Encyclopedia Astronautica
R-2



r2.jpg
R-2 Cutaway
The Soviet R-2 ballistic missile was developed in 1947-1953, nearly in parallel with the R-1 from which it derived. It incorporated many detailed improvements, had double the range of the R-1 and V-2, and was equipped with a deadly radiological warhead. The ethyl alcohol used in the V-2 and R-1 was replaced by methyl alcohol in the R-2, eliminating the problem of the launch troops drinking up the rocket fuel. Versions of the R-2 for suborbital manned flight were studied by Korolev in 1956-1958, but it was decided instead to move directly to orbital flights of the Vostok. However some equipment tested on the R-2 found its way onto canine flights of Sputnik and Vostok. The R-2 design was transferred to China in 1957 to 1961, providing the technical basis of the Chinese rocket industry.

The German engineers at Zentralwerke had already begun development of an improved V-2 engine in 1945. Through relatively simple measures the thrust was increased to 30 metric tons. Glushko then found that by using 96% alcohol fuel in place of the V-2's 75%, the basic engine would deliver 37 metric tons thrust. Experimental tests of these tweaked V-2 and all-Russian RD-100 engines were conducted in 1948 - 1949. Official state trials tests were conducted at Zagorsk in 1950.

The R-2 was designed by Korolev in 1947-1948 in competition with Groettrup's G-1. Korolev's approach was to apply simple measures to double the range of the V-2. The increased-thrust engine allowed the rocket to be stretched, with a lift-off mass 50% greater than the V-2. When the G-1 and R-2 were evaluated by the State Commission in December 1948, the G-1 was found the superior design. Korolev fought the decision for a long time, updating his R-2 design to include some of the G-1's features, such as the use of an integral fuel tank, and improved accuracy through a radio-controlled engine cut-off system (russified by Mikahil Borisenko). Finally the decision was reversed and Korolev's design was accepted for test. State trials flights were conducted from 21 September 1949 to July 1951. Barmin had already designed the mobile launch complex to accommodate either the R-1 or R-2 missiles. The system was accepted into the military on 27 November 1951. A 30 November 1951 decree authorized series production at factory 586 at Dnepropetrovsk. The first launch by a military unit was made with a prototype rocket in 1952. The first production rocket was rolled out there in June 1953 (only six months after the first all-Dnepropetrovsk R-1).

The gruesome Geran radiological warhead was developed for use with the R-2. This dispersed a radioactive liquid at altitude, resulting in a deadly 'radioactive rain' falling in a wide area around the impact point.

R-2's were deployed in rocket brigades equipped with six launchers (three divisions per brigade, each division with two batteries). The 54th and 56th brigades were formed for test launches at Kapustin Yar on 1 June 1952. Following receipt of production missiles in 1953, divisions were deployed to Zhitomir; Kolomiya; Medved, Novgorod oblast; Kamyshin, Volgograd oblast; Siauliai, Lithuania; Dzhambul, Kazakhstan; and Ordzhonikidze, in the Far East.

In field use a crew of 11 was required for launch preparations. The radio-correction system required two truck-mounted stations. It took six hours to prepare the rocket for launch, including 15 minutes for the guidance system to be programmed. Once prepared, the rocket could be held in a ready-to-launch condition for 24 hours before it had to be defuelled and recycled. The rocket was launched in service at temperatures from -40 deg C to +50 deg C, and at wind speeds of up to 15 m/s.

On 6 December 1957 an agreement was signed to license production of the R-2 to China. A huge team of Russian rocket engineers and technicians went to Beijing to set up the production line. This rocket provided the technological base for the subsequent Chinese rocket programs.

Aside from the basic military service version of the R-2, specialized variants included:

  • R-2E: Prototype rocket with characteristics of both the R-1 and R-2 used to test the integral fuel tank and separable warhead planned for the production R-2 missile.
  • R-2R: Evidently used to test the advanced radio controlled cut-off system being developed for the R-3. However this may also just identify certain R-2A flights with this payload. No launch dates conclusively known.
  • R-2A: This was the main variant for scientific work, used to continue the experiment series of the R-1 to a height of 200 kilometers. Instruments were carried to study the atmosphere over 150 km; ultra-violet observation of the sun; ultra-violet astronomy; the ionosphere; and recovery of biological payloads (dogs and rabbits) from double the altitude of the R-1.

