinovskiy, Smirnov, and Ustinov must be convinced of the righteousness of the VVS position on space crew preparation and training. At the beginning of 1966, Kamanin thought 1966 would be the year Russia would leap ahead again in the space race. At that time four manned Voskhod and four manned Soyuz flights were expected. Now the year is half over, and it is clear that the only remaining Voskhod flight will not go ahead, and it will be luck if even two Soyuz missions are flown. Instead of a year of triumph, 1966 will see the USA pulling far ahead in the space race. This is the fault of the incredibly poor management of the Soviet space program by Ustinov, Smirnov, Keldysh, and Malinovskiy -- but even more fundamentally due to the inept management of OKB-1 and TsUKOS. The Voskhod program was delayed, then destroyed by OKB-1's insistence on inclusion of their poorly thought-out and developed experiment in artificial gravity. VVS was always opposed to this experiment, yet OKB-1 dragged the program out for years trying to perfect it. Flights of the Soyuz spacecraft could already have occurred in 1962-1963, had Korolev not ignored VVS recommendations and insisted on perfecting a fully automatic rendezvous and docking system. Development of this system delayed the Soyuz project a minimum of three years.

1967 Autumn - .
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