Encyclopedia Astronautica
Manned


Category of spacecraft.

More... - Chronology...


Associated Spacecraft
  • Chinese Space Station In 2009-2011 Chinese authorities announced firm plans to assemble a 60 metric ton, three-module space station by 2010. More...
  • Chinese Cargo Spaceship Unmanned space station resupply spacecraft being developed to resupply the planned Chinese Space Station, which as of 2011 was not due to be completed until 2020. More...
  • Tiangong Chinese man-tended space laboratory. Operational, first launch planned September 2011. A series of three of these laboratories will be visited by a series of Shenzhou manned spacecraft between 2011 and 2018. The 8.5-ton design will then be extended to a 13-ton cargo carrier for resupply of the Chinese multi-module space station after 2020. More...
  • M1 Ames' original design for a blunt lifting body. Technical details are for single-crew version proposed in 1958 as a lower-cost alternate to Dynasoar. More...
  • Noordung Slovenian manned space station. Study 1928. Hermann Noordung (pseudonym for Capt. Potocnik of the Austrian Imperial Army) expanded the ideas of Hermann Oberth on space flight in a detailed description of an orbiting space observatory. More...
  • Mark Ridge Suit American pressure suit, tested 1933. The first full pressure suit was made by a London diving suit firm for the American balloonist Mark Ridge. More...
  • Pezzi Suit Italian pressure suit, used 1934-37. The first Italian pressure suit was used between 1934 and 1937 by Italian pilots Pezzi and Negroni to break altitude records with the Caproni 161, 161bis and 113 aircraft. More...
  • Wiley Post Suit American pressure suit, operational 1934-35. B F Goodrich made a full pressure suit for pioneering aviator Wiley Post, who used it to make ten stratospheric flights in 1934-1935. More...
  • He-112 German manned rocketplane. Flown 1935. The Heinkel He-112 was an unsuccessful pre-war German monoplane fighter, competing for orders with the Bf 109. However it entered rocketry history when tests were conducted with rocket engines. More...
  • Draeger Suit German pressure suit, developed 1935-1945. Draeger-Werke developed a hard shell full pressure suit for the Nazi government. More...
  • Escafandra Estratonautica Spanish pressure suit. Spanish Colonel Don Emilio Herrera Linares designed and built a full pressure suit in 1935, which was to have been used during an open-basket balloon stratospheric flight scheduled for early 1936. More...
  • Garsaux Suit French pressure suit, tested 1935. The first French full pressure suit was designed by Dr Paul Garsaux with the backing of the Potez Airplane Company in 1935. More...
  • He-122 German manned rocketplane. Flown 1938. Early German rocketplane. More...
  • He-176 German manned rocketplane. Flown 1938. Early German rocketplane. More...
  • Korolev Rocket Plane Russian manned rocketplane. Study 1938. Korolev was already sketching rocketplanes similar to the Me-163 before World War II. This was one concept from his sketchbook. More...
  • Von Braun Rocketplane German manned rocketplane. Study 1939. On 6 July 1939 Wernher von Braun proposed to the German Reich Air Ministry a "fighter with rocket drive". More...
  • BIS Lunar Lander British manned lunar lander. Study 1939. Design of the British Interplanetary Society's BIS Spaceship began in 1937 and was published in January and July 1939. More...
  • RP-318 Russian manned rocketplane. Korolev adapted his SK-9 glider in 1936 as the first rocked-powered aircraft in the Soviet Union. More...
  • Tomato Worm Suit American pressure suit, tested 1940-43. Project MX-117 full "tomato worm" pressure suits were developed during World War II. More...
  • Me-163 German manned rocketplane. Flown 1941-1945. The world's first and only operational pure rocket fighter. Awesome performance, but killed more of its pilots than the enemy. More...
  • BI-1 Russian manned rocketplane. Flown 1941. The Bereznyak-Isayev BI-1 was the first high speed rocket plane developed by the Soviet Union. Drawings were completed by spring 1941 but Stalin did not give the go-ahead for production until July 9, 1941. More...
  • XS-1 American manned rocketplane. Design begun 1943. Also known as the X-1. This rocket plane was the first aircraft to break the sound barrier, and the first in a line of X- aircraft leading to the space shuttle. More...
  • Henry PPS American pressure suit, tested 1943. J P Henry and D R Drury designed the capstan partial pressure suit and exposed subjects to 24,000 m. Three models were tested. These would be the basis of the post-war Dave Clark rocketplane suits. More...
