Encyclopedia Astronautica
STS-69



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STS-69
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STS-69
Credit: www.spacefacts.de - www.spacefacts.de
Crew: Cockrell, Gernhardt, Newman, Voss, Walker Dave. Deployed and retrieved Spartan 201, Wake Shield Facility 2.

Deployed and retrieved Spartan 201, WSF 2. STS-69 also was second flight of a "dog crew," a flight crew tradition that began on STS-53, on which both Walker and Voss flew. As the Dog Crew II, each STS-69 astronaut adopted a dogtag or nickname: Walker was Red Dog; Cockrell was Cujo; Voss, Dog Face; Newman, Pluto, and Gernhardt, Under Dog. Payloads: Wake Shield Facility (WSF) 2; Shuttle Pointed Autonomous Research Tool for As-tronomy (SPARTAN) 201; International Extreme Ultraviolet Hitchhiker (IEH)1; Inter-Mars Tissue Equivalent Proportional Counter (ITEPC); Extravehicular Activity Development Flight Test (EDFT) 2; Capillary Pumped Loop (CAPL) 2/ getaway special (GAS) bridge assembly with five GAS payloads; Auroral Photography Experiment (APE) B; Biological Research in Canisters (BRIC); Commercial Generic Bioprocessing Apparatus (CGBA), Configuration A; Electrolysis Perfor-mance Improvement Concept Study (EPICS); Space Tissue Loss (STL)/National Institutes of Health (NIH) Cells ; Commercial Middeck Instrumentation Technology Associates Experiment (CMIX).

Orbits of Earth: 171. Distance traveled: 7,242,047 km. Orbiter Liftoff Mass: 116,486 kg. Orbiter Mass at Landing: 99,737 kg. Payload to Orbit: 11,499 kg. Payload Returned: 11,477 kg. Landed at: Concrete runway 33 at Kennedy Space Center, Florid. EVA: James S. Voss and Michael L. Gernhardt for 6 hours, 45 minutes. Voss and Gernhardt performed a number of tasks designed to evaluate and verify specific assembly and maintenance techniques and tools for the International Space Station. They also evaluated spacesuit design modifications to protect spacewalkers from the extremely cold space environment as well as an electronic cuff checklist device worn on the wrist.

NASA Official Mission Summary:

STS-69
(SPARTAN 201-03; WSF-2 )
Endeavour
Pad A
71st Shuttle mission
9th flight OV-105
10th rollback
25th KSC landing
Crew:
David M. Walker, Commander
(4th Shuttle flight)
Kenneth D. Cockrell, Pilot (2nd)
James S. Voss, Payload Commander (3rd)
Michael L. Gernhardt, Mission Specialist (1st)
James H. Newman, Mission Specialist (2nd)
Orbiter Preps (move to):
OPF - March 28, 1995
VAB - June 28, 1995
Pad - July 6, 1995
VAB (rollback) - Aug. 1 (due to Hurricane Erin)
Pad - Aug. 8

Launch:

September 7, 1995, 11:09:00 a.m. EDT. Launch originally set for Aug. 5 postponed indefinitely to allow further review of solid rocket motor nozzle joint hardware from two previous missions, STS-70 and STS-71. Inspection team formed to assess significance of gas path in nozzle internal joint number 3, extending from insulation in the motor chamber to, but not past, primary O-ring, and resulting in slight heat effect to primary O-ring seal. Team concluded nozzle joint design was sound and that gas paths were being created when insulation material, known as RTV or Room Temperature Vulcanizing, was applied. Small air pockets were forming in thermal insulation that could later become pathways for hot gas during motor operation.

Attention then focused on developing procedures to allow Non- Destructive Evaluation (NDE) inspection of insulation material on specific joints as well as testing repair techniques. Repairs were completed on STS-69 nozzle joint insulation at the pad and new launch date of Aug. 31 set. Nozzle joint insulation on boosters assigned to Missions STS-73 and STS-74 also repaired at KSC, but work did not impact schedule. Aug. 31 launch try was scrubbed about five and a half hours before liftoff due to failure of one of orbiter's three fuel cells. Fuel cell No. 2 indicated higher than allowable temperatures during activation as countdown proceeded. Fuel cell was removed and replaced. Liftoff on Sept. 7 was preceded by a smooth countdown.

Landing:

September 18, 1995, 7:37:56 a.m. EDT, Runway 33, Kennedy Space Center, Fla. Rollout distance: 10,230 feet (3,118 meters). Rollout time: 56 seconds. Mission duration: 10 days, 20 hours, 28 minutes, 56 seconds. Landed revolution 171. Landing occurred on the first opportunity at KSC.

