Encyclopedia Astronautica
test vehicle


Category of missiles.

More... - Chronology...


See also
  • Pegasus Privately-funded, air-launched winged light satellite launcher. More...

Associated Launch Vehicles
  • Goddard Robert H. Goddard was the father of American rocketry. In a series of rockets flown between World War I and World War II, he solved all of the fundamental problems of guided liquid propellant rockets. More...
  • Goddard 1 American test vehicle. Rocket used by Goddard to achieve the first flight of a liquid-propellant rocket. More...
  • Goddard 2 American test vehicle. After several tests indicating the model was too small to permit refinements, Goddard decided to build a rocket twenty-fold larger. During 1926 a new tower was built, and flow regulators, multiple liquid injection into large combustion chambers, means for measurement of pressure and lifting force, electrically fired igniter, and turntable for rotation were developed. More...
  • Goddard 3 American test vehicle. First instrumented liquid fuel rocket. Length 11 ft 6 in.; maximum diameter 26 in.; weight 32 lb; gasoline 14 lb; liquid oxygen 11 lb; total loaded weight 57 lb. More...
  • Valier Max Valier, first with the backing of automobile magnate von Opel, then in competition with him, was instrumental in popularising rocketry in Germany in the 1920's. He dreamed of rocket-propelled transatlantic aircraft, but was killed in a rocket engine test in 1932. More...
  • Goddard 4 American test vehicle. Goddard rocket using pressure-fed Lox/Gasoline propellants, streamline casing, and remote control guidance. Masses varied; typical values indicated. More...
  • Zucker Rocket The Zucker Rocket was not an operational rocket at all, but a series of flashy-looking hulls powered by powder rockets like those used in fireworks. Zucker travelled through Germany in 1931-1933, displaying his rocket, selling tickets to launches, and then selling fraudulent postal covers carried aboard the 'flights'. The highest recorded altitude achieved in Germany was 15 m. More...
  • A1 German test vehicle. First in series of rockets leading to V-2. Exploded at Kummersdorf during a test run. Considered aerodynamically unstable (a stabilising flywheel was mounted forward) and no launch attempts were made. More...
  • A2 German test vehicle. First flight test rocket in the series that led to the V-2. Two were built, dubbed Max and Moritz. Both were successfully flown. More...
  • Goddard A American test vehicle. The A series rockets used simple pressure feed, gyroscopic control by means of vanes, and parachute. The rockets in this series averaged in length from 4.11 m to 4.65 m.; their weight empty varied from 26 kg to 39 kg. More...
  • Goddard K American test vehicle. This consisted of ten proving-stand tests for the development of a more powerful motor, 10 in. in diameter. Weight of rocket, about 225 lb; weight of fuels, 50-70 lb for the series. More...
  • Goddard L-A American test vehicle. Tests of the Goddard L Section A covered development of a nitrogen-pressured flight rocket using 10 in, motors based on the K series and ran from May 11 to November 7, 1936 (L1-L7). Length of the L Series Section A rockets varied from 10 ft 11 in, to 13 ft 6 1/2 in.; diameter 18 in.; empty weight 120 to 202 lb; loaded weight 295 to 360 lb; weight oxygen about 78 lb; weight gasoline 84 lb; weight nitrogen, 4 lb. More...
  • Goddard L-B American test vehicle. The L-B series were check tests of 5.75-in.-diameter chambers with fuels of various volatilities; development of tilting cap parachute release; tests of various forms of exposed movable air vanes; test of retractable air vanes and parachute with heavy shroud lines. The series ran from November 24, 1930-May 19, 1937 (L8-L15). Final results of Section B of L Series showed two proving-stand tests, and six flight test attempts, all of which resulted in flights. Average interval between tests 22 days. More...
  • Goddard L-C American test vehicle. Series L Section C rockets included light tank construction, movable-tailpiece (i.e. gimbal) steering, catapult launching, and further development of liquid nitrogen tank pressure method. Lengths varied from 17 ft 4.25 in. to 18 ft 5.75 in.; diameter 9 in., weight empty varied from 80 to 109 lb; loaded weight about 170 lb or more; lift of static tests varied from 228 lb to 477 lb; jet velocities from 3960 to 5340 ft/sec. More...
