Encyclopedia Astronautica
R-1



r1.jpg
R-1 Cutaway
Stalin did not decide to proceed with Soviet production of this copy of the German V-2 until 1948. Despite the threatening supervision of the program by Stalin's secret police chief, Beria, and the assistance of German rocket engineers, it took eight years for the German technology to be absorbed and the missile to be put into service. It was almost immediately superseded by later designs, but the effort laid the groundwork for the Soviet rocket industry. Surplus R-1's were converted to use as a sounding rockets for military and scientific research missions.

The decision to copy the German V-2 missile did not come quickly. Following construction of an initial batch of V-2 missiles in Germany (the N series), and the removal of available German rocket specialists to Soviet territory, Stalin spent some time before deciding what to do with them. It was not until 26 July 1947 that a decree was issued for test of the V-2 missiles at the new rocket test ground at Kapustin Yar. The first test series of 'N' rockets was conducted from September to October 1947. German assistance was required to get the rockets to fire, and then of 10 or 11 launched, only 5 were successful. A follow-on launch of 10 'T' series rockets, completed in Germany at Kleinbodungen, was just as dismal. Only 5 worked, with the others demonstrating a maximum rang of 274 km and 86 km altitude.

A resolution to put into production a Soviet-built copy of the V-2, the R-1, was issued on 14 April 1948. Aleksander Shcherbakov was responsible for seeing that a fifteen year technology gap was bridged. To accomplish this the resources of 13 research institutes and 35 factories were tapped. Glushko was tasked with producing the RD-100 copy of the V-2 engine. Prototypes had already begun factory tests at the end of 1947, with stand tests beginning in May 1948. R-1 test flight trials were accomplished swiftly - ten in 1948 and 20 in 1949. On 25 November 1950 the missile was accepted for service, with the first operational unit being the 92nd brigade (BON RVGK) at Kapustin Yar. Things seemed to be going well, but getting the missile in production would be another matter.

The missiles flown so far had been built by Korolev's NII-88 research institute at Podpliki. But Soviet aerospace practice was to assign production to a factory facility. Factory 66 at Zlatoust was selected for this in 1949, with SKB-385 to assume production design responsibility and to develop variations of the R-1 with greater range. But the work dragged on without results, and on 1 June 1951 Beria switched R-1 production to Factory 586 at Dnepropetrovsk. He ordered engine production to begin in two months - even allowing an engineer to blurt out that it would take at least eight months without consigning him to the Gulag. But the engineer was more nearly right, and the first Dnepropetrovsk production R-1, albeit still containing many parts and assemblies fabricated at NII-88, was finally completed in June 1952. First stand tests of production 8D51 engines began on 15 August 1952. The first rocket built completely of Dnepropetrovsk-fabricated parts was rolled out on 28 November 1952.

In field service the rocket required twenty vehicles and four kinds of liquid propellants for the main engine, turbines, and starter (liquid oxygen, alcohol, hydrogen peroxide, permanganate catalyst). Six hours were required to prepare the rocket for launch, and CEP was only 1500 m. Another major objection of Red Army Generals - they didn't dare let the troops work with a rocket using alcohol for a propellant...

Nevertheless in December 1950 the first field R-1 unit was formed - the 23rd brigade (BON RVGK). Each brigade was equipped with six launchers. In January 1951 the 23rd deployed to Kamishin in Volgograd oblast. Further deployments of this pathfinder unit were to Belokovorovich, Ukraine; Shyalyay, Lithuania; Dzhambul, Kazakhstan, and Ordzhonikidze, the Far East, the Primorsk area. The 77th and 90th brigades were formed at Lvov, Khmelnitskiy, and Zhitomir, Ukraine. In August 1958 they were transferred to the Land Forces. The number of units fielded was small, reflecting the long delay in getting the R-1 into production. The difficulties confirmed the German's 1946 assessment that Russian industrial technology was fifteen years behind that of Germany. The field equipment was designed to also be used for R-2 missiles, which quickly replaced the R-1 in the field units.

A sea launched variant of the R-1, probably similar to the German 'Pruefstand VII' submarine-towed, pod-launched project, was also studied from 1949 to 1950, but not proceeded with.

Aside from the service version of the missile, variants were used for technology and scientific tests. From the fifth flight of the R-1A these were equipped with ejectable lateral containers and a separable nose cone for recovery of biological specimens (dogs and rabbits) and other instruments exposed to zero G conditions and altitudes up to 100 km:

  • R-1A for test of separable warheads for use on future ballistic missiles (the R-2 and R-3). The last two launches were vertical scientific flights to sample the upper atmosphere.
  • R-1B and R-1V for study of cosmic rays, the upper atmosphere, solar radiation, recoverable biological payloads, and recovery of the entire missile by parachute for reuse.
  • R-1D for study of the atmosphere; aerodynamics of test shapes at high velocities and altitudes; wind in the upper layers of the atmosphere; the ionosphere; and recoverable biological and instrument payloads.
  • R-1Ye for study of the atmosphere, solar spectrum, aerodynamics; wind in the upper layers of atmosphere; ionosphere; ozone layer; recoverable biological specimens, and recovery of the entire missile by parachute.

