Encyclopedia Astronautica
STS-44



zsts044.jpg
STS-44
Credit: NASA
Crew: Gregory, Hennen, Henricks, Musgrave, Runco, Voss. Manned six crew. Deployed Defense Support Program satellite.

Manned six crew. Deployed Defense Support Program satellite. Payloads: Defense Support Program satellite/ Inertial Upper Stage, Interim Operational Contamination Monitor, Terra Scout, Military Man in Space, Shuttle Activation Monitor, Cosmic Radiation Effects and Activation Monitor, Radiation Monitoring Equipment Ill, Air Force Maui Optical Site Calibration Test, Ultraviolet Plume Instrument, Visual Function Tester 1.

Orbits of Earth: 109. Distance traveled: 4,651,111 km. Orbiter Liftoff Mass: 117,765 kg. Orbiter Mass at Landing: 87,915 kg. Payload to Orbit: 20,242 kg. Payload Returned: 3,179 kg. Landed at: Runway 05 dry lake bed at Edwards Air Force Base, . Landing Speed: 339 kph. Touchdown miss distance: 794 m. Landing Rollout: 3,411 m.

NASA Official Mission Narrative

Mission Name: STS-44 (44)
Atlantis (10)
Pad 39-A (43)
44th Shuttle mission
10th flight OV-104
Shortened mission
Diverted landing

Crew:
Frederick D. Gregory (3), Commander
Terence T. Henricks (1), Pilot
F. Story Musgrave (4), Mission Specialist
Mario Runco, Jr. (1), Mission Specialist
James S. Voss (1), Mission Specialist
Thomas J. Hennen (1), Payload Specialist

Milestones:
OPF - Aug. 12,1991
VAB - Oct. 18, 1991
PAD - Oct. 23,1991

Payload:
DSP,IOCM,MODE(2),AMOS(2),MMIS,CREAM,SAM,RME-III,VFT-1,UVPI,BFPT,EDOMP
Mission Objectives:

Launch:
November 24, 1991, 6:44:00 p.m. EST. Launch set for Nov. 19 delayed due to malfunctioning redundant inertial measurement unit on inertial Upper Stage booster attached to Defense Support Program satellite. Unit replaced and tested. Launch reset for Nov. 24, delayed 13 minutes to allow an orbiting spacecraft to pass and to allow external tank liquid oxygen replenishment after minor repairs to valve in the liquid oxygen replenishment system in the mobile launcher platform. Launch Weight: 259,629 lbs.
Orbit:
Altitude: 197nm
Inclination: 28.5 degrees
Orbits: 110
Duration: 6 days, 22 hours, 50 minutes, 44 seconds.
Distance: 2,890,067 miles

Hardware:
SRB: BI-047
SRM: 360L/W019
ET : 53/LWT-46
MLP : 1
SSME-1: SN-2015
SSME-2: SN-2030
SSME-3: SN-2029

Landing:
December 1, 1991, 2:34:12 p.m. PST, Runway 5. Edwards Air Force Base, Calif. Rollout distance: 11,191 feet. Rollout time: 107 seconds. Landing originally scheduled for KSC on Dec. 4, but ten-day mission shortened and landing rescheduled following Nov. 30 on-orbit failure of one of three orbiter inertial measurement units. Lengthy rollout due to minimal braking for test. Orbiter returned to KSC on Dec. 8. Landing Weight: 193,825 lbs.

Mission Highlights:
Dedicated Department of Defense mission. Unclassified payload included Defense Support Program (DSP) satellite and attached Inertial Upper Stage (IUS), deployed on flight day one. Cargo bay and middeck payloads: Interim Operational Contamination Monitor(IOCM); Terra Scout; Military Man in Space (M88-1); Air Force Maui Optical System (AMOS); Cosmic Radiation Effects and Activation Monitor (CREAM); Shuttle Activation Monitor (SAM); Radiation Monitoring Equipment III (RME III); Visual Function Tester-1 (VFT-1); Ultraviolet Plume Instrument (UVPI). Bioreactor Flow and Particle Trajectory experiment; and Extended Duration Orbiter Medical Project, a series of investigations in support of Extended Duration Orbiter.

