Encyclopedia Astronautica
Mars Flyby


Category of spacecraft.

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Associated Spacecraft
  • Crocco Mars Flyby Italian manned Mars concept. Study 1956. Gaetano Crocco proposed trajectories for a Mars flyby required half the energy, one third the time, and only a single rocket burn, compared to the traditional Hohmann approach. More...
  • TMK-1 Russian manned Mars flyby. Study 1959. In 1959 a group of enthusiasts in OKB-1 Section 3 under the management of G U Maksimov started engineering design of this first fantastic project for manned interplanetary travel. More...
  • Mars 1M Russian Mars flyby probe. 2 launches, 1960.10.10 (Mars probe 1M s/n 1 failure.) to 1960.10.14 (Mars probe 1M s/n 2 failure.). Mars probe intended to photograph Mars on a flyby trajectory. More...
  • Mars 2MV-4 Russian Mars flyby probe. 2 launches, 1962.10.24 (Sputnik 22) to 1962.11.01 (Mars 1). Mars probe intended to photograph Mars on a flyby trajectory. More...
  • EMPIRE Aeronutronic American manned Mars flyby. Study 1962. Aeronutronic's Mars flyby spacecraft design of 1962 had a total mass of 170 metric tons and would be launched into low earth orbit with a single launch of a Nova booster. More...
  • EMPIRE Lockheed American manned Mars flyby. Study 1962. Lockheed's manned Mars flyby spacecraft design of 1962 had a total mass of 100 metric tons. More...
  • EMPIRE General Dynamics American manned Mars flyby. Study 1962. General Dynamics' manned Mars orbiter spacecraft design of 1962 had a total mass of 900 metric tons and would be launched into low earth orbit with a two launches of a Nova booster or eight launches of a Saturn V. More...
  • Mavr Russian manned Mars flyby. Study 1963. A variation of the TMK-1 scenario by Maksimov's unit would still use a single N1 launch. However a flyby of Venus would be undertaken on the return voyage from Mars. More...
  • Mariner 3-4 American Mars flyby probe. 2 launches, 1964.11.05 (Mariner 3) to 1964.11.28 (Mariner 4). This spacecraft completed the first successful flyby of the planet Mars, returning the first pictures of the Martian surface. More...
  • Mars 3MV-4A Russian Mars flyby probe. 2 launches, 1964.11.30 (Zond 2) to 1965.07.18 (Zond 3). Mars probe intended to photograph Mars on a flyby trajectory. Elaboration of station systems and scientific research in interplanetary space. More...
  • MORL Mars Flyby American manned Mars flyby. Study 1965. Near-term manned Mars flyby spacecraft proposed by Douglas in 1965 for flight as early as 1973. More...
  • NASA Mars Flyby 1965 American manned Mars flyby. Study 1965. Mars flyby mission designed by NASA Huntsville in 1965 to use existing Apollo hardware, allowing a manned flyby of Mars by 1975. More...
  • JAG Mars Flyby 1966 American manned Mars flyby. Study 1966. Final NASA attempt to mount a manned Mars flyby mission by 1975 using Apollo hardware. It took the best elements of the NASA Huntsville and Douglas concepts of 1965, requiring only four Saturn V launches. More...
  • Mariner 6-7 American Mars flyby probe. 2 launches, 1969.02.25 (Mariner 6) to 1969.03.27 (Mariner 7). Mariner 6 and 7 comprised a dual-spacecraft mission to Mars. More...
  • MK-700 Russian manned Mars flyby. Study 1972. Chelomei was the only Chief Designer to complete an Aelita draft project and present it to the Soviet government. More...
  • NASA-LANL Manned Mars Mission 1985 American manned Mars flyby. Study 1985. Joint Los Alamos/NASA design for a quick Mars flyby mission using hardware planned for development by NASA in the 1990's. More...
  • Mars Cycler American manned Mars flyby. Study 1989. As part of a space infrastructure, it was proposed that four space stations be placed in cyclical orbits. These would allow departures for a six-month journey to Mars every 26 months. More...
  • Athena American manned Mars flyby. Study 1996. In 1996 Robert Zubrin proposed a new version of a manned Mars flyby mission, dubbed Athena. More...

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