Technical details: Payload 1350 / 508 kg. Range 550 km (576 km in R-2E version). Maximum altitude 171 km. Time of flight 7.5 minutes. Max velocity at burnout 2175 m/s. Accuracy 8 km in range, 4 km laterally. The R-2A version could carry 1400 kg on a 209 km vertical shot.

More... - Chronology...


Associated Launch Vehicles
  • R-2 Russian intermediate range ballistic missile. The Soviet R-2 ballistic missile was developed in 1947-1953, nearly in parallel with the R-1 from which it derived. It incorporated many detailed improvements, had double the range of the R-1 and V-2, and was equipped with a deadly radiological warhead. The ethyl alcohol used in the V-2 and R-1 was replaced by methyl alcohol in the R-2, eliminating the problem of the launch troops drinking up the rocket fuel. Versions of the R-2 for suborbital manned flight were studied by Korolev in 1956-1958, but it was decided instead to move directly to orbital flights of the Vostok. However some equipment tested on the R-2 found its way onto canine flights of Sputnik and Vostok. The R-2 design was transferred to China in 1957 to 1961, providing the technical basis of the Chinese rocket industry. More...
  • R-2E Russian intermediate range ballistic suborbital launch vehicle. The R-2E prototype tested technological innovations planned for the production R-2 missile. These included use of an integral fuel tank and a seperable warhead. More...
  • R-2R Russian intermediate range ballistic missile. More...
  • R-2A Russian intermediate range ballistic suborbital launch vehicle. The R-2A was designed for scientific research at altitudes of up to 200 km, including properties of the atmosphere from 150-200 km; ultraviolet observations of the sun; recovery of animals from flights to 200 km altitude; and study of the ionosphere at altitudes of 150-200 km. More...

Associated Launch Sites
  • Kapustin Yar Russia's first missile test range and used for satellite launches of smaller Kosmos vehicles. V-2's launched from here in 1946 were the first ballistic missiles fired on Soviet territory. It was greatly expanded as the test site for innumerable Soviet intermediate and short range missile projects in the 1950's.. Kapustin Year was also headquarters of the first operational R-1/R-2 units, 1950-1953, and later a base for 12 operational R-14 missile launchers. Kapustin Yar was known to have been used for over 3519 major launches from 1946 to 2007. More...
  • Jiuquan China's first launch center, also known as Shuang Cheng Tzu. Jiuquan Satellite Launch Centre, situated at 100 degrees East, 41 degrees North, is located in the Jiuquan Region, Gansu province, north-western China. It was China's first ballistic missile and satellite launch centre. More...

R-2 Chronology


1946 October 23 - . LV Family: R-1; R-2; R-5. Launch Vehicle: G-1; G-2; G-3; G-4; R-3.
  • Groettrup team transported to Soviet Union. - . Nation: USSR. Summary: In overnight roundup, 20,000 Germans transported to USSR to transfer technology on aerospace and other technical fields..

1948 April 14 - . LV Family: R-1; R-2. Launch Vehicle: R-3.
  • Decree for production of R-1 and R-2 missiles, design of R-3. - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Glushko. Decree 'On work on the R-1 and R-2 missiles' was issued. To accomplish putting the R-1 into production the resources of 13 research institutes and 35 factories were tapped. Glushko was tasked with producing the RD-100 copy of the V-2 engine. R-1 stand tests began the same day the decree was issued (Prototypes had already begun factory tests at the end of 1947). The decree also set forth design goals for the R-3.The specification was an order of magnitude leap from the other vehicles - to deliver a 3 tonne atomic bomb to any point in Europe from Soviet territory - a required range of 3000 km.

1948 December 28 - . LV Family: R-2. Launch Vehicle: G-1.
  • G-1 and R-2 designs evaluated by Soviet State Commission. - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Korolev. The team defended the G-1 draft project on 28 December 1948. The State Commission found the G-1 to be superior to Korolev's R-2 design in many respects. However the Russian designers managed to convince the government to put the R-2 rather than the G-1 into production by arguing that the manufacturing technology of the G-1 could not be mastered immediately by Soviet Union. Several of the design concepts (integrated propellant tanks, radio-controlled cut-off, forward liquid oxygen tank) were however used by the Russians in their R-2 and R-5 rockets.