Mission Highlights:

STS-69 marked first time two different payloads were retrieved and deployed during same mission. Also featured an extravehicular activity to practice for International Space Station activities and to evaluate space suit design modifications.

First of two primary payloads, Spartan 201-03, deployed on flight day two. This was third Spartan 201 mission in planned series of four. Primary objective was to study outer atmosphere of sun and its transition into solar wind that constantly flows past Earth. Timing of Spartan 201-03 flight intended to coincide with passage of the Ulysses spacecraft over the sun's north polar region to expand range of data being collected about origins of solar wind. Spartan 201-03 configuration featured two scientific instruments, the Ultraviolet Coronal Spectrometer (UVCS) and the White Light Coronagraph (WLC). UVCS measured characteristics of light emitted by neutral hydrogen atoms in the solar corona, the outermost portion of the sun's atmosphere from which the solar wind evolves. The WLC imaged the changing shape and form of the corona.

Concerns arose about performance of the two instruments when Spartan was retrieved after about two days of data-gathering. As orbiter approached free-flying spacecraft, it was rotating slowly and located in a different attitude than expected for retrieval. However, later analysis confirmed UVCS and WLC operated smoothly, with WLC obtaining good data over 95 percent of planned observing sequence and UVCS preliminary data found to be excellent. Analysis was under way to determine why Spartan behaved as it did prior to retrieval.

Second primary payload, Wake Shield Facility-2 (WSF-2) deployed on flight day five and became first spacecraft to maneuver itself away from orbiter rather than other way around, by firing small cold gas nitrogen thruster to maneuver away from Endeavour. WSF-2 second in planned series of four flights. WSF is a 12-foot- (3.7-meter) diameter stainless steel disk designed to generate an ultravacuum environment in space within which to grow thin films for next generation advanced electronics.

Seven planned thin film growth runs planned, but after three successful growths, WSF-2 placed itself in safe mode. Mission planners decided to extend WSF-2 flying time by about 24 hours to allow all seven thin film growths to be performed. However, as preparations began to resume operations after a 20-hour hiatus, payload controllers on the ground could not trigger the flow of thin film material and the WSF-2 was once again shut down. Film growth activities resumed after a six-hour cool-down of the WSF-2 instruments, and when spacecraft was retrieved on flight day eight, four successful thin film growth runs had been completed.

WSF-2 unberthed and hung over side of Endeavour's cargo bay one final time for Charging Hazards and Wake Studies (CHAWS) experiment, an Air Force-sponsored experiment to collect data on buildup of electrical fields around an orbiting space vehicle. On flight day ten, Voss and Gernhardt conducted six-hour, 46- minute spacewalk, completing final primary objective of STS-69. They evaluated thermal improvements made to their extravehicular activity suits and reported they remained comfortable, and also tested variety of tools and techniques that may be used in assembly of International Space Station.

Additional payloads: International Extreme Ultraviolet Hitchhiker (IEH-1), to measure and monitor long-term variations in magnitude of absolute extreme ultraviolet flux coming from sun; Solar Extreme Ultraviolet Hitchhiker (SHE), to accurately measure solar flux in the extreme ultraviolet region of solar spectrum; and Consortium for Materials Development in Space Complex Autonomous Payload (CONCAP IV-3), third flight of an experiment that studies growth of organic nonlinear optical crystals and thin films.

Also Shuttle GLO Experiment (GLO-3) to study luminous shroud observed by astronauts on previous Shuttle missions; Ultraviolet Spectrograph Telescope for Astronomical Research (UVSTAR), pair of telescopes that measure extreme ultraviolet and far ultraviolet emissions and complemented SHE described above; Capillary 42 Pumped Loop/Get Away Special Bridge Assembly (CAPL-2/GBA) consisting of CAPL-2 Hitchhiker payload, Thermal Energy Storage- 2 (TES-2) payload in a GAS container as well as four other GAS experiments on single cross-bay structure.

In-cabin payloads included Space Tissue Loss/National Institutes of Health-Cells (STL-NIH-C); Commercial Generic Bioprocessing Apparatus-7 (CGBA); Biological Research in Canister (BRIC); Electrolysis Performance Improvement Concept Study (EPICS) and Commercial MDA ITA Experiments (CMIX-4).

AKA: Endeavour.
First Launch: 1995.09.07.
Last Launch: 1995.09.18.
Duration: 10.85 days.

More... - Chronology...