Official figures for the missile version include: Payload 815 kg. Range 270 km. Maximum altitude 77 km. Time of flight 5 minutes. Max velocity at burnout 1465 m/s. Accuracy 8 km in range, 4 km laterally.

More... - Chronology...


Associated Launch Vehicles
  • R-1 Russian short range ballistic missile. Stalin did not decide to proceed with Soviet production of this copy of the German V-2 until 1948. Despite the threatening supervision of the program by Stalin's secret police chief, Beria, and the assistance of German rocket engineers, it took eight years for the German technology to be absorbed and the missile to be put into service. It was almost immediately superseded by later designs, but the effort laid the groundwork for the Soviet rocket industry. Surplus R-1's were converted to use as a sounding rockets for military and scientific research missions. More...
  • R-1A Russian short range ballistic test vehicle. Experimental missile for testing warhead separation. More...
  • R-1V Russian short range ballistic suborbital launch vehicle. The R-1V version was designed for scientific research at altitudes of up to 100 km, including study of cosmic rays; properties of the atmosphere; solar spectra; effects if zero-G and radiation on animals; and development of recovery of the entire missile using parachutes in order to reuse it for further experimental launches. More...
  • R-1B Russian short range ballistic suborbital launch vehicle. The R-1B version was designed for scientific research at altitudes of up to 100 km, including study of cosmic rays; properties of the atmosphere; solar spectra; effects if zero-G and radiation on animals; and development of recovery of the entire missile using parachutes in order to reuse it for further experimental launches. More...
  • R-1 8A11 Russian short range ballistic missile. Initial production version. More...
  • R-1D Russian short range ballistic suborbital launch vehicle. The R-1B version was designed for scientific research at altitudes of up to 100 km, including winds aloft, the ionosphere, and effects of spaceflight and recovery of living animals. More...
  • R-1E Russian short range ballistic suborbital launch vehicle. The R-1E version was designed for scientific research at altitudes of up to 100 km, including winds aloft, air composition, solar radiation, the ionosphere, ozone layer characteristics, and effects of spaceflight and recovery of living animals. More...

Associated Launch Sites
  • Kapustin Yar Russia's first missile test range and used for satellite launches of smaller Kosmos vehicles. V-2's launched from here in 1946 were the first ballistic missiles fired on Soviet territory. It was greatly expanded as the test site for innumerable Soviet intermediate and short range missile projects in the 1950's.. Kapustin Year was also headquarters of the first operational R-1/R-2 units, 1950-1953, and later a base for 12 operational R-14 missile launchers. Kapustin Yar was known to have been used for over 3519 major launches from 1946 to 2007. More...
  • Kheysa Soviet arctic sounding rocket launch site, known to have been used for 1950 launches from 1957 to 1990, reaching up to 200 kilometers altitude. More...

R-1 Chronology


1946 May 13 - . LV Family: R-1; V-2.
  • Committee formed to implement German rocket technology in Russia. - . Nation: USSR. Council of Soviet Ministers (SM) Decree 1017-419ss 'Questions of Reactive Armaments-formation of Special Committee for Reactive Technology (later Special Committee No. 2) of Council of Ministers for the co-ordination of work on missiles' was issued. This decree set up a number of new research institutes to exploit German rocket technology.

1946 June - . LV Family: R-1. Launch Vehicle: R-1.
  • Groettrup team completes R-2 design. - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Groettrup. Groettrup team in Nordhausen completes design of the K1 (R-1). The design uses some parts manufactured in reopened factories in the German east zone. Factory 88 at Podlipki (later Kaliningrad, then Korolev) 16 km north-west of Moscow, and Factory 456, at Khimki, 7 km north-west of Moscow, are to be the first two Soviet rocket assembly factories.

1946 June 21 - . LV Family: R-1. Launch Vehicle: R-1.
  • NII-4 founded. - . Nation: USSR. Summary: Decree 'On establishment of NII-4' was issued..

1946 July 3 - . LV Family: R-1. Launch Vehicle: R-1.
  • Plant 456 at Khimki (later OKB-456, NPO Energomash) formed. - . Nation: USSR. Summary: Ministry of Aviation Industry (MAP) Decree 424 'On redirecting Plant No. 456 at Khimki for the production of rocket engines' was issued..

1946 July 14 - . LV Family: R-1. Launch Vehicle: R-1.
  • First rocket unit of Soviet military formed. - . Nation: USSR. Summary: Decree 'On establishment of BON of Fourth Directorate of GAU in Ministry of Armed Forces' was issued..