1949 September 25 - . 11:16 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-2. Launch Vehicle: R-2E. LV Configuration: R-2e 1.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi). Summary: Modification of R-1 missile to test R-2 concepts (integral fuel tank and seperable warhead). Range achieved 541.3 km. Deviation from aim point -0.2 km. Launched at 1416 local time..

1949 September 30 - . 11:49 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-2. Launch Vehicle: R-2E. LV Configuration: R-2e 2.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi). Summary: Range achieved 562.2 km. Deviation from aim point -9.3 km. Launched at 1449 local time..

1949 October 2 - . 11:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-2. Launch Vehicle: R-2E. LV Configuration: R-2e 3. FAILURE: Fire in tail compartment..
  • - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi). Summary: Range achieved 324.1 km. Deviation from aim point -11.4 km. Launched at 1400 local time..

1949 October 8 - . 06:05 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-2. Launch Vehicle: R-2E. LV Configuration: R-2e 4.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi). Summary: Range achieved 569.8 km. Deviation from aim point -0.8 km. Launched at 0905 local time..

1949 October 11 - . 12:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-2. Launch Vehicle: R-2E. LV Configuration: R-2e 5. FAILURE: Fire in tail compartment..
  • - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi). Summary: Range achieved 9 km. Deviation from aim point 1.7 km. Launched at 1545 local time..

1950 October 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-2. Launch Vehicle: R-2. LV Configuration: R-2 2.
  • First series test launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1950 October 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-2. Launch Vehicle: R-2. LV Configuration: R-2 3. FAILURE: Failed to reach target.
  • First series test launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi). Summary: First launch to full range..

1950 October 21 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-2. Launch Vehicle: R-2. LV Configuration: R-2 1.
  • First series test launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi). Summary: First launch in first test series of protoype missiles..

1950 November 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-2. Launch Vehicle: R-2. LV Configuration: R-2 4.
  • First series test launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1950 November 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-2. Launch Vehicle: R-2. LV Configuration: R-2 8.
  • First series test launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1950 November 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-2. Launch Vehicle: R-2. LV Configuration: R-2 5.
  • First series test launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1950 November 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-2. Launch Vehicle: R-2. LV Configuration: R-2 6.
  • First series test launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1950 November 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-2. Launch Vehicle: R-2. LV Configuration: R-2 7.
  • First series test launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1950 December 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-2. Launch Vehicle: R-2. LV Configuration: R-2 10.
  • First series test launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1950 December 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-2. Launch Vehicle: R-2. LV Configuration: R-2 11.
  • First series test launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1950 December 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-2. Launch Vehicle: R-2. LV Configuration: R-2 9.
  • First series test launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1950 December 20 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-2. Launch Vehicle: R-2. LV Configuration: R-2 12. FAILURE: Failed to reach target.
  • First series test launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi). Summary: Twelfth and final launch in prototype test series. All missiles failed to reach targets..

1951 July 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-2. Launch Vehicle: R-2. LV Configuration: R-2 II-4.
  • Second series test launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1951 July 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-2. Launch Vehicle: R-2. LV Configuration: R-2 II-5.
  • Second series test launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1951 July 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-2. Launch Vehicle: R-2. LV Configuration: R-2 II-6.
  • Second series test launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1951 July 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-2. Launch Vehicle: R-2. LV Configuration: R-2 II-3.
  • Second series test launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1951 July 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-2. Launch Vehicle: R-2. LV Configuration: R-2 II-9.
  • Second series test launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1951 July 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-2. Launch Vehicle: R-2. LV Configuration: R-2 II-2.
  • Second series test launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1951 July 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-2. Launch Vehicle: R-2. LV Configuration: R-2 II-8.
  • Second series test launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1951 July 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-2. Launch Vehicle: R-2. LV Configuration: R-2 II-12.
  • Second series test launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1951 July 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-2. Launch Vehicle: R-2. LV Configuration: R-2 II-11.
  • Second series test launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1951 July 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-2. Launch Vehicle: R-2. LV Configuration: R-2 II-10.
  • Second series test launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1951 July 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-2. Launch Vehicle: R-2. LV Configuration: R-2 II-7.
  • Second series test launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1951 July 2 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-2. Launch Vehicle: R-2. LV Configuration: R-2 II-1.
  • Second series test launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi). Summary: First launch in second test series..