  • Truax American test vehicle. The US Navy's R. C. Truax, at Annapolis, Md., developed a number of pioneering early rockets. More...
  • A3 German test vehicle. The A3 was the first large rocket attempted by Wernher von Braun's rocket team. It was equipped with an ambitious guidance package consisting of three gyroscopes and two integrating accelerometers. The rocket was intended as a subscale prototype for the propulsion and control system technology planned for the much larger A4. All of the launches were failures, and a total redesign, the A5, was developed. More...
  • A5 German test vehicle. Subscale test model of A4 (V-2). Replaced the A3 in this role after its unsuccessful test series. The A5 used the same powerplant as the A3, but had the aerodynamic form of the A4 and a new control system. 25 all-up versions were flown, some several times. More...
  • Goddard P-C American test vehicle. Section C tests would run through October 10, 1941 and represent the final Goddard rocket flight tests. The series of twenty-four static and flight tests (P13-P36) was made with rockets of large fuel capacity, with the rocket motor, pumps, and turbines previously developed. These rockets averaged nearly 22 ft in length, and were 18 in, in diameter. They weighed empty from 190 to 240 lb. The liquid-oxygen load averaged about 140 lb, the gasoline 112 lb, making "quarter-ton" loaded rockets. More...
  • A7 German test vehicle. Subscale test model of the A9 rocket. Considered for use as a weapon as well. More...
  • Private American test vehicle. At request of Army Ordnance, Cal Tech's rocket laboratory developed the first US long-range missiles. Project ORDCIT resulted in development of the Private A and Corporal missiles. At Camp Irwin, Calif., 24 Private A rockets were launched by JPL, only 11 months after the start of Project ORDCIT. This rocket technology that led to later operational Corporal and Sergeant missiles. More...
  • EA 1941 First French liquid fuel rocket. Developed in the 1931-1942, tested in 1945. More...
  • Cobra-BTV American test vehicle, part of the U.S. Navy's Bumblebee missile program that led to the operational Talos ramjet-powered surface-to-air missile in the 1950's. More...
  • Deacon American test vehicle. The Deacon was an advanced solid rocket motor design cancelled at the end of World War II. In 1947 NACA began using reworked surplus motors to boost instrumented subscale aircraft models to speeds of up to Mach 4. They became a workhorse for the Agency's aerodynamic research, resulting in new production. Thousands were flown, until, by the end of the 1950's, supersonic wind tunnels took over the job. Data shown is for single-stage version. More...
  • HVAR FFAR American test vehicle. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x HVAR + 1 x Mk7 More...
  • Double FFAR American test vehicle. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Mk7 + 1 x Mk7 More...
  • Hiroc American test vehicle, built and flown by Convair in 1945-1947 to test technologies applied to the later Atlas ICBM. More...
  • Bumper-WAC German short range ballistic test vehicle. Pioneering US demonstration of a two stage launch vehicle, coupling a V-2 with a WAC Corporal. The first ballistic missile fired from Cape Canaveral. More...
  • Nativ As part of its effort to develop what started out as an American version of the A9 boost-glide rocket, North American Aviation built seven Nativ subscale technology demonstrators. More...
  • MX-774 American test vehicle. Project MX-774 inaugurated by AAF with Consolidated-Vultee to study rocket capabilities with an ICBM as a final objective. Limited funds permitted a few test launches. These rockets demonstrated technologies that woud later be applied to the Atlas. More...
  • Bumblebee STV American test vehicle in the 1940's. The primary goal of the U.S. Navy's Bumblebee missile program was to develop a ramjet-powered surface-to-air missile. Bumblebee test vehicles and technologies led to the operational Terrier and Talos missile of the 1950's. More...