  • Malyutka Russian manned rocketplane. Cancelled 1944. The Malyutka rocket point interceptor was designed by Polikarpov beginning in 1943. More...
  • MX-324 American manned rocketplane. Flown 1944. First U.S. military rocket-powered plane; built by Northrop. More...
  • A9 German manned rocketplane. Study 1944. Manned, winged boost-glide version of the V-2 missile. It would have been capable of delivering express cargo 600 km from the launch point within 17 minutes. More...
  • X-2 American manned rocketplane. Design began 1945. X-2 was an AAF/ Bell project that flew three supersonic flight research aircraft, powered by liquid rockets. Originally designated XS-2. More...
  • LL Russian manned rocketplane. Flown 1945. The LL was a transonic aerodynamic testbed authorized by LII in September 1945. Three were built: the LL-1 with a straight wing; LL-2 with a conventional swept wing; and LL-3 with a forward swept wing. More...
  • Lofer Mystery Craft German manned spaceplane. Hardware construction stage, 1945. There exist in US Army postwar files a murky photo of what some think is a large-scale mock-up of the Saenger antipodal bomber, taken in Lofer, Austria after the end of the World War II. More...
  • XP-79 American manned rocketplane. Flown in 1945. The XP-79 was Jack Northrop's design for a rocket-propelled flying wing fighter. More...
  • 346 Russian manned rocketplane. 4 flights from 1946. Post-war Soviet version of the German supersonic DFS 8-346 rocket reconnaissance aircraft. Abandoned in 1951 after the prototype crashed. More...
  • Von Braun Station American manned space station. Study 1945. In the first 1946 summary of his work during World War II, Wernher von Braun prophesied the construction of space stations in orbit. More...
  • I-270 Russian manned rocketplane. Flown 1947. The MiG I-270 rocketplane began as a post-war copy of the German Ju-248 (Me-263) design. The resulting rocketplane had a more refined aerodynamic form than the Me-263 and lower gross weight. More...
  • D-558-1 American manned high-speed research aircraft. Flown 1947-1953. The D-558-I "Skystreaks" were among the early transonic research airplanes like the X-1, X-4, X-5, and XF-92A. More...
  • Samolyot 5 Russian manned rocketplane. Cancelled 1949. Bisnovat was assigned the project to develop an all-Soviet equivalent to the 346 supersonic rocketplane being developed by the German Roessing team in OKB-2. More...
  • BIS Station British manned space station. Study 1948. H. E. Ross proposed a manned satellite station in Earth orbit that would serve as an astronomical and zero-gravity and vacuum research laboratory. More...
  • T-1 American pressure suit, operational 1948. David Clark Company developed Dr. Henry's original capstan partial pressure suit. More...
  • XP-92 American manned delta-wing rocketplane. Never flown with rockets, but flew as a turbojet-powered research aircraft, 1948-1953. More...
  • D-558-2 American manned rocketplane. Flown from 1949. Research airplane Douglas D-558. Airplane had both jet and rocket engines and was flown from ground takeoff. The D-558-II Skyrocket exceeded the speed of sound at Edwards AFB, Calif. More...
  • BIS Space Suit British space suit, study of 1949. In 1947 R A Smith presented a series of papers to the British Interplanetary Society. This space suit was the concept for earth orbit work. More...
  • Tsien Spaceplane 1949 American manned spaceplane. Study 1949. Intercontinental rocket transport, 5,000 km range, single stage winged design clearly derived from V-2 aerodynamics. More...
  • U400-10 Russian manned rocketplane. Study 1949. Unmanned rocketplane that proved Isayev rocket engine technology in the late 1940's. More...
  • XF-91 American manned rocketplane. Study 1949. The Republic XF-91 Thunderceptor was a mixed-power interceptor, being powered by both a jet engine and by a battery of rocket motors. Although it showed promise, it was not put into production. More...
  • Model 4 American pressure suit, operational 1950. The Model 4 Full Pressure Suit was developed for D-558-2 Douglas Skyrocket test pilots. It was first flown by Navy test pilot Marion Carl for a 26 km altitude record flight. More...
  • X-1D American manned rocketplane. Study 1953. The X-1A, B, and D were essentially identical rocketplanes intended to reach speeds above Mach 2. More...
