Encyclopedia Astronautica
STS-74


Crew: Cameron, Hadfield, Halsell, McArthur, Ross. Docked with Mir space station. Delivered the Russian-built 316GK Shuttle-Mir docking module to Mir.

Rendezvoused and docked with Mir space station on November 15. Delivered the Russian-built 316GK Shuttle-Mir docking module to Mir.Payloads: Shuttle-Mir Mission 2; docking module with two attached solar arrays; IMAX Cargo Bay Camera (ICBC); Glow Experiment (GLO-4)/ Photogrammetric Appendage Structural Dynamics Experiment (PASDE) Payload (GPP); Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment (SAREX) II.

Orbits of Earth: 129. Distance traveled: 5,471,769 km. Orbiter Liftoff Mass: 112,358 kg. Orbiter Mass at Landing: 92,701 kg. Payload to Orbit: 6,134 kg. Payload Returned: 1,786 kg. Landed at: Concrete runway 33 at Kennedy Space Center, Florida.

NASA Official Mission Summary:

STS-74
(2nd Mir docking)
Atlantis
Pad A
73rd Shuttle mission
15th flight OV-104
Shuttle/Mir Mission-2
27th KSC landing
Crew:
Kenneth D. Cameron, Commander (3rd Shuttle flight)
James D. Halsell Jr., Pilot (2nd)
Chris A. Hadfield, Mission Specialist (1st) (Canadian Space Agency)
Jerry L. Ross, Mission Specialist (5th)
William S. "Bill" McArthur Jr., Mission Specialist (2nd)
Orbiter Preps (move to):
OPF - July 7, 1995
VAB - Oct. 3, 1995
Pad - Oct. 12, 1995

Launch:

November 12, 1995, 7:30:43.071 a.m. EST. Planned rendezvous with Mir necessitated brief launch window of about seven minutes. Liftoff originally set for Nov. 11 was scrubbed due to unacceptable weather at the Transoceanic Abort Landing (TAL) sites. Countdown following day proceeded smoothly to on-time liftoff.

Landing:

November 20, 1995, 12:01:27 p.m. EST, Runway 33, Kennedy Space Center, Fla. Rollout distance: 8,607 feet (2,623 meters). Rollout time: 57 seconds. Mission duration: eight days, four hours, 30 minutes, 44 seconds. Landed revolution 129.

Mission Highlights:

STS-74 marked second docking of U.S. Space Shuttle to Russian Space Station Mir, continuing Phase I activities leading to construction of International Space Station later this decade. Mission illustrated international flavor of space station effort: Shuttle crew included Hadfield, fourth Canadian to fly on Shuttle but first Canadian mission specialist. Hardware in payload bay included Canadian-built Remote Manipulator System (RMS) arm, U.S.-built Orbiter Docking System (ODS), Russian-built Docking Module and solar array and U.S.-Russian-built solar array. Awaiting Atlantis aboard Mir were two Russian cosmonauts and a German cosmonaut, along with Russian and European Space Agency research samples and equipment.

Unlike first docking flight during which crew exchange took place, second docking focused on delivery of equipment to Mir. Primary payload of mission was Russian-built Docking Module (DM), designed to become permanent extension on Mir to afford better clearances for Shuttle-Mir linkups. Two solar arrays were stowed on DM for later transfer to Mir by spacewalking cosmonauts.

On flight day three, Hadfield operated RMS robot arm to lift DM from stowed position in aft section of payload bay, rotated it to vertical, and moved it to within five inches above ODS in forward part of bay. ODS is being flown on all Shuttle-Mir docking flights and serves as passageway between two spacecraft. Cameron then fired downward steering jets to push Atlantis against DM. Once mating confirmed, robot arm ungrappled from DM, hatches between DM and ODS opened, and centerline camera mounted inside top hatch of DM.

On flight day four, Atlantis caught up with Mir. Terminal Phase Initiation (TI) burn started with Atlantis eight nautical miles (9.2 statute miles/14.8 kilometers) behind Mir to begin final phase of rendezvous. Air-to-air communications between Atlantis and Mir 20 crew began around this time also. Approach to Mir same as for STS-71, along the R-bar, with Atlantis closing in on station from directly below. Handheld lasers used by Shuttle crew during final approach to supplement distance and closing rates made by orbiter navigational equipment.

Manual phase of rendezvous began when Atlantis was about half-mile (804.7 meters) from Mir, with Cameron taking control of orbiter using aft flight deck controls. At 170 feet (51.8 meters) from Mir, Cameron halted approach while Mir was maneuvered into alignment for docking. After go from flight directors in Moscow and Houston, Cameron moved Atlantis to 30 feet (9.1 meters) from Mir, and then halted momentarily again to make final adjustments. Key camera for final approach was elbow camera on RMS arm. Hatches between Mir and Atlantis were opened at 4:02 a.m. EST, Nov. 15.

Control of DM transferred to Mir 20 crew commanded by Yuri Gidzenko and also including Flight Engineer Sergei Avdeyev and cosmonaut - Researcher Thomas Reighter of the European Space Agency. During mated operations, nearly 1,000 pounds (453.6 kilograms) of water transferred to Mir. Numerous experiment samples, including blood, urine and saliva, were moved to orbiter for return to Earth. Shuttle crew also brought up gifts, including Canadian maple sugar candies and a guitar (second guitar on Mir).