1951 July 27 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-2. Launch Vehicle: R-2. LV Configuration: R-2 II-13.
  • Second series test launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi). Summary: Thirteenth and last launch of the second series. 12 of the 13 reached their targets..

1951 November 27 - . LV Family: R-2. Launch Vehicle: R-2.
  • R-2 accepted for military service. - . Nation: USSR. Summary: Council of Soviet Ministers (SM) Decree 4972-2096 'On adoption of the R-2 into armaments' was issued..

1951 November 30 - . LV Family: R-2. Launch Vehicle: R-2.
  • R-2 production authorised. - . Nation: USSR. Summary: Ministry of Armaments Decree 'On starting of series production of the R-2 at Dnepropetrovsk Plant No. 586' was issued. The first launch by a military unit was made with a prototype rocket in 1952..

1952 June 1 - . LV Family: R-2. Launch Vehicle: R-2.
  • R-2 test brigades organised - . Nation: USSR. Summary: The 54th and 56th brigades were formed for test launches at Kapustin Yar. R-2's were deployed in rocket brigades equipped with six launchers (three divisions per brigade, each division with two batteries)..

1952 August 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-2. Launch Vehicle: R-2. LV Configuration: R-2 KT-6.
  • Third series controlled test launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1952 August 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-2. Launch Vehicle: R-2. LV Configuration: R-2 KT-7.
  • Third series controlled test launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1952 August 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-2. Launch Vehicle: R-2. LV Configuration: R-2 KT-4.
  • Third series controlled test launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1952 August 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-2. Launch Vehicle: R-2. LV Configuration: R-2 KT-3.
  • Third series controlled test launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1952 August 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-2. Launch Vehicle: R-2. LV Configuration: R-2 KT-2.
  • Third series controlled test launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1952 August 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-2. Launch Vehicle: R-2. LV Configuration: R-2 KT-5.
  • Third series controlled test launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1952 August 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-2. Launch Vehicle: R-2. LV Configuration: R-2 KT-8.
  • Third series controlled test launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1952 August 8 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-2. Launch Vehicle: R-2. LV Configuration: R-2 KT-1.
  • Third series controlled test launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi). Summary: First launch of production quality assurance test series..

1952 September 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-2. Launch Vehicle: R-2. LV Configuration: R-2 KT-12.
  • Third series controlled test launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1952 September 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-2. Launch Vehicle: R-2. LV Configuration: R-2 KT-13.
  • Third series controlled test launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1952 September 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-2. Launch Vehicle: R-2. LV Configuration: R-2 KT-10.
  • Third series controlled test launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1952 September 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-2. Launch Vehicle: R-2. LV Configuration: R-2 KT-9.
  • Third series controlled test launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1952 September 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-2. Launch Vehicle: R-2. LV Configuration: R-2 KT-11.
  • Third series controlled test launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1952 September 18 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-2. Launch Vehicle: R-2. LV Configuration: R-2 KT-14.
  • Third series controlled test launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi). Summary: 14th and last launch in quality assurance testing. 12 of the 14 reached their targets..

1953 June - . LV Family: R-2. Launch Vehicle: R-2.
  • First R-2 production delivery - . Nation: USSR. The first production rocket was rolled out at Dnepropetrovsk (only six months after the first all-Dnepropetrovsk R-1). Following receipt of production missiles, divisions were deployed to Zhitomir; Kolomoaya; Medved, Novgorod oblast; Kamyshin, Volgograd oblast; Shyalya, Lithuania; Dzhambul, Kazakhstan; and Ordzhonikidze, in the Far East.

1954 May 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-2. Launch Vehicle: R-2. LV Configuration: R-2 Prod. missile.
  • First production series test launch. - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1954 May 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-2. Launch Vehicle: R-2. LV Configuration: R-2 Prod. missile.
  • First production series test launch. - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi). Summary: First launch of series production missile..