  • Aussenstation German manned space station. Study 1951. H. H. Koelle's Aussenstation was a large circular structure consisting of 36 separate 5-m spheres arranged around a central hub, the whole structure rotating to provide an artificial gravity environment. More...
  • Nonweiler Waverider British manned spaceplane. Study 1951. The Nonweiler Waverider of the 1950`s was the original caret wing waverider concept. Developed by Professor Terence R F Nonweiler, of Queen's University, Belfast. More...
  • Bomi American manned combat spacecraft. Study 1952. Bell manned skip-glide space bomber project of the 1950's. Predecessor to Dynasoar. More...
  • Von Braun Passenger Ship American manned Mars orbiter. Study 1952. The first design for a manned Mars orbiter based on engineering analysis. 10 passengers would be housed in a 20-m-diameter sphere during the 963 day mission to Mars, in Mars orbit, and back to earth. More...
  • Von Braun Lunar Lander American manned lunar lander. Study 1952. Von Braun's first lunar lander design was an immense spacecraft, larger in earth orbit than a Saturn V booster. More...
  • Von Braun Landing Boat American manned Mars lander. Study 1952. The first design for a manned Mars lander based on engineering analysis. The enormous glider would have a wingspan of 153 m, and land on Mars horizontally either on skis, skids, or wheels on a prepared runway. More...
  • X-1A American manned rocketplane. Study 1951. The X-1A, B, and D were essentially identical rocketplanes intended to reach speeds above Mach 2. More...
  • MX-2145 American manned combat spacecraft. Study 1953. In May 1953 the Air Force funded Boeing to study their MX-2145 boost-glide vehicle as a successor to the B-58 supersonic medium-range bomber. This was a competitor to Bell's BOMI. More...
  • S-2 Pressure Suit American pressure suit, operational 1953. The S-2 was a modified capstan partial pressure suit evolved from the T-1 with no anti-G and no chest bladder. It was produced in 12 sizes for bomber aircraft. More...
  • X-1B American manned rocketplane. Flown 1952. The X-1A, B, and D were essentially identical rocketplanes intended to reach speeds above Mach 2. More...
  • D-558-3 American manned rocketplane. Flown 1954. The D-558-3 was a US Navy/Douglas counterpart to the X-15, which would have kept the Navy in the 'space race' and Douglas in the running for future manned spaceplanes. More...
  • Ehricke 4-man orbital station American manned space station. Study 1954. In 1954 Ehricke postulated a four-man design that might serve a number of different purposes, depending upon altitude and orbital inclination. More...
  • Man-high American manned balloon. Study 1955. Project Manhigh was established in December 1955 to obtain scientific data on the behavior of a balloon in an environment above 99% of the earth's atmosphere and to investigate cosmic rays and their effects on man. More...
  • X-1E American manned rocketplane. Study 1954. The X-1E was designed to test an ultra-thin 4% thickness to cord wing for supersonic flight. More...
  • KKO-3 Russian pressure suit, operational 1955. The KKO-3 was the first mass-produced Soviet partial pressure suit. It was very similar to the US MC-3 of the same period. More...
  • RAF Jerkin System British pressure suit, operational 1955. The RAF Jerkin System comprised a pressure vest used with a P/Q mask and anti-G suit. Several variations included unsleeved, sleeved and integrated garments proven for short term protection to 18 km. More...
  • S-4 American pressure suit, operational 1955. The S-4 was a modified S-2 partial pressure suit, no anti-G, chest bladder incorporated for ease of breathing. More...
  • Project 7969 American manned spacecraft. Study 1959. North American was the final selected vendor for Manned-In-Space-Soonest. The 1360-kg ballistic capsule would be launched by an Atlas booster to an 185-km altitude orbit. More...
  • Hywards American manned combat spacecraft. Study 1956. Hypersonic manned test spaceplane project of the 1950's. Predecessor to Dynasoar. More...
  • Brass Bell American manned combat spacecraft. Study 1956. Hypersonic manned reconnaissance spaceplane project of the 1950's. Predecessor to Dynasoar. More...
  • Robo American manned combat spacecraft. Study 1955. Hypersonic manned rocket bomber project of the 1950's. Predecessor to Dynasoar. More...
  • 1956 Von Braun Passenger Ship American manned Mars orbiter. Study 1956. The 1956 version of Von Braun's Mars design was slashed by 50% in mass, while the number of passengers was increased from 10 to 12. More...