Lithium hydroxide canisters - a late addition - were transferred to Mir in case faulty environmental control system failed again and station's air needed to be "scrubbed." Two spacecraft separated at 4:15 a.m. EST, Nov. 18, after which flyaround of station was initiated when Atlantis was 400 feet (121.9 meters) away.

No significant problems occurred with orbiter or any of cargo bay equipment.

AKA: Atlantis.
First Launch: 1995.11.12.
Last Launch: 1995.11.20.
Duration: 8.19 days.

More... - Chronology...


Associated People
  • Ross Ross, Jerry Lynn (1948-) American test pilot mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-61-B, STS-27, STS-37, STS-55, STS-74, STS-88, STS-110. Held world record of seven spaceflights. US record of nine spacewalks. More...
  • Cameron Cameron, Kenneth Donald (1949-) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on STS-37, STS-56, STS-74. US Marine Corps More...
  • McArthur McArthur, William Surles Jr 'Bill' (1951-) American test pilot mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-58, STS-74, STS-92, ISS EO-12. US Army. Grew up in Wakulla, North Carolina. More...
  • Halsell Halsell, James Donald Jr (1956-) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on STS-65, STS-74, STS-83, STS-94, STS-101. More...
  • Hadfield Hadfield, Chris Austin (1959-) Canadian test pilot mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-74, STS-100. More...

Associated Countries
Associated Spacecraft
  • Atlantis American manned spaceplane. 33 launches, 1985.10.03 to 2011.07.08. The space shuttle Atlantis was the fourth orbiter to become operational at Kennedy Space Center, and the last of the original production run. More...

See also
Associated Manufacturers and Agencies
  • NASA American agency overseeing development of rockets and spacecraft. National Aeronautics and Space Administration, USA, USA. More...
  • NASA Houston American agency overseeing development of rockets and spacecraft. Houston, Houston, USA. More...

Associated Programs
  • Mir The Mir space station was the last remnant of the once mighty Soviet space programme. It was built to last only five years, and was to have been composed of modules launched by Proton and Buran/Energia launch vehicles. These modules were derived from those originally designed by Chelomei in the 1960's for the Almaz military station programme. As the Soviet Union collapsed Mir stayed in orbit, but the final modules were years late and could only be completed with American financial assistance. Kept flying over a decade beyond its rated life, Mir proved a source of pride to the Russian people and proved the ability of their cosmonauts and engineers to improvise and keep operations going despite all manner of challenges and mishaps. More...

Associated Launch Sites
  • Cape Canaveral America's largest launch center, used for all manned launches. Today only six of the 40 launch complexes built here remain in use. Located at or near Cape Canaveral are the Kennedy Space Center on Merritt Island, used by NASA for Saturn V and Space Shuttle launches; Patrick AFB on Cape Canaveral itself, operated the US Department of Defense and handling most other launches; the commercial Spaceport Florida; the air-launched launch vehicle and missile Drop Zone off Mayport, Florida, located at 29.00 N 79.00 W, and an offshore submarine-launched ballistic missile launch area. All of these take advantage of the extensive down-range tracking facilities that once extended from the Cape, through the Caribbean, South Atlantic, and to South Africa and the Indian Ocean. More...

STS-74 Chronology


1995 November 12 - . 12:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. LV Configuration: Space Shuttle STS-74.
  • STS-74 - . Call Sign: Atlantis. Crew: Cameron; Hadfield; Halsell; McArthur; Ross. Payload: Atlantis F15 / 316GK SM. Mass: 6,134 kg (13,523 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Cameron; Hadfield; Halsell; McArthur; Ross. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-74; Mir EO-20. Spacecraft: Atlantis. Duration: 8.19 days. Decay Date: 1995-11-20 . USAF Sat Cat: 23714 . COSPAR: 1995-061A. Apogee: 342 km (212 mi). Perigee: 257 km (159 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 91.40 min. Rendezvoused and docked with Mir space station on November 15. Delivered the Russian-built 316GK Shuttle-Mir docking module to Mir.Payloads: Shuttle-Mir Mission 2; docking module with two attached solar arrays; IMAX Cargo Bay Camera (ICBC); Glow Experiment (GLO-4)/ Photogrammetric Appendage Structural Dynamics Experiment (PASDE) Payload (GPP); Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment (SAREX) II.
  • Mir-Shuttle Docking Module - . Payload: DM 316GK s/n 1. Mass: 6,134 kg (13,523 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: NASA. Manufacturer: Korolev. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space station. Flight: STS-74; Mir EO-20. Spacecraft: Mir-Shuttle Docking Module. Duration: 8.19 days. COSPAR: 1995-061xx. Apogee: 342 km (212 mi). Perigee: 356 km (221 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Summary: Atlantis rendezvoused and docked with Mir space station on Nov 15. After departure the Russian-built 316GK Shuttle-Mir docking module remained attached to Mir to provide easier docking capability in the future..
  • External Airlock/ODS - . Payload: EAL/ODS. Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: Mir. Flight: STS-74; Mir EO-20. Decay Date: 1995-11-20 . USAF Sat Cat: 23714 . COSPAR: 1995-061xx. Apogee: 347 km (215 mi). Perigee: 336 km (208 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 91.40 min.

1995 November 20 - .
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