1954 May 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-2. Launch Vehicle: R-2. LV Configuration: R-2 Prod. missile.
  • First production series test launch. - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1954 May 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-2. Launch Vehicle: R-2. LV Configuration: R-2 Prod. missile.
  • First production series test launch. - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1954 May 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-2. Launch Vehicle: R-2. LV Configuration: R-2 Prod. missile.
  • NII-88 Production - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1954 May 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-2. Launch Vehicle: R-2. LV Configuration: R-2 Prod. missile.
  • NII-88 Production - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1954 May 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-2. Launch Vehicle: R-2. LV Configuration: R-2 Prod. missile.
  • NII-88 Production - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1954 May 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-2. Launch Vehicle: R-2. LV Configuration: R-2 Prod. missile.
  • NII-88 Production - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1954 May 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-2. Launch Vehicle: R-2. LV Configuration: R-2 Prod. missile.
  • First production series test launch. - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1954 June 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-2. Launch Vehicle: R-2. LV Configuration: R-2 Prod. missile.
  • First production series test launch. - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1954 June - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. LV Family: R-2. Launch Vehicle: R-2. FAILURE: Failed to reach target..
  • First production series test launch. - . Nation: USSR.

1954 June - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. LV Family: R-2. Launch Vehicle: R-2.
  • First production series test launch. - . Nation: USSR.

1954 June - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. LV Family: R-2. Launch Vehicle: R-2.
  • First production series test launch. - . Nation: USSR.

1954 June - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. LV Family: R-2. Launch Vehicle: R-2.
  • First production series test launch. - . Nation: USSR. Summary: 10th and last launch in production missile series, 8 successes.

1954 July - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. LV Family: R-2. Launch Vehicle: R-2.
  • First test launch of missile modified for heavier payload. - . Nation: USSR.

1954 August - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. LV Family: R-2. Launch Vehicle: R-2.
  • Final test launch of missile modified for heavier payload. - . Nation: USSR.

1955 January - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. LV Family: R-2. Launch Vehicle: R-2R.
  • Experimental flight test, plume effect on telemetry transmission. - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi). Summary: R-3 development work..

1955 July 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-2. Launch Vehicle: R-2.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1955 August 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-2. Launch Vehicle: R-2.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1956 February 27 - . LV Family: Kosmos 2; R-1; R-2; R-5; R-7.
  • Soviet Leadership tours Korolev's design bureau - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Khrushchev; Bulganin; Korolev; Ustinov. Khrushchev, Molotov, Bulganin, and other leaders are given a tour of Korolev’s OKB-1 in Kaliningrad. They are shown the R-1, R-2 and R-5 missiles as well as a mock-up of the R-7 and are awed. Ustinov reports that only five warheads would be needed to destroy Britain, and seven to nine for France. The need for the R-12 was discussed - the longer range was essential so that the missiles could be based farther from NATO’s borders (the experience of the German invasion and quick destruction of forward-based units and equipment was on everyone’s minds).

1956 June 20 - . LV Family: R-2; R-5.
  • Sounding rocket variants of R-2 and R-5 authorised. - . Nation: USSR. Summary: Decree 'MOP On production of the R-5A and R-2A scientific missiles at Plant No. 586' was issued..

1956 September 13 - . LV Family: R-1; R-2. Launch Vehicle: DF-1.
  • Russian agrees to sell China two R-1 missiles - . Nation: China. Related Persons: Tsien. Program: Long March. Summary: They were delivered in December 1956. Tsien is disgusted to find that the missiles are nothing but copies of the V-2. Something more advanced is needed, he argues to the Russians..

1957 April 12 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-2. Launch Vehicle: R-2A.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1957 April 14 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-2. Launch Vehicle: R-2A.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1957 May 16 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. LV Family: R-2. Launch Vehicle: R-2A.
  • First operational R-2A launch; carried dogs. - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 212 km (131 mi).

1957 May 16 - . 02:14 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-2. Launch Vehicle: R-2A. LV Configuration: R-2A No. 1.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: AN. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

1957 May 16 - . 03:18 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-2. Launch Vehicle: R-2A.
  • Test / biology mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: AN. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

1957 May 24 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-2. Launch Vehicle: R-2A. LV Configuration: R-2A No. 2.
  • Test / biology mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: AN. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).
  • Second operational R-2A launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 212 km (131 mi).