1946 August 9 - . LV Family: R-1. Launch Vehicle: R-1.
  • Korolev named Chief Designer for R-1 rocket (copy of German V-2). - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Korolev. Summary: Ministry of Armaments Decree 83-K 'On appointment of S. P Korolev as Chief Designer of R-1' was issued..

1946 August 26 - . LV Family: R-1. Launch Vehicle: R-1.
  • NII-88 reorganised. - . Nation: USSR. Summary: Decree 'On establishment of structure of NII-88' was issued..

1946 August 30 - . LV Family: R-1. Launch Vehicle: R-1.
  • Korolev head of Department 3, NII-88. - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Korolev. Summary: Decree 'On appointment of S. P. Korolev as Chief of Department No. 3 of NII-88 SKB' was issued..

1946 September 29 - . LV Family: R-1. Launch Vehicle: R-1.
  • OKB-456 formed (later Energomash). - . Nation: USSR. Summary: Council of Soviet Ministers (SM) Decree 1167 'On establishment of OKB-456 at Plant No. 456 at Khimki' was issued..

1946 October 23 - . LV Family: R-1; R-2; R-5. Launch Vehicle: G-1; G-2; G-3; G-4; R-3.
  • Groettrup team transported to Soviet Union. - . Nation: USSR. Summary: In overnight roundup, 20,000 Germans transported to USSR to transfer technology on aerospace and other technical fields..

1948 April 14 - . LV Family: R-1; R-2. Launch Vehicle: R-3.
  • Decree for production of R-1 and R-2 missiles, design of R-3. - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Glushko. Decree 'On work on the R-1 and R-2 missiles' was issued. To accomplish putting the R-1 into production the resources of 13 research institutes and 35 factories were tapped. Glushko was tasked with producing the RD-100 copy of the V-2 engine. R-1 stand tests began the same day the decree was issued (Prototypes had already begun factory tests at the end of 1947). The decree also set forth design goals for the R-3.The specification was an order of magnitude leap from the other vehicles - to deliver a 3 tonne atomic bomb to any point in Europe from Soviet territory - a required range of 3000 km.

1948 September 17 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-1. Launch Vehicle: R-1. LV Configuration: R-1 I-4. FAILURE: Veered 51 degrees from flight path..
  • - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 0 km ( mi). Summary: First of 9 rockets of first test series. Veered 51 degrees from flight path..

1948 October 10 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-1. Launch Vehicle: R-1. LV Configuration: R-1 I-1.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi). Summary: Range achieved 300 km. Successful flight..

1948 October 11 - . LV Family: R-1. Launch Vehicle: R-1.
  • R-1 flight. - . Nation: USSR. Summary: First R-1 flight with scientific experiments..

1948 October 13 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-1. Launch Vehicle: R-1. LV Configuration: R-1 I-9.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1948 October 21 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-1. Launch Vehicle: R-1. LV Configuration: R-1 I-6.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1948 October 23 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-1. Launch Vehicle: R-1. LV Configuration: R-1 I-10.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1948 November 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-1. Launch Vehicle: R-1. LV Configuration: R-1 I-3.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1948 November 3 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-1. Launch Vehicle: R-1. LV Configuration: R-1 I-12.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1948 November 4 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-1. Launch Vehicle: R-1. LV Configuration: R-1 I-2.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1948 November 5 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-1. Launch Vehicle: R-1. LV Configuration: R-1 I-11.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi). Summary: Ninth and last launch of first R-1 test series..

1949 May 7 - . 03:12 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-1. Launch Vehicle: R-1A. LV Configuration: R-1A 1.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi). Test of separable warhead. Range achieved 200 km. Ballistic launch. Expected range 210 km. Launched at 0612 local time. The launches were first made public by Tass on March 27, 1958: 'In May 1949 a single-stage Russian rocket attained an altitude of 109 km with an instrument payload of 120 to 130 kg'.

1949 May 10 - . 15:57 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-1. Launch Vehicle: R-1A. LV Configuration: R-1A 2.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi). Summary: Test of separable warhead. Range achieved 279.6 km. Ballistic launch. Expected range 210 km. Launched at 1857 local time..

1949 May 15 - . 02:48 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-1. Launch Vehicle: R-1A. LV Configuration: R-1A 3.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi). Summary: Test of separable warhead. Range achieved 210 km. Ballistic launch. Expected range 210 km. Launched at 0548 local time..

1949 May 16 - . 21:55 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-1. Launch Vehicle: R-1A. LV Configuration: R-1A 4.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi). Summary: Test of separable warhead. Range achieved 320 km. Ballistic launch. Expected range 210 km. Launched at 0055 local time..