  • RM-10 American test vehicle. Two-stage test vehicle to make heat transfer studies at high speed in free flight, launched from NACA's Pilotless Aircraft Reserach Station at Wallops Island, Va. Vehicle was developed by PARD of Langley Laboratory. More...
  • R-1A Russian short range ballistic test vehicle. Experimental missile for testing warhead separation. More...
  • Double Deacon American test vehicle. Single stage vehicles consisting of 2 Deacon motors fired in parallel. More...
  • LTV-N-4 American Naval Ordnance Test Station solid-propellant test vehicle to support development of ramjet-powered missiles. Flew in 1949 and was 4.5 m long. More...
  • Deacon Deacon American test vehicle. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Deacon + 1 x Deacon More...
  • Veronique R French sounding test vehicle. 'Veronique Reduce' - test vehicle for the full-size Veronique, with the burn time of the engine limted to 6.5 sec instead of the nominal 32 sec. Tested in France at the Suippes range in 1950 and 1951, then at Cardonnet in early 1952. More...
  • Deacon HVAR American test vehicle. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Deacon + 1 x HVAR More...
  • Veronique P2 French sounding test vehicle. Test vehicle, powered by two powder rockets, to test the Veronique's unique wire guidance system. More...
  • Veronique P6 French sounding test vehicle. Test vehicle, powered by six powder rockets, to test the Veronique's unique wire guidance system. More...
  • Eole French test vehicle. Second missile developed by Jean-Jacques Barre and end of that lineage. More...
  • Quad Deacon American test vehicle. Single stage vehicle consisting of 4 Deacons fired in parallel. More...
  • HPAG Deacon American test vehicle. Two stage vehicles consisting of HPAG boosters + 1 x Deacon More...
  • Nike Deacon American test vehicle. Two-stage rocket using surplus Nike boosters and Deacon sounding rocket upper stage. The combination was much cheaper than Aerobee, and unlike Rockoon could be launched from fixed launchers in two and a half hours. It was used for 'falling sphere' air density studies, atmospheric soundings, and for heat transfer studies launched from NACA Wallops Island. More...
  • Nike Nike T40 American test vehicle. Three stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Nike + 1 x Nike + 1 x T-40 More...
  • Nike Nike HPAG American test vehicle. Three stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Nike + 1 x Nike + 1 x HPAG More...
  • RSS-52 Russian air-launched test vehicle. Hypersonic ramjet-powered research vehicle proposed by Myasishchev in 1958. This version of the cancelled Buran intercontinental cruise missile would have been air-launched at supersonic speed from a derivative of the M-50 bomber. It would then use its own ramjet to accelerate to hypersonic velocity. More...
  • X-17 American test vehicle. USAF X-17 flight test program at Cape Canaveral studied reentry problems by simulating reentry velocities and conditions with a three-stage solid-fuel Lockheed X-17. A total of 26 X-17 flights were conducted until March 1957. More...
  • X-17 QTV American test vehicle. Three stage vehicle consisting of 1 x T-40 + 1 x Dummy stage + 1 x Dummy stage More...
  • X-17 HTV American test vehicle. Three stage vehicle consisting of 1 x 3-DS-47000 + 3 x NOTS 124-C + 1 x NOTS 124-C More...
  • X-17 HTV 1 American test vehicle. Three stage vehicle consisting of 1 x 3-DS-47000 + 1 x Dummy stage + 1 x Dummy stage More...
  • HJ Nike T40 T55 American test vehicle. Four stage vehicle consisting of 1 x M-6 + 1 x Nike + 1 x T-40 + 1 x T-55 More...
  • HJ Nike T40 American test vehicle. Three stage vehicle consisting of 1 x M-6 + 1 x Nike + 1 x T-40 More...
  • Nike T40 T55 American test vehicle. Three stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Nike + 1 x T-40 + 1 x T-55 More...
  • Terrapin American test vehicle. Terrapin sounding rockets were two-stage vehicles launched from Wallops Island. The Terrapin sounding rocket was developed by Republic Aviation under a National Security Agency contract for a University of Maryland project that allowed graduate students to study the upper atmosphere. The two-stage rocket used a Deacon motor with a slow-burn grain for the lower stage, and a TSI upper stage. The upper stage was equipped with low-drag swept stabilising fins. More...