  • 1956 Von Braun Cargo Ship American manned Mars orbiter. Study 1956. Using the same basic systems as the Passenger Ship, the Cargo Ship would substitute a 177 metric ton Landing Boat for the surface expedition in place of the Passenger Sphere and propellant for the return home. More...
  • 1956 Von Braun Landing Boat American manned Mars lander. Study 1956. The 1956 modification of Von Braun's Landing Boat design was reduced in mass by 12%, and the wingspan by 10%. More...
  • Crocco Mars Flyby Italian manned Mars concept. Study 1956. Gaetano Crocco proposed trajectories for a Mars flyby required half the energy, one third the time, and only a single rocket burn, compared to the traditional Hohmann approach. More...
  • MC-1 American pressure suit, operational 1956. Modified S-2 partial pressure capstan suit with chest breathing bladder, 12 sizes, high altitude, fighters and bombers, smaller capstan in torso area, pressure gloves, K-1 or MB-5 helmet, David Clark Company. More...
  • Mark 1 Mod III American pressure suit, operational 1956. While the USAF concentrated on partial pressure suits, the US Navy worked on omni-environmental full pressure suits to combine altitude and immersion protection. More...
  • MPK Russian manned Mars expedition. Study 1956. This first serious examination in the Soviet Union of manned flight to Mars was made by M Tikhonravov. More...
  • Suborbital Cabin Russian manned spacecraft. Study 1956. In 1956 Korolev laid out an outline plan 'Fast Solutions for the Conquest of Space'. Phase I and II of the plan involved experimental manned sub-orbital flights aboard an R-5A single-stage IRBM. More...
  • Von Braun Mars Expedition - 1956 American manned Mars expedition. Study 1956. Von Braun's Mars expedition presented in the 1956 book he co-authored with Willy Ley, The Exploration of Mars, was vastly reduced in scope from the 1952 version. More...
  • VKA Myasishchev 1957 Russian manned spaceplane. Study 1957. The VKA (aero-space vehicle) was a 1957 Myasishchev design - a diminutive single-crew star-shaped spaceplane that could be launched by Korolev's R-7 ICBM. More...
  • Ames Mach 10 Demonstrator American manned spaceplane. Study 1957. Ames proposed in 1957 to air-launch a high-wing designed hypersonic glider from a B-36 bomber. Early versions would use an XLR-99-powered booster stage and be capable of reaching Mach 6. More...
  • Bell Rocket Transport 1957 American manned rocketplane. Study 1957. Proposed civilian transport version of Bomi rocket bomber. Bell was unable to interest any airlines in putting up the development funds for the project. More...
  • Canadian PPS Canadian pressure suit, operational 1957. The Canadian Waistcoat-Mask/Vest/G-Suit was a partial pressure assembly. The Canadians studied variants of this assembly as far back as the early 1940's. More...
  • MB-1 American pressure suit, tested 1957. MB-1 & 2 were experimental test pilot's partial pressure suits using the K-1 helmet. More...
  • M-42 Russian manned rocketplane. Cancelled 1957. Several variants of the Myasishchev Buran trisonic intercontinental cruise missile M-42 cruise stage were studied. More...
  • MC-3 American pressure suit, operational 1957. A capstan partial pressure suit with horizontal shoulder zipper, sewn breaklines, no anti-G, height/weight sizing criteria, used on bomber and reconnaissance aircraft, came in 12 sizes. More...
  • Stuhlinger Mars 1957 American manned Mars expedition. Study 1957. In 1954 Ernst Stuhlinger conceived the first Mars expedition using solar-electric propulsion. More...
  • TMK-E Russian manned Mars expedition. Study 1960. Feoktistov felt that the TMK-1 manned Mars flyby design was too limited. His design group proposed in 1960 a complete Mars landing expedition, to be assembled in earth orbit using two or more N1 launches. More...
  • M-44 Russian manned ramjet-powered research aircraft. Study 1958. Air-launched derivative of the Buran Mach 3 high altitude cruise missile system, proposed for use as an unmanned high speed research vehicle. More...
  • SAINT II American manned combat spacecraft. Cancelled 1961. At the beginning of the 1960's, the USAF examined a number of approaches to a manned spacecraft designed to rendezvous with, inspect, and then, if necessary, destroy enemy satellites. More...
  • Raketoplan Russian manned spaceplane. Developed from 1959, including suborbital hardware tests, before cancellation in 1964. More...