1949 May 24 - . 01:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-1. Launch Vehicle: R-1A. LV Configuration: R-1A 5.
  • FIAR-1 Test/Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi). Summary: Test of separable warhead. Range achieved 32.9 km. Vertical launch. Expected range 22 km. Launched at 0440 local time. Carried two 85 kg Physical Measurement of Atmospheric Boundary (FIAR-1) containers, but they were not recovered..

1949 May 28 - . 01:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-1. Launch Vehicle: R-1A. LV Configuration: R-1A 6.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi). Test of separable warhead. Range achieved 31.9 km. Vertical launch. Expected range 22 km. Launched at 0450 local time. Carried two 85 kg Physical Measurement of Atmospheric Boundary (FIAR-1) containers, which were recovered but damaged; no science resulted

1949 September 10 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-1. Launch Vehicle: R-1. LV Configuration: R-1 II-1.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi). Summary: First launch of second series - 10 preproduction and 11 prototype rockets available. A total of 20 were fired; six failures in 16 launches..

1949 September 11 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-1. Launch Vehicle: R-1. LV Configuration: R-1 II-2.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1949 September 13 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-1. Launch Vehicle: R-1. LV Configuration: R-1 II-11.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1949 September 14 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-1. Launch Vehicle: R-1. LV Configuration: R-1 II-4.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1949 September 17 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-1. Launch Vehicle: R-1. LV Configuration: R-1 II-8.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1949 September 19 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-1. Launch Vehicle: R-1. LV Configuration: R-1 II-5.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1949 September 20 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-1. Launch Vehicle: R-1. LV Configuration: R-1 II-9. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1949 September 23 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-1. Launch Vehicle: R-1. LV Configuration: R-1 II-15. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1949 September 28 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-1. Launch Vehicle: R-1. LV Configuration: R-1 II-10.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1949 October 3 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-1. Launch Vehicle: R-1. LV Configuration: R-1 II-14.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1949 October 8 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-1. Launch Vehicle: R-1. LV Configuration: R-1 II-16.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1949 October 10 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-1. Launch Vehicle: R-1. LV Configuration: R-1 II-12.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1949 October 12 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-1. Launch Vehicle: R-1. LV Configuration: R-1 II-7.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1949 October 13 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-1. Launch Vehicle: R-1. LV Configuration: R-1 II-17.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1949 October 13 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-1. Launch Vehicle: R-1. LV Configuration: R-1 II-13.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1949 October 15 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-1. Launch Vehicle: R-1. LV Configuration: R-1 II-19.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1949 October 18 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-1. Launch Vehicle: R-1. LV Configuration: R-1 II-23.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1949 October 19 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-1. Launch Vehicle: R-1. LV Configuration: R-1 II-22.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1949 October 22 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-1. Launch Vehicle: R-1. LV Configuration: R-1 II-20.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1949 October 23 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-1. Launch Vehicle: R-1. LV Configuration: R-1 II-3.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi). Summary: Last and 20th launch in second R-1 test series..

1949 December 30 - . LV Family: R-1. Launch Vehicle: R-1.
  • R-1 sounding rocket variants authorised. - . Nation: USSR. Summary: Decree 'On work on geophysical variants of the R-1 missile' was issued..

1950 November 25 - . LV Family: R-1. Launch Vehicle: R-1.
  • R-1 accepted for military service. - . Nation: USSR. Summary: Council of Soviet Ministers (SM) Decree 'On adoption of the R-1 into armaments' was issued. The missile was accepted for service, with the first operational unit the 92nd brigade (BON RVGK) at Kapustin Yar..

1950 December - . LV Family: R-1. Launch Vehicle: R-1.
  • First R-1 operational unit - . Nation: USSR. The first field R-1 unit was formed - the 23th brigade (BON RUGK). Each brigade was equipped with six launchers. In January 1951 the 23rd deployed to Kamishin in Volgograd oblast. In August 1958 they were transferred to the Land Forces. The number of units fielded were small, reflecting the long delay in getting the R-1 into production. The field equipment was designed to also be used for R-2 missiles, which quickly replaced the R-1 in the field units.

    A sea launched variant of the R-1, probably similar to the German 'Pruefstand VII' submarine-towed, pod-launched project, was also studied from 1949 to 1950, but not proceeded with.


1951 January 29 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-1. Launch Vehicle: R-1. LV Configuration: R-1 IIIA-1.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi). Summary: First launch in winter test series. Carried dogs..

1951 January 30 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-1. Launch Vehicle: R-1. LV Configuration: R-1 IIIA-5.
  • Operational test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1951 January 31 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-1. Launch Vehicle: R-1. LV Configuration: R-1 IIIA-2.
  • Operational test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1951 February 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-1. Launch Vehicle: R-1. LV Configuration: R-1 IIIA-6.
  • Operational test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1951 February 2 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-1. Launch Vehicle: R-1. LV Configuration: R-1 IIIA-3.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi). Summary: Last launch in winter test series..