  • Nike Recruit American test vehicle. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Nike + 1 x Recruit More...
  • Doorknob 2 American test vehicle. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Lacrosse + 1 x Lacrosse More...
  • Doorknob American test vehicle. Test vehicle developed by Sandia for aeronomy measurements during atmospheric nuclear tests. One (Doorknob-1) or two surplus Lacrosse (Doorknob-2) missile motors were mated with the payload section. More...
  • Atlas A American test vehicle. First test model of Atlas ICBM. Two booster engines, no sustainer, dummy warhead. 50% reliability in 8 flight tests. More...
  • Sergeant 5-stage American test vehicle. Five stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Sergeant + 1 x Lance + 1 x Lance + 1 x Recruit + 1 x T-55 More...
  • Atlas B American test vehicle. First all-up test version of the Atlas ICBM, with jettisonable booster engines and a single engine sustainer on core - a '1 1/2' stage launch vehicle. More...
  • High Virgo American air-launched test vehicle. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x B-58 Hustler + 1 x TX-20 Sergeant More...
  • Black Knight The Black Knight was a British test vehicle designed to test re-entry vehicles for the Blue Streak MRBM. It was subsequently used for a series of US-sponsored test of RV radar signatures. More...
  • Aeolus Australian test vehicle. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Aeolus Booster + 1 x Mayfly More...
  • Atlas C American test vehicle. Last development version of Atlas. Never deployed operationally or used for space launches. More...
  • Orion Test Article American nuclear pulse test vehicle. The original test article for Project Orion had a total mass of 133 kg including its bullet-shaped outer shell. More...
  • ALSOR American test vehicle. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x F-104A Starfighter + 1 x Viper I More...
  • Daniel French test vehicle. Three stage test vehicle for Israel's Jericho consisting of 1 x SPRAN-50 + 1 x MD-620 + 1 x Melanie More...
  • Draco American test vehicle. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x TX-20 Sergeant + 1 x TX-30 More...
  • Trailblazer 1 American test vehicle. The rocket's first three stages would take the upper stage package to a 260 km apogee. The upper stage package was mounted upside-down in relation to the other stages. When it had reached the peak, the three upper stages fired in sequence, ramming the payload, a 13 cm sphere, into the atmosphere at orbital re-entry speeds. More...
  • Trailblazer American test vehicle. The Trailblazer rockets were designed to conduct experiments in re-entry physics. More...
  • Antares French test vehicle. Antares was a re-entry vehicle test booster. The first three stages lofted the fourth stage and RV model to 150 km altitude. The fourth stage then fired downward to ram the RV at Mach 7 into the atmosphere. More...
  • Rook British test vehicle. Single stage vehicle consisting of a Rook solid rocket motor. Used initially for supersonic tests of aircraft models. More...
  • Little Joe Little Joe was used to test the Mercury capsule launch escape system. The booster was designed by NASA Langley using existing components. Six to eight solid rocket motors were mounted in an aerodynamic finned fairing built by North American. More...
  • Leopard British test vehicle. Two stage aerodynamic test vehicle consisting of 1 x Rook + 1 x Gosling. Developed from the basic Rook vehicle for tests requiring higher velocities. More...
  • Shotput American test vehicle. Three stage vehicle consisting of 2 x Recruit + 1 x Sergeant + 1 x Altair More...
  • Strongarm American test vehicle. A large five-stage rocket developed by the Army Ballistics Research Laboratory with the cooperation of the University of Michigan. Consisted of an Honest John plus Nike plus Nike plus modified Recruit plus a scaled-down Sergeant. Fired first from Wallops Island on November 10, 1959. Could lift 6.8 kg to 1600 km. More...
  • Orion Hot Rod American nuclear pulse test vehicle. The modified test article for Project Orion had a total mass of 105 kg. The outer shell and upper shock absorber of the original design were deleted and a parachute recovery system added. More...