  • Adam American manned spacecraft. Study 1957. In early 1958 Wernher von Braun proposed launching an American aboard an Army Redstone on a suborbital mission into space before the end of 1959 at a cost of under $12 million. More...
  • M2b Version of M2 lifting body proposed in 1958 as an alternate to the Dynasoar winged glider configuraiton. More...
  • Aeronutronics Project 7969 American manned spacecraft. Study 1958. Aeronutronics' proposal for the Air Force initial manned space project was a cone-shaped vehicle 2.1 m in diameter with a spherical tip of 30 cm radius. It does not seem to have been seriously considered. More...
  • Avco Project 7969 American manned spacecraft. Study 1958. AVCO's proposal for the Air Force initial manned space project was a 690 kg, 2. More...
  • Bell Project 7969 American manned spacecraft. Study 1958. Bell's preferred concept for the Air Force initial manned space project was the boost-glide vehicle they had been developing for the Dynasoar program. More...
  • C-4 American pressure suit, operational 1958. A partial pressure capstan suit, with vertical shoulder laces, adjustable break lines, anti-G suit, MG-1 Berger Bros. gloves, MA-2 helmet by ILC Dover. More...
  • Convair Project 7969 American manned spacecraft. Study 1958. Convair's proposal for the Air Force initial manned space project involved a large-scale manned space station. When pressed, they indicated that a minimum vehicle - a 450 kg, 1. More...
  • C-1A American pressure suit, tested 1958. A partial pressure capstan suit with incorporated anti-G bladders for USN fighter aircraft, 12 standard sizes. More...
  • CSU-2P American pressure suit, tested 1958. Developmental dual capstan partial pressure suit for altitude protection by Berger Brothers. Used pressure socks and double capstan for looser fit. More...
  • Early Soviet Lunar Lander Russian manned lunar lander. Study 1958. Painting of early Soviet concept of a lunar lander. This was similar to Von Braun designs popular in the 1950's. More...
  • FJ-4F American manned rocketplane. Study 1958. The FJ-4F was a US Navy Fury fighter fitted with a Rocketdyne AR1 engine for quick intercept of Soviet bombers. Two prototypes were tested which reached Mach 1.41 at 22 km altitude. More...
  • Goodyear Project 7969 American manned spacecraft. Study 1958. Goodyear's proposal for the Air Force initial manned space project was a 2.1 m diameter spherical vehicle with a rearward facing tail cone and ablative surface. More...
  • Lockheed Project 7969 American manned spacecraft. Study 1958. Lockheed's proposal for the Air Force initial manned space project was a 20 degree semiapex angle cone with a hemispherical tip of 30 cm radius. The pilot was in a sitting position facing rearward. More...
  • Lunex Lunar Lander American manned lunar lander. Studied 1958-1961. The largest single development objective for the Lunex program was to provide a spacecraft capable of transporting men and equipment to the lunar surface and returning them to a selected earth base. More...
  • Lombard Suit American pressure suit, tested 1958. Developmental partial pressure suit developed by Dr. Lombard of Northrop. More...
  • MC-2 American pressure suit, operational 1958. The XMC-2 full pressure suit developed in the mid-1950s jointly by Wright Field personnel and the David Clark Company for X-15 pilots. More...
  • M-48 Russian manned spaceplane. Study 1958. In 1958 the VVS (Soviet Air Force) requested development as quickly as possible of high-speed aerospace vehicles. More...
  • Martin Project 7969 American manned spacecraft. Study 1958. Martin's proposal for the Air Force manned space project was a zero-lift vehicle launched by a Titan I with controlled flight in orbit. The spacecraft would be boosted into a 240 km orbit for a 24 hour mission. More...
  • McDonnell Project 7969 American manned spacecraft. Study 1958. McDonnell's design for the Air Force initial manned space project was a ballistic vehicle coordinated with Faget's NACA proposal and resembling the later Soviet Soyuz descent module. More...
  • MC-3A American pressure suit, operational 1958. A modified MC-3 suit with vertical shoulder laces and adjustable break lines. Produced by David Clark and Berger Brothers. MA-2 helmet by ILC Dover. More...
  • MC-4A American pressure suit, operational 1958. A modified MC-4 with height/weight fit for fighter aircraft, anti-G suit. Suits produced by David Clark, Berger Brothers and Seymour Wallace. More...
  • Mark IV Model 3 Type I American pressure suit, operational 1958. )roduction suit which US Navy aircrew wore on high altitude flights during its cold weather operations. More...