1951 May 9 - . LV Family: R-1. Launch Vehicle: R-1.
  • Plant 586 in Dnepropetrovsk to convert to missile production (future NPO Yuzhnoye). - . Nation: USSR. Summary: Decree 'On the Transfer of the Dnepropetrovsk Automobile Plant From the Ministry of Automobile and SM Tractor Industry to the Ministry of Armaments--transfer of Dnepropetrovsk Plant No. 586 into the Ministry of Armaments for missile production' was issued.

1951 June 1 - . LV Family: R-1. Launch Vehicle: R-1.
  • R-1 production moved to Dnepropetrovsk - . Nation: USSR. Ministry of Armaments Decree 'On starting of series production of the R-1 at Dnepropetrovsk Plant No. 586' was issued. Factory 66 at Zlatoust was originally selected to produce the R-1 in 1949, with SKB-385 to assume production design responsibility and to develop variations of the R-1 with greater range. But the work dragged on without results, and on 1 June 1951 Beria switched R-1 production to Factory 586 at Dnepropetrovsk. He ordered engine production to begin in two months.

1951 June 13 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-1. Launch Vehicle: R-1. LV Configuration: R-1 IIIB-11.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi). Summary: First launch in quality assurance test series of operational missiles..

1951 June 14 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-1. Launch Vehicle: R-1. LV Configuration: R-1 IIIB-10.
  • Operational test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1951 June 18 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-1. Launch Vehicle: R-1. LV Configuration: R-1 IIIB-1.
  • Operational test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1951 June 19 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-1. Launch Vehicle: R-1. LV Configuration: R-1 IIIB-2.
  • Operational test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1951 June 20 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-1. Launch Vehicle: R-1. LV Configuration: R-1 IIIB-3.
  • Operational test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1951 June 22 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-1. Launch Vehicle: R-1. LV Configuration: R-1 IIIB-7.
  • Operational test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1951 June 23 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-1. Launch Vehicle: R-1. LV Configuration: R-1 IIIB-9.
  • Operational test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1951 June 24 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-1. Launch Vehicle: R-1. LV Configuration: R-1 IIIB-8.
  • Operational test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1951 June 25 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-1. Launch Vehicle: R-1. LV Configuration: R-1 IIIB-4.
  • Operational test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1951 June 26 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-1. Launch Vehicle: R-1. LV Configuration: R-1 IIIB-5.
  • Operational test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1951 June 27 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-1. Launch Vehicle: R-1. LV Configuration: R-1 IIIB-14.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi). Summary: Last launch in quality assurance test series of operational missiles..

1951 July 22 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-1. Launch Vehicle: R-1V. LV Configuration: R-1V 1.
  • Test / biology mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi). Summary: First Soviet rocket flight with animals (dogs Dezik and Zhegan). Maximum Altitude - 100 km. Payload, instruments, left and right animal containers all recovered. Smoke container failed..

1951 July 29 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-1. Launch Vehicle: R-1B. LV Configuration: R-1B 1.
  • Test / biology mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi). Summary: Electrical failure. No payload recovery. Carried dogs..

1951 August 15 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-1. Launch Vehicle: R-1B. LV Configuration: R-1B 2.
  • Test / solar ultraviolet / biology mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi). Summary: Payload, instruments, left and right animal containers all recovered. Smoke container failed. Carried dogs..

1951 August 19 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-1. Launch Vehicle: R-1V. LV Configuration: R-1V 1.
  • Test / biology mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi). Summary: Payload, instruments, left and right animal containers all recovered. Smoke container functioned. Carried dogs..

1951 August 28 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-1. Launch Vehicle: R-1B. LV Configuration: R-1B 3.
  • Test / biology mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi). Summary: Smoke container functioned; Instruments recovered..

1951 September 3 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-1. Launch Vehicle: R-1B. LV Configuration: R-1B 4.
  • Test / biology mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi). Summary: Payload, instruments, left and right animal containers all recovered. Smoke container failed. Carried dogs..

1952 June - . LV Family: R-1. Launch Vehicle: R-1.
  • First R-1 delivery from Dnepropetrovsk - . Nation: USSR. Summary: First Dnepropetrovsk production R-1, albeit still containing many parts and assemblies fabricated at NII-88, was finally complete..

1952 August 15 - . LV Family: R-1. Launch Vehicle: R-1.
  • First stand tests of production R-1 engines. - . Nation: USSR. Summary: First stand tests of production 8D51 engines began on 15 August 1952..