1957 June 7 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar SP-2. LV Family: R-2. Launch Vehicle: R-2A.
  • NIIP-A target - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1957 June 10 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar SP-2. LV Family: R-2. Launch Vehicle: R-2A.
  • NIIP-A target - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1957 June 22 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar SP-2. LV Family: R-2. Launch Vehicle: R-2A.
  • NIIP-A target - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1957 June 23 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar SP-2. LV Family: R-2. Launch Vehicle: R-2A.
  • NIIP-A target - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1957 June 28 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar SP-2. LV Family: R-2. Launch Vehicle: R-2A.
  • NIIP-A target - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1957 June 29 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar SP-2. LV Family: R-2. Launch Vehicle: R-2A.
  • NIIP-A target - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1957 July 4 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar SP-2. LV Family: R-2. Launch Vehicle: R-2A.
  • NIIP-A target - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1957 July 5 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar SP-2. LV Family: R-2. Launch Vehicle: R-2A.
  • NIIP-A target - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1957 August 13 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-2. Launch Vehicle: R-2A.
  • SOI Solar ultraviolet mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1957 August 25 - . 02:23 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-2. Launch Vehicle: R-2A. LV Configuration: R-2A No. 3.
  • Ionosphere / biological mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 206 km (128 mi).

1957 August 25 - . 03:27 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-2. Launch Vehicle: R-2A.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: AN. Apogee: 208 km (129 mi).

1957 August 31 - . 05:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-2. Launch Vehicle: R-2A. LV Configuration: R-2A No. 4.
  • Ionosphere / biological mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 185 km (114 mi).

1957 September 9 - . 15:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-2. Launch Vehicle: R-2A. LV Configuration: R-2A No. 5.
  • Ionosphere / biological mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 212 km (131 mi).

1957 October 15 - . LV Family: R-2. Launch Vehicle: DF-1.
  • Russia to assist China in missile development - . Nation: China. Related Persons: Tsien. Program: Long March. Russian and China sign New Defense Technical Accord, whereby Russia will supply China with protoype atomic bomb and two R-2 missiles, and related technical data. Under the agreement the Soviet Union will provide to China the necessary specialists, training, and tooling for licensed production of the R-2 ballistic missile (an improved version of the V-2).

1957 December 6 - . LV Family: R-2. Launch Vehicle: DF-1.
  • R-2 licensed for production in China. - . Nation: USSR. On 6 December 1957 an agreement was signed to license production of the R-2 to China. A huge team of Russian rocket engineers and technicians went to Beijing to set up the production line. This rocket provided the technological base for the subsequent Chinese rocket programs.

1957 December 24 - . LV Family: R-2. Launch Vehicle: DF-1.
  • R-2 missiles arrive in China. - . Nation: China. Related Persons: Tsien. Program: Long March. Summary: A Red Army missile battalion with two R-2's and their launchers arrive in Beijing by rail. They are secretly moved to the premises of the Fifth Academy in the middle of the night..

June 1956 - . Launch Site: Jiuquan. LV Family: R-2. Launch Vehicle: DF-1.
  • Beginning of construction at Jiuquan missile test site - . Nation: China. Related Persons: Tsien. Program: Long March. Summary: The 20th Corps of the People's Liberation Army begins construction of launch and tracking facilities at Jiuquan. Wells are dug, willow and poplar trees are planted, roads and housing are constructed..

1958 July 2 - . 05:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-2. Launch Vehicle: R-2A.
  • Chemical release mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: AN. Apogee: 210 km (130 mi).

1958 July 31 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar SP-2. LV Family: R-2. Launch Vehicle: R-2A.
  • NIIP-A target - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1958 August 2 - . 05:47 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-2. Launch Vehicle: R-2A. LV Configuration: R-2A No. 6.
  • Ionosphere / biological mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 211 km (131 mi).

1958 August 7 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar SP-2. LV Family: R-2. Launch Vehicle: R-2A.
  • NIIP-A target - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1958 August 13 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. LV Family: R-2. Launch Vehicle: R-2A.
  • R-2A launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 212 km (131 mi).
  • Ionosphere / biological mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: AN. Apogee: 212 km (131 mi).

1958 August 17 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar SP-2. LV Family: R-2. Launch Vehicle: R-2A.
  • NIIP-A target - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1958 August 27 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar SP-2. LV Family: R-2. Launch Vehicle: R-2A.
  • NIIP-A target - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1958 August 27 - . 04:06 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-2. Launch Vehicle: R-2A.
  • Ionosphere / biological mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 209 km (129 mi).