  • Mark I ELSS American space suit, tested 1958-59. The USAF Mark I Extravehicular and Lunar Surface Suit was tested during 1958-59, and led to subsequent development of more refined and satisfactory RX-series "Moon Suits" for NASA. More...
  • Northrop Project 7969 American manned spacecraft. Study 1958. Northrop's proposal for the Air Force initial manned space project was a boost-glide vehicle based on work done for the Dynasoar project. More...
  • Outpost American manned space station. Study 1958. In 1958, the year after Sputnik 1, Krafft Ehricke, then with General Dynamics' Convair Division, designed a four-man space station known as Outpost. More...
  • Project Mer American manned spacecraft. Study 1956. April 1958 design of the Navy Bureau of Aeronautics for a Manned Earth Reconnaissance spacecraft - consisting of a cylindrical fuselage and telescoping, inflatable wings for flight in the atmosphere. More...
  • Republic Project 7969 American manned spacecraft. Study 1958. Republic's studies for the Air Force or NACA initial manned space project started at the beginning of 1958. Their unique concept was a lifting re-entry vehicle, termed the Ferri sled. More...
  • X-15B American manned spacecraft. Study 1958. North American's proposal for the Air Force initial manned space project was to extend the X-15 program. The X-15B was a 'stripped' X-15A with an empty mass of 4500 kg. More...
  • Sever Russian manned spacecraft. Study 1959. Sever was the original OKB-1 design for a manned spacecraft to replace the Vostok. It was designed to tackle such problems as maneuvering in orbit, rendezvous and docking, and testing of lifting re-entry vehicles. More...
  • Navy SLV American manned lunar lander. Study 1961. The spacecraft for a US Navy lunar landing program that was to place a naval aviator on the moon by 1967. More...
  • Horizon Lunar Outpost American manned lunar base. Study 1959. In 1959 the US Army completed a plan for a manned military outpost on the moon. More...
  • Mercury American manned spacecraft. 18 launches, 1960.01.21 (Mercury LJ-1B) to 1963.05.15 (Mercury MA-9). America's first man-in-space project. The capsule had to be as small as possible to match the orbital payload capability of America's first ICBM, the Atlas. More...
  • PKA Russian manned spaceplane. Study 1959. In 1957, in response to the USAF Dynasoar project, Soviet aviation bureaus were tasked with producing draft project designs for a manned spaceplane. More...
  • Mercury Mark I American manned spacecraft. Study 1959. Proposed derivatives of the basic one-crew Mercury capsule for investigation of earth orbit rendezvous, lifting re-entry and land landing. More...
  • X-15A American manned spaceplane. 174 launches, 1959.06.08 (X-15 Flight 1) to 1968.10.24 (X-15 Flight 199). The X-15 was the first USAF and NASA project for manned spaceflight, initiated years before Mercury. More...
  • MRSV American manned spacecraft. Study 1959. Advanced Research Projects Agency representatives visited Army Ordnance Missile Command to discuss studies of a Maneuverable Recoverable Space Vehicle (MRSV). More...
  • Ideal Home Station American manned space station. Study 1959. Designed by Douglas, the Space Vehicle was represented by a full-scale model at the Ideal Home Show in London in 1962. It had a length of 19 m and was 5.2 m in diameter. More...
  • 1 Crew Lifeboat Long Term American manned rescue spacecraft. Study 1959. One crew lifeboat capsule, separable, not re-entry capable, long duration. For use on Mars/Venus expedition. More...
  • 1 Crew Lifeboat American manned rescue spacecraft. Study 1959. One crew lifeboat capsule, separable, not re-entry capable, short duration. Mass per crew 266 kg. More...
  • 3 Crew Lifeboat Long Term American manned rescue spacecraft. Study 1959. Three crew lifeboat capsule, separable, not re-entry capable, long duration. For use on Mars/Venus expedition. Mass per crew 511 kg. More...
  • 3 Crew Lifeboat American manned rescue spacecraft. Study 1959. Three crew bailout lifeboat separable, not re-entry capable, short duration. Mass per crew 239 kg. More...
  • Horizon Space Suit American pressure suit, study of 1959. For sustained operation on the lunar surface Project Horizon advocated a 'body conformation suit' having a substantial outer metal surface. More...
  • Horizon LERV American manned lunar lander. Study 1959. Lunar landing and return vehicle planned to take up to 16 crew to the lunar surface and back in the US Army's Project Horizon of 1959. More...