1952 August 20 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-1. Launch Vehicle: R-1 8A11. LV Configuration: R-1 8A11 No 220.
  • Operational test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1952 August 21 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-1. Launch Vehicle: R-1 8A11. LV Configuration: R-1 8A11 No 105.
  • Operational test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1952 August 25 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-1. Launch Vehicle: R-1 8A11. LV Configuration: R-1 8A11 No 320.
  • Operational test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1952 October 29 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-1. Launch Vehicle: R-1 8A11. LV Configuration: R-1 8A11 No 420.
  • Operational test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1952 October 30 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-1. Launch Vehicle: R-1 8A11. LV Configuration: R-1 8A11 No 520.
  • Operational test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1952 October 30 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-1. Launch Vehicle: R-1 8A11. LV Configuration: R-1 8A11 No 501.
  • Operational test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1952 November 21 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-1. Launch Vehicle: R-1 8A11. LV Configuration: R-1 8A11 No 620.
  • Operational test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1952 November 28 - . LV Family: R-1. Launch Vehicle: R-1.
  • First production R-1 delivery - . Nation: USSR. Summary: The first rocket built completely of Dnepropetrovsk-fabricated parts was rolled out of the factory..

1953 March 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-1. Launch Vehicle: R-1 8A11. LV Configuration: R-1 8A11 No 1020.
  • Operational test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1953 March 5 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-1. Launch Vehicle: R-1 8A11. LV Configuration: R-1 8A11 No 319.
  • Operational test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1953 March 19 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-1. Launch Vehicle: R-1 8A11. LV Configuration: R-1 8A11 No 820.
  • Operational test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1953 May 11 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-1. Launch Vehicle: R-1 8A11. LV Configuration: R-1 8A11 No 220.
  • Operational test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1953 July 6 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-1. Launch Vehicle: R-1 8A11. LV Configuration: R-1 8A11 No 420.
  • Operational test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1953 October 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-1. Launch Vehicle: R-1.
  • Operational test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1953 October 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-1. Launch Vehicle: R-1.
  • Operational test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1953 October 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-1. Launch Vehicle: R-1.
  • Operational test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1953 October 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-1. Launch Vehicle: R-1.
  • Operational test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1953 October 10 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-1. Launch Vehicle: R-1.
  • Operational test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1953 October 16 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-1. Launch Vehicle: R-1 8A11. LV Configuration: R-1 8A11 No 820.
  • Operational test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1953 October 17 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-1. Launch Vehicle: R-1 8A11. LV Configuration: R-1 8A11 No 520.
  • Operational test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1953 October 19 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-1. Launch Vehicle: R-1 8A11. LV Configuration: R-1 8A11 No 320.
  • Operational test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1953 October 20 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-1. Launch Vehicle: R-1 8A11. LV Configuration: R-1 8A11 No 620.
  • Operational test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1953 October 26 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-1. Launch Vehicle: R-1 8A11. LV Configuration: R-1 8A11 No 720.
  • Operational test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1953 October 27 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-1. Launch Vehicle: R-1 8A11. LV Configuration: R-1 8A11 No 1020.
  • Operational test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1953 October 28 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-1. Launch Vehicle: R-1 8A11. LV Configuration: R-1 8A11 No 920.
  • Operational test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1953 October 28 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-1. Launch Vehicle: R-1 8A11. LV Configuration: R-1 8A11 No 1220.
  • Operational test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1953 November 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-1. Launch Vehicle: R-1.
  • Operational test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1953 November 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-1. Launch Vehicle: R-1.
  • Operational test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1953 November 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-1. Launch Vehicle: R-1.
  • Operational test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1953 November 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-1. Launch Vehicle: R-1.
  • Operational test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1953 November 12 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-1. Launch Vehicle: R-1 8A11. LV Configuration: R-1 8A11 No 1120.
  • Operational test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1953 November 15 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-1. Launch Vehicle: R-1 8A11. LV Configuration: R-1 8A11 No 1320.
  • Operational test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1953 November 15 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-1. Launch Vehicle: R-1.
  • Operational test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1953 November 24 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-1. Launch Vehicle: R-1 8A11. LV Configuration: R-1 8A11 No 1520.
  • Operational test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1954 March 11 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-1. Launch Vehicle: R-1 8A11. LV Configuration: R-1 8A11 No 1820.
  • Operational test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1954 March 16 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-1. Launch Vehicle: R-1 8A11. LV Configuration: R-1 8A11 No 1920.
  • Operational test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1954 March 16 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-1. Launch Vehicle: R-1 8A11. LV Configuration: R-1 8A11 No 1916.
  • Operational test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1954 March 20 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-1. Launch Vehicle: R-1 8A11. LV Configuration: R-1 8A11 No 1918.
  • Operational test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1954 April 23 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-1. Launch Vehicle: R-1 8A11. LV Configuration: R-1 8A11 No 1720.
  • Operational test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1954 April 24 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-1. Launch Vehicle: R-1 8A11. LV Configuration: R-1 8A11 No 1910.
  • Operational test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1954 April 26 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-1. Launch Vehicle: R-1 8A11. LV Configuration: R-1 8A11 No 1912.
  • Operational test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1954 April 29 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-1. Launch Vehicle: R-1 8A11. LV Configuration: R-1 8A11 No 2120.
  • Operational test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1954 May 3 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-1. Launch Vehicle: R-1 8A11. LV Configuration: R-1 8A11 No 1620.
  • Operational test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1954 May 4 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-1. Launch Vehicle: R-1 8A11. LV Configuration: R-1 8A11 No 2020.
  • Operational test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1954 May 4 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-1. Launch Vehicle: R-1 8A11. LV Configuration: R-1 8A11 No 1420.
  • Operational test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1954 May 7 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-1. Launch Vehicle: R-1 8A11. LV Configuration: R-1 8A11 No 220.
  • Operational test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1954 May 21 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-1. Launch Vehicle: R-1 8A11. LV Configuration: R-1 8A11 No 120.
  • Operational test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1954 June 11 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-1. Launch Vehicle: R-1 8A11. LV Configuration: R-1 8A11 No 12.
  • Operational test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1954 June 12 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-1. Launch Vehicle: R-1 8A11. LV Configuration: R-1 8A11 No 720.
  • Operational test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1954 June 14 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-1. Launch Vehicle: R-1 8A11. LV Configuration: R-1 8A11 No 14.
  • Operational test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1954 June 26 - . 13:24 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-1. Launch Vehicle: R-1D. LV Configuration: R-1D 1.
  • Test / biology / ionosphere / aeronomy mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 106 km (65 mi).