1958 September 19 - . LV Family: DF-2; R-2. Launch Vehicle: DF-1; DF-3 Tsien.
  • Missile development plans set. - . Nation: China. Related Persons: Tsien. Program: Long March. Summary: Fifth Academy finalizes plan to proceed development of indigenous Dong Feng missiles (original DF-1, DF-2, DF-3 designations).

1958 October 15 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar SP-2. LV Family: R-2. Launch Vehicle: R-2A.
  • NIIP-A target - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1959 June 22 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. LV Family: R-2. Launch Vehicle: R-2A.
  • R-2A launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 212 km (131 mi).

1959 July 2 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. LV Family: R-2. Launch Vehicle: R-2A.
  • R-2A flight - . Nation: USSR. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 212 km (131 mi). Summary: Carried dogs Otvazhnaya and Snezhinka, rabbit Marfusha..
  • Ionosphere / aeronomy / biological mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 220 km (130 mi).

1959 July 10 - . 04:47 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-2. Launch Vehicle: R-2A. LV Configuration: R-2A No. 10.
  • Solar ultraviolet / biology mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1959 July 14 - . 03:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-2. Launch Vehicle: R-2A.
  • Ionosphere / aeronomy mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 203 km (126 mi).

1959 July 21 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-2. Launch Vehicle: R-2A.
  • Solar x-ray mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 105 km (65 mi).

1960 June 15 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. LV Family: R-2. Launch Vehicle: R-2A.
  • Carried dogs (Otvazhnaya and one unnamed). - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 212 km (131 mi).
  • Aeronomy / ionosphere / solar / biology mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: AN. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

1960 June 23 - . 23:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. LV Family: R-2. Launch Vehicle: R-2A. LV Configuration: R-2A No. 13.
  • Ionosphere / aeronomy / biological mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

1960 June 24 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. LV Family: R-2. Launch Vehicle: R-2A.
  • Carried dogs, final operational R-2A launch. - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 212 km (131 mi).

1960 July 4 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar SP-2. LV Family: R-2. Launch Vehicle: R-2A.
  • NIIP-A target - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1960 July 7 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar SP-2. LV Family: R-2. Launch Vehicle: R-2A.
  • NIIP-A target - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1960 July 23 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar SP-2. LV Family: R-2. Launch Vehicle: R-2A.
  • NIIP-A target - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1960 July 31 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar SP-2. LV Family: R-2. Launch Vehicle: R-2A.
  • NIIP-A target - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1960 August 12 - . LV Family: DF-2; Kosmos 2; R-2. Launch Vehicle: DF-1.
  • Soviet/China break. - . Nation: China. Related Persons: Tsien. In the preceding months relations between the Soviet advisors and Chinese engineers had been strained by increasing Soviet secrecy. The Russians catch Chinese students at the Moscow Aviation Institute stealing restricted missile data. Finally Khrushchev declared the suspension of military assistance to China. All 1,343 Soviet specialists are withdrawn from the Fifth Academy in Beijing and return to Russia. They leave behind 343 uncompleted contracts. A total of 257 technical development projects were cancelled as a result.

1960 August 23 - . LV Family: DF-2; Kosmos 2; R-2. Launch Vehicle: DF-1.
  • Last Russian advisers leave China. - . Nation: China. Related Persons: Tsien. Program: Long March. Summary: The last Russian technical advisers are withdrawn from China..

1960 September 1 - . Launch Site: Jiuquan. Launch Complex: Jiuquan LA3. LV Family: R-2. Launch Vehicle: R-2.
  • - . Nation: China. Agency: PRC. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi). Summary: The rocket was built in the Soviet Union but used Chinese propellants. This launch took place just a month after all Soviet experts were withdrawn from China..

1960 September 16 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-2. Launch Vehicle: R-2A.
  • Ionosphere / aeronomy / biological mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: AN. Apogee: 210 km (130 mi).

1960 September 22 - . 20:56 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-2. Launch Vehicle: R-2A.
  • Ionosphere / aeronomy / biology mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 210 km (130 mi).

1962 May 21 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar SP-2. LV Family: R-2. Launch Vehicle: R-2A.
  • NIIP-A target - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

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