  • Mercury Space Suit American space suit, operational 1960. The Mercury spacesuit was a custom-fitted, modified version of the Goodrich U.S. Navy Mark IV high altitude jet aircraft pressure suit. More...
  • NF-104 American manned rocketplane. Study 1959. The NF-104 aerospace trainer was a modified F-104A fighter, incorporating an LR-121 liquid fuel rocket engine in addition to the conventional J-79 turbojet engine. More...
  • TMK-1 Russian manned Mars flyby. Study 1959. In 1959 a group of enthusiasts in OKB-1 Section 3 under the management of G U Maksimov started engineering design of this first fantastic project for manned interplanetary travel. More...
  • Apollo Lunar Landing American manned lunar expedition. Begun in 1962; first landing on the moon 1969; sixth and final lunar landing 1972. The project that succeeded in putting a man on the moon. More...
  • Vostok Russian manned spacecraft. 13 launches, 1960.05.15 (Korabl-Sputnik 1) to 1963.06.16 (Vostok 6). First manned spacecraft. Derivatives were still in use in the 21st Century for military surveillance, earth resources, mapping, and biological missions. More...
  • OS Russian manned space station. Study 1960. In 1960 Korolev proposed a military orbital station (OS), with a crew of 3 to 5, orbiting at 350 to 400 km altitude. More...
  • VKA-23 Design 1 Russian manned spaceplane. Study 1960. Myasishchev single-pilot winged spacecraft of 1960, sized for launch to orbit by Korolev's Vostok booster. More...
  • VKA-23 Design 2 Russian manned spaceplane. Study 1957. Following the very critical review of the first M-48 spaceplane design by the expert commission, Myasishchev went back to the drawing board. More...
  • A/P 22S-2 American pressure suit, operational 1960. The David Clark XMC-2-DC prototype, although still in need of substantial development, evolved into the MC-2 suit and then into a standardized Air Force high altitude, full pressure garment known as the A/P 22S-2. More...
  • A/P 22S-3 American pressure suit, operational 1960. USAF version of the USN Mark IV suit (B. F. Goodrich and Arrow Rubber Company). Full pressure, two layers, oxygen regulator exterior of helmet, 12 torso sizes, 7 gloves sizes, 2 helmet sizes. More...
  • Armstrong Whitworth Waverider British manned spaceplane. Study 1960. The Armstrong Whitworth Waverider study of the 1950`s called for a two-crew waverider spacecraft powered by a second stage atop a British Blue Streak rocket. More...
  • Bell Hypersonic Rocket Transport 1960 American manned rocketplane. Study 1960. In March 1960 Bell proposed a revised hypersonic transport design based on its work on boost-glide vehicles during the 1950's. There was no government or airline interest in the concept. More...
  • Bono Manned Mars Vehicle American manned Mars expedition. Study 1960. In 1960 Philip Bono, then working at Boeing, proposed a single-launch Mars manned expedition. Bono's scenario was the classic trade-off of weight for risk. More...
  • FIRST Re-Entry Glider American manned rescue spacecraft. Study 1960. FIRST (Fabrication of Inflatable Re-entry Structures for Test) used an inflatable Rogallo wing for emergency return of space crew from orbit. More...
  • Hawker Siddeley Waverider-1960 British manned spaceplane. Study 1960. An ambitious Blue Streak / Waverider design study was conducted by Hawker Siddeley Aviation in the 1960's. The project was led by Peter A E Stewart, Astronautics Section, Advanced Projects Group. More...
  • L4-1960 Russian manned lunar orbiter. Study 1960. Lunar orbiter proposed by Korolev in January 1960. The spacecraft was to take 2 to 3 men to lunar orbit and back to earth by 1965. More...
  • L1-1960 Russian manned lunar flyby spacecraft. Study 1960. Circumlunar manned spacecraft proposed by Korolev in January 1960. The L1 would a man on a loop around the moon and back to earth by 1964. More...
  • Mars Expedition NASA Lewis 1960 American manned Mars expedition. Study 1960. The first NASA study of a manned Mars expedition outlined an opposition-class, nuclear thermal rocket powered spacecraft that would take seven astronauts to the planet's surface for 40 days. More...
  • Mercury Capsule American manned spacecraft module. 18 launches, 1960.01.21 (Mercury LJ-1B) to 1963.05.15 (Mercury MA-9). Reentry capsule