1954 July 2 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-1. Launch Vehicle: R-1D. LV Configuration: R-1D 2.
  • Test / biology / ionosphere / aeronomy mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi). Summary: Payload, instruments, left and right animal containers all recovered. Smoke container failed. Carried dogs Lyza and Ryjik..

1954 July 7 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-1. Launch Vehicle: R-1D. LV Configuration: R-1D 3.
  • Test / biology / ionosphere / aeronomy mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi). Summary: Payload recovered; left animal container, smoke container..

1954 August 2 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-1. Launch Vehicle: R-1 8A11. LV Configuration: R-1 8A11 No 320.
  • Operational test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1954 August 27 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-1. Launch Vehicle: R-1 8A11. LV Configuration: R-1 8A11 No 520.
  • Operational test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1954 August 27 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-1. Launch Vehicle: R-1 8A11. LV Configuration: R-1 8A11 No 420.
  • Operational test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1954 November 30 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-1. Launch Vehicle: R-1 8A11. LV Configuration: R-1 8A11 No 1915.
  • Operational test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1954 December 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-1. Launch Vehicle: R-1 8A11. LV Configuration: R-1 8A11 No 620.
  • Operational test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1955 January 25 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-1. Launch Vehicle: R-1E. LV Configuration: R-1E 1.
  • Test / biology mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi). Summary: Payload section deployed at 22 seconds. Left animal container recovered. Carried dogs..

1955 January 28 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-1. Launch Vehicle: R-1 8A11. LV Configuration: R-1 8A11 No 720.
  • Operational test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1955 January 29 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-1. Launch Vehicle: R-1 8A11. LV Configuration: R-1 8A11 No 920.
  • Operational test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1955 February 3 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-1. Launch Vehicle: R-1 8A11. LV Configuration: R-1 8A11 No 820.
  • Operational test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1955 February 5 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-1. Launch Vehicle: R-1E (A-1). LV Configuration: R-1E (A-1) 2.
  • Test / biology mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi). Summary: No recovery. Carried dogs..

1955 February 7 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-1. Launch Vehicle: R-1 8A11. LV Configuration: R-1 8A11 No 1020.
  • Operational test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1955 April 8 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-1. Launch Vehicle: R-1 8A11. LV Configuration: R-1 8A11 No 410.
  • Operational test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1955 April 9 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-1. Launch Vehicle: R-1 8A11. LV Configuration: R-1 8A11 No 1811.
  • Operational test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1955 April 12 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-1. Launch Vehicle: R-1 8A11. LV Configuration: R-1 8A11 No 405.
  • Operational test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1955 April 15 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-1. Launch Vehicle: R-1 8A11. LV Configuration: R-1 8A11 No 215.
  • Operational test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1955 June 18 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-1. Launch Vehicle: R-1 8A11. LV Configuration: R-1 8A11 No 318.
  • Operational test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1955 June 24 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-1. Launch Vehicle: R-1 8A11. LV Configuration: R-1 8A11 No 305.
  • Operational test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1955 July 25 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-1. Launch Vehicle: R-1 8A11. LV Configuration: R-1 8A11 No 104.
  • Operational test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1955 July 26 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-1. Launch Vehicle: R-1 8A11. LV Configuration: R-1 8A11 No 119.
  • Operational test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1955 July 29 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-1. Launch Vehicle: R-1 8A11. LV Configuration: R-1 8A11 No 0427.
  • Operational test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1955 August 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-1. Launch Vehicle: R-1 8A11. LV Configuration: R-1 8A11 No 0430.
  • Operational test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1955 August 24 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-1. Launch Vehicle: R-1 8A11. LV Configuration: R-1 8A11 No 302.
  • Operational test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1955 August 25 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-1. Launch Vehicle: R-1 8A11. LV Configuration: R-1 8A11 No 0315.
  • Operational test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1955 October 5 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-1. Launch Vehicle: R-1 8A11. LV Configuration: R-1 8A11 No K1-17.
  • Operational test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1955 October 8 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-1. Launch Vehicle: R-1 8A11. LV Configuration: R-1 8A11 No K1-19.
  • Operational test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1955 November 4 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-1. Launch Vehicle: R-1E. LV Configuration: R-1E 3.
  • Biological mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi). Summary: Payload, instruments, left and right animal containers all recovered. Smoke container functioned. Carried dogs..