  • Strongarm 1 American test vehicle. Four stage vehicle consisting of 1 x M-6 + 1 x Nike + 1 x Nike + 1 x Recruit More...
  • Jaguar B-57 American air-launched test vehicle. Three stage vehicle air launched from a B-57A Canberra. The rocket consisted of consisting of 3 x Recruit + 1 x Recruit + 1 x Baby Sergeant More...
  • HJ Nike Gosling American test vehicle. Three stage vehicle consisting of 1 x M-6 + 1 x Nike + 1 x Gosling More...
  • Jaguar The Jaguar was designed by the RAE Supersonics Department as part of the HRV (Hypersonic Research Vehicle) program. This was a joint project with the Australian Weapons Research Establishment for testing of re-entry vehicles at high speeds. Regardless of the variant, the Rook first stage would propel the upper stages and subscale RV to a high altitude. The upper stages would then fire downward to push the RV into the atmosphere at speeds of up to 5 km/s. After the conclusion of the HRV project in April 1970, tests continued using the Jabiru 3 with other aerothermal experiments until November 1974. More...
  • Jaguar 1 Three stage version consisting of 1 x Rook II + 1 x Gosling IIN + 1 x Lobster I More...
  • VE Series of Experimental Vehicles (VE's), each named after precious stones, leading to the MSBS/SSBS solid propellant missiles that made up the French nuclear deterrent. More...
  • Aigle VE10 The Aigle's simple mission was to allow test of the telemetry equipment that would be used on later instrumented warheads. The first version of the Aigle was a simple fin-stabilised solid rocket propelled by a Stromboli SEPR 737 loaded with 984 kg of 'Plastolite' propellant. More...
  • VE9 First test rocket in the series leading to French IRBM's. The VE 9 instrumented warhead was boosted twice in 1960 and 1961 by a SEPR 732, motor, 55 cm in diameter. his had been developed as the booster for the SE.4400 Surface-to-Air Missile and was the most powerful French solid propellant motor available at that time. More...
  • HAD Australian test vehicle. The HAD vehicle was, like HAT, a two stage rocket, based on British Gosling and LAPStar motors. First launched in 1961, it had two test flights before becoming operational. More...
  • Agate The Agate was the first of the 'precious stone' series of French rockets leading to the Diamant satellite launcher. The single-stage vehicle used the NA801 Mammouth solid propellant rocket developed originally for the SSBT program. The purpose of the fin-stabilised unguided rocket was to test the recoverable instrument pod planned for later missile tests. The Agate R / VE110RR version was used to develop recovery procedures at sea. More...
  • Rocket belt American test vehicle. In the 1960's Bell Aerosystems caught the public imagination with a series of rocket and jet-powered rocket belts. Rocket belt-equipped fliers became a symbol of the future and a fixture at World Fairs, football games, etc. But the technology was too expensive and limited to ever be adopted for military or civilian terrestrial purposes. More...
  • Trailblazer 2M American test vehicle. Five stage version for artificial meteorite launches consisting of 2 x Recruit strap-ons + 1 x Castor first stage + 1 x Skat second stage. The upper stage package consisted of 1 x Altair + 1 x Cygnus 15 + 1 x Cygnus 5 More...
  • Sea Bee American sea-launched test vehicle. Seabee was a brief proof of principle program to validate the sea-launch concept for Sea Dragon. A surplus Aerobee rocket was modified so that it could be fired underwater. The rocket worked properly the first time in restrained mode. Later tests were made with various approaches to readying the unit for repeat firings. This proved to be so simple that the cost of turn-around was found to be about 7% of the cost of a new unit. More...
  • Topaze VE111 Topaze was the first guided rocket in the French 'precious stones' series. As such it was the first launched from a pad rather than a ramp. The initial model was the VE111C (short) with the NA802 motor. More...