Associated People
  • Walker, Dave Walker, David Mathieson 'Dave' (1944-2001) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on STS-51-A, STS-30, STS-53, STS-69. Navy nickname Red Flash, a cocky pilot, over-confident in some astronaut's eyes. More...
  • Voss Voss, James Shelton 'Jim' (1949-) American test pilot mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-44, STS-53, STS-69, STS-101, ISS EO-2. US Army More...
  • Cockrell Cockrell, Kenneth Dale 'Taco' (1950-) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on STS-56, STS-69, STS-80, STS-98, STS-111. More...
  • Gernhardt Gernhardt, Dr Michael Landon (1956-) American engineer mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-69, STS-83, STS-94, STS-104. More...
  • Newman Newman, Dr James Hansen 'Jim' (1956-) American physicist mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-51, STS-69, STS-88, STS-109. More...

Associated Countries
Associated Spacecraft
  • Endeavour American manned spaceplane. 25 launches, 1992.05.07 to 2011.05.16. Built as a replacement after the loss of the Challenger; named after the first ship commanded by James Cook. More...

See also
Associated Manufacturers and Agencies
  • NASA American agency overseeing development of rockets and spacecraft. National Aeronautics and Space Administration, USA, USA. More...
  • NASA Houston American agency overseeing development of rockets and spacecraft. Houston, Houston, USA. More...

Associated Programs
  • STS The Space Transportation System (Space Shuttle) was conceived originally as a completely reusable system that would provide cheap, routine access to space and replace all American and civilian military launch vehicles. Crippled by technological overreach, political compromise, and budget limitations, it instead ended up costing more than the expendable rockets it was to have replaced. STS sucked the money out of all other NASA projects for half a century. The military abandoned its use after the Challenger shuttle explosion in the 1980's. More...

Associated Launch Sites
  • Cape Canaveral America's largest launch center, used for all manned launches. Today only six of the 40 launch complexes built here remain in use. Located at or near Cape Canaveral are the Kennedy Space Center on Merritt Island, used by NASA for Saturn V and Space Shuttle launches; Patrick AFB on Cape Canaveral itself, operated the US Department of Defense and handling most other launches; the commercial Spaceport Florida; the air-launched launch vehicle and missile Drop Zone off Mayport, Florida, located at 29.00 N 79.00 W, and an offshore submarine-launched ballistic missile launch area. All of these take advantage of the extensive down-range tracking facilities that once extended from the Cape, through the Caribbean, South Atlantic, and to South Africa and the Indian Ocean. More...

STS-69 Chronology


1995 September 7 - . 15:09 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. LV Configuration: Space Shuttle STS-69.
  • STS-69 - . Call Sign: Endeavour. Crew: Cockrell; Gernhardt; Newman; Voss; Walker, Dave. Payload: Endeavour F09 / Spartan / WSF. Mass: 11,499 kg (25,350 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Cockrell; Gernhardt; Newman; Voss; Walker, Dave. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-69. Spacecraft: Endeavour. Duration: 10.85 days. Decay Date: 1995-09-18 . USAF Sat Cat: 23667 . COSPAR: 1995-048A. Apogee: 321 km (199 mi). Perigee: 321 km (199 mi). Inclination: 28.4500 deg. Period: 91.40 min. Deployed and retrieved Spartan 201, WSF 2. Payloads: Wake Shield Facility (WSF) 2; Shuttle Pointed Autonomous Research Tool for As-tronomy (SPARTAN) 201; International Extreme Ultraviolet Hitchhiker (IEH)1; Inter-Mars Tissue Equivalent Proportional Counter (ITEPC); Extravehicular Activity Development Flight Test (EDFT) 2; Capillary Pumped Loop (CAPL) 2/ getaway special (GAS) bridge assembly with five GAS payloads; Auroral Photography Experiment (APE) B; Biological Research in Canisters (BRIC); Commercial Generic Bioprocessing Apparatus (CGBA), Configuration A; Electrolysis Perfor-mance Improvement Concept Study (EPICS); Space Tissue Loss (STL)/National Institutes of Health (NIH) Cells (C); Commercial Middeck Instrumentation Technology Associates Experiment (CMIX).

1995 September 16 - . 08:20 GMT - .
  • EVA STS-69-1 - . Crew: Voss; Gernhardt. EVA Type: Extra-Vehicular Activity. EVA Duration: 0.28 days. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Voss; Gernhardt. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-69. Spacecraft: Endeavour. Summary: Tested tools and techniques for extravehicular activity..

1995 September 18 - .
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