1956 January 21 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-1. Launch Vehicle: R-1 8A11. LV Configuration: R-1 8A11 No 101.
  • Operational test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1956 January 24 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-1. Launch Vehicle: R-1 8A11. LV Configuration: R-1 8A11 No 465. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Operational test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 0 km ( mi).

1956 February 13 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-1. Launch Vehicle: R-1 8A11. LV Configuration: R-1 8A11 No 431.
  • Operational test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1956 February 14 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-1. Launch Vehicle: R-1 8A11. LV Configuration: R-1 8A11 No 453.
  • Operational test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1956 February 27 - . LV Family: Kosmos 2; R-1; R-2; R-5; R-7.
  • Soviet Leadership tours Korolev's design bureau - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Khrushchev; Bulganin; Korolev; Ustinov. Khrushchev, Molotov, Bulganin, and other leaders are given a tour of Korolev’s OKB-1 in Kaliningrad. They are shown the R-1, R-2 and R-5 missiles as well as a mock-up of the R-7 and are awed. Ustinov reports that only five warheads would be needed to destroy Britain, and seven to nine for France. The need for the R-12 was discussed - the longer range was essential so that the missiles could be based farther from NATO’s borders (the experience of the German invasion and quick destruction of forward-based units and equipment was on everyone’s minds).

1956 March 28 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-1. Launch Vehicle: R-1 8A11. LV Configuration: R-1 8A11 No 0316.
  • Operational test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1956 April 16 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-1. Launch Vehicle: R-1 8A11. LV Configuration: R-1 8A11 No 0317.
  • Operational test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1956 May 14 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-1. Launch Vehicle: R-1E. LV Configuration: R-1E 4.
  • Biological mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi). Summary: Payload, instruments, left and right animal containers all recovered. Smoke container functioned. Carried dogs..

1956 May 31 - . 02:57 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-1. Launch Vehicle: R-1E. LV Configuration: R-1E 5.
  • Biology / solar ultraviolet mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi). Summary: Payload, instruments, left and right animal containers all recovered. Smoke container failed. Carried dogs..

1956 June 7 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-1. Launch Vehicle: R-1E (A-1). LV Configuration: R-1E (A-1) 6.
  • Biological mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi). Summary: Payload, instruments, left and right animal containers all recovered. Smoke container functioned. Carried dogs..

1956 June 30 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-1. Launch Vehicle: R-1 8A11. LV Configuration: R-1 8A11 No 5112.
  • Operational test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1956 July 20 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-1. Launch Vehicle: R-1 8A11. LV Configuration: R-1 8A11 No 5301. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Operational test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 0 km ( mi).

1956 July 24 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-1. Launch Vehicle: R-1 8A11. LV Configuration: R-1 8A11 No 0409.
  • Operational test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1956 July 26 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-1. Launch Vehicle: R-1 8A11. LV Configuration: R-1 8A11 No 0311.
  • Operational test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1956 July 28 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-1. Launch Vehicle: R-1 8A11. LV Configuration: R-1 8A11 No 0307.
  • Operational test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1956 September 13 - . LV Family: R-1; R-2. Launch Vehicle: DF-1.
  • Russian agrees to sell China two R-1 missiles - . Nation: China. Related Persons: Tsien. Program: Long March. Summary: They were delivered in December 1956. Tsien is disgusted to find that the missiles are nothing but copies of the V-2. Something more advanced is needed, he argues to the Russians..

1958 August - . LV Family: R-1. Launch Vehicle: R-1.
  • R-1 retired from front-line service - . Nation: USSR. Summary: The number of units fielded were small, reflecting the long delay in getting the R-1 into production. The field equipment was designed to also be used for R-2 missiles, which quickly replaced the R-1 in the field units..

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