  • Sea Horse American sea-launched test vehicle. The second phase of Sea Launch was to demonstrate the concept on a larger scale, with a rocket with a complex set of guidance and control systems. Sea Horse used one of 39 surplus Corporal missiles that Truax obtained from the Army and successfully demonstrated ignition in the ocean of a rocket stage. More...
  • Emma French test vehicle. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Emma Booster + 1 x Emma More...
  • Aigle VE10A The VE10A used an improved, lightened version of the Stromboli booster. More...
  • Deacon Judi American test vehicle. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Deacon + 1 x Judi III More...
  • HAT Australian test vehicle. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x HAT + 1 x LAPSTAR More...
  • LS-A Japanese test vehicle. Early suborbital test version of the Lambda rocket series. More...
  • Little Joe II 6-1-0 American test vehicle. Single stage vehicle consisting of 6 x Recruit + 1 x Algol 1D fired in sequence. More...
  • Little Joe II American test vehicle. Little Joe II was an enlarged version of the Little Joe concept used in the Mercury program, used to test the Apollo capsule launch escape system. The vehicle was designed by General Dynamics. Six to nine solid rocket motors were mounted in an aerodynamic finned fairing. More...
  • Apollo LES American test vehicle. Flight tests from a surface pad of the Apollo Launch Escape System using a boilerplate capsule. More...
  • Topaze VE111L French test vehicle. The VE111L (long) used the stretched NA803 motor. The VE111L was successfully demonstrated the thrust vectoring concept over a longer burn period. The last two flights were VE111LG configuration, equipped with all-up inertial navigation systems. More...
  • Athena RTV American test vehicle. The Athena was designed to simulate the re-entry environment of an intercontinental ballistic missile and was one of the few examples of sustained interstate missile tests within the United States. More...
  • Lambda 3 Japanese test vehicle. Four stage vehicle consisting of 2 x SB-310 + 1 x L735 + 1 x K420 + 1 x Kappa 8 More...
  • Jaguar 2 Three stage version consisting of 1 x Rook IIIA + 1 x Goldfinch II + 1 x Gosling IV More...
  • Little Joe II 4-2-0 American test vehicle. Single stage vehicle consisting of 4 x Recruit + 2 x Algol 1D fired in sequence. More...
  • ST Japanese test vehicle. Single stage vehicle. More...
  • NAL Japanese test vehicle. Single stage vehicles. More...
  • Little Joe II 5-2-2 American test vehicle. Single stage vehicle consisting of 5 x Recruit + 4 x Algol 1D fired in sequence. More...
  • Lambda 3H Japanese test vehicle. Four stage vehicle consisting of 2 x SB-310 + 1 x L735 + 1 x L735(1/3) + 1 x L500 More...
  • ALARR American air-launched test vehicle. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x F4D Phantom + 1 x Genie-Alarr More...
  • Mu-1 Japanese test vehicle. Five stage vehicle consisting of 8 x SB-310 + 1 x M-10 + 1 x M-20 + 1 x M-30 + 1 x M-40 More...
  • Jabiru 2 The Rook motor was 0.43 m in diameter and 5.28 m long. It contained a case-bonded charge of 846 kg of non-aluminized plastic propellant giving a total impulse of 1760 kN-seconds in 5.6 seconds; with a maximum thrust of 323 kN and a specific impulse of 213 seconds. The motor was capable of withstanding the 40g acceleration it provided during firing. It was employed as the first propulsion stage of the Leopard and Jaguar (Jabiru) supersonic test vehicles, and by itself in single-stage test applications. More...
  • LS-C Japanese test vehicle. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x LS-C Booster + 1 x LS-C More...
  • LSC-3 Japanese test vehicle. Early suborbital test version of the Lambda rocket series. More...
  • Grannos French test vehicle. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Emilie + 1 x Melusine More...
  • Stonechat British test vehicle. Single stage hypersonic test vehicles using variants of the Stonechat solid rocket motor. More...
  • Cockatoo The Cockatoo solid-propellant sounding rocket replaced HAD at Woomera in 1970, and consisted of a British Gosling I first stage and an Australian Lupus 1 second stage. More...