AKA: Atlantis.
First Launch: 1991.11.25.
Last Launch: 1991.12.02.
Duration: 6.95 days.

More... - Chronology...


Associated People
  • Musgrave Musgrave, Dr Franklin Story (1935-) American physician mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-6, STS-51-F, STS-33, STS-44, STS-61, STS-80. Flew in space six times. More...
  • Gregory Gregory, Frederick Drew 'Fred' (1941-) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on STS-51-B, STS-33, STS-44. Flew 550 combat missions in Vietnam. USAF helicopter pilot who would fly his T-38 trainer at alarmingly low altitude during cross-country trips. Paradoxically later appointed NASA Administrator for Safety. More...
  • Voss Voss, James Shelton 'Jim' (1949-) American test pilot mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-44, STS-53, STS-69, STS-101, ISS EO-2. US Army More...
  • Runco Runco, Mario Jr 'Trooper' (1952-) American meteorologist mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-44, STS-54, STS-77. More...
  • Henricks Henricks, Terence Thomas 'Tom' (1952-) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on STS-44, STS-55, STS-70, STS-78. More...
  • Hennen Hennen, Thomas John 'Tom' (1952-) American photointerpreter payload specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-44. US Army. Grew up in Columbus, Ohio, son of an Air Force officer. More...

Associated Countries
Associated Spacecraft
  • Atlantis American manned spaceplane. 33 launches, 1985.10.03 to 2011.07.08. The space shuttle Atlantis was the fourth orbiter to become operational at Kennedy Space Center, and the last of the original production run. More...

See also
Associated Manufacturers and Agencies
  • NASA American agency overseeing development of rockets and spacecraft. National Aeronautics and Space Administration, USA, USA. More...
  • NASA Houston American agency overseeing development of rockets and spacecraft. Houston, Houston, USA. More...

Associated Programs
  • STS The Space Transportation System (Space Shuttle) was conceived originally as a completely reusable system that would provide cheap, routine access to space and replace all American and civilian military launch vehicles. Crippled by technological overreach, political compromise, and budget limitations, it instead ended up costing more than the expendable rockets it was to have replaced. STS sucked the money out of all other NASA projects for half a century. The military abandoned its use after the Challenger shuttle explosion in the 1980's. More...

Associated Launch Sites
  • Cape Canaveral America's largest launch center, used for all manned launches. Today only six of the 40 launch complexes built here remain in use. Located at or near Cape Canaveral are the Kennedy Space Center on Merritt Island, used by NASA for Saturn V and Space Shuttle launches; Patrick AFB on Cape Canaveral itself, operated the US Department of Defense and handling most other launches; the commercial Spaceport Florida; the air-launched launch vehicle and missile Drop Zone off Mayport, Florida, located at 29.00 N 79.00 W, and an offshore submarine-launched ballistic missile launch area. All of these take advantage of the extensive down-range tracking facilities that once extended from the Cape, through the Caribbean, South Atlantic, and to South Africa and the Indian Ocean. More...

STS-44 Chronology


1991 November 24 - . 23:44 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. LV Configuration: Space Shuttle STS-44.
  • STS-44 - . Call Sign: Atlantis. Crew: Gregory; Hennen; Henricks; Musgrave; Runco; Voss. Payload: Atlantis F10 / DSP 16 [IUS]. Mass: 20,242 kg (44,625 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Gregory; Hennen; Henricks; Musgrave; Runco; Voss. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-44. Spacecraft: Atlantis. Duration: 6.95 days. Decay Date: 1991-11-30 . USAF Sat Cat: 21795 . COSPAR: 1991-080A. Apogee: 371 km (230 mi). Perigee: 363 km (225 mi). Inclination: 28.5000 deg. Period: 91.90 min. Manned six crew. Deployed Defense Support Program satellite. Payloads: Defense Support Program satellite/ Inertial Upper Stage, Interim Operational Contamination Monitor, Terra Scout, Military Man in Space, Shuttle Activation Monitor, Cosmic Radiation Effects and Activation Monitor, Radiation Monitoring Equipment Ill, Air Force Maui Optical Site Calibration Test, Ultraviolet Plume Instrument, Visual Function Tester 1.

1991 December 2 - .
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