  • HPAG American test vehicle. Single stage vehicle. More...
  • Tibere French test vehicle. Tibere was an atmospheric re-entry test vehicle derived from the earlier Berenice. Development was authorized in 1965 to support the Electre re-entry experiment program. The first two stages were Stromboli motors of identical length. The third stage was the P.064 motor developed for the Diamant orbital launcher. More...
  • Athena H American test vehicle. Four stage vehicle consisting of 4 x Recruit + 1 x Castor 4 + 1 x Antares 2 + 1 x Alcor IA More...
  • Jabiru 3 Two stage version consisting of 1 x Rook IIIA + 1 x Rook IIIB More...
  • Tater American test vehicle. Three stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Talos + 1 x Terrier + 1 x Recruit More...
  • Lorikeet Australian test vehicle. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Dorado + 1 x Lupus More...
  • ETV Japanese test vehicle. Three stage vehicle consisting of 8 x SB-310 + 1 x M-10 + 1 x LE-3 More...
  • ST-735 Japanese test vehicle. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x ST-735 + 1 x ST-735 stage 2 More...
  • Dolphin American sea-launched test vehicle. The Dolphin hybrid rocket (solid fuel and liquid oxygen oxidizer) was built by Starstruck (formerly ARC Technology), a predecessor to AMROC. The Dolphin included not only innovative propulsion technology but was also launched from a floating launch cannister at sea. One test article of the hybrid was successfully launched in the summer of 1984. But the project was backed entirely with private funds and when backing for further development was not forthcoming, the project folded. More...
  • VLS-R1 Brazilian all-solid test vehicle. Single stage vehicle. More...
  • SHARP American gun-launched test vehicle. The SHARP (Super High Altitude Research Project) light gas gun was developed by Lawrence Livermore Laboratory in California. The L-shaped gun consisted of the 82 m long, 36 cm calibre pump tube and the 47 m long, 10 cm calibre gun barrel. SHARP began operation in December 1992 and demonstrated velocities of 3 km/sec with 5 kg projectiles. However the $ 1 billion funding to elevate the tube and begin space launch tests of smaller projectiles at speeds of up to 7 km/sec was not forthcoming. By 1996 the gun was relegated to occasional test of sub-scale Mach 9 scramjet models. More...
  • TR-1 Japanese test vehicle. Single stage vehicle. More...
  • Starbird American test vehicle. Four stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Talos + 1 x Sergeant + 1 x Orbus 1 + 1 x Orbus 1 More...
  • STARS American test vehicle. Three stage target vehicle for anti-ballistic missile tests, consisting of a surplus Polaris A3 SLBM (A3P first stage + X-260 second stage) and an Orbus 1 third stage. More...
  • DC-X American VTOVL test vehicle. The DC-X was an experimental vehicle, 1/3 the size of a planned DC-Y vertical-takeoff/vertical-landing, single stage to orbit prototype. It was not designed as an operational vehicle capable of achieving orbital flight. Its purpose was to test the feasibility of both suborbital and orbital reusable launch vehicles using the VTOVL scheme. The DC-X flew in three test series. The first series ran from August 18 to September 30, 1993, before the initial project funding ran out in late October 1993. Additional funding was provided and a second series was conducted June 1994-July 1995. More...
  • Astrid American test vehicle. Single stage vehicle to demonstrate laser-pumped propulsion. More...
  • DC-XA American VTOVL test vehicle. After a hard landing in the last flight of this series, the vehicle was rebuilt to the DC-XA configuration. The DC-XA flew from May 1996 until destroyed when it tipped over while landing on its fourth flight on 31 July 1996. More...
  • SS-520 Japanese test vehicle. The SS-520 was a two-stage rocket, the first stage consisting of the main booster of the S-520. It had a capability of launching a 140 kg payload to an altitude of about 1,000 km, and with addition of a third stage, as a satellite launch vehicle. More...
  • Hyper X American test vehicle. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x NB-52 + 1 x Orion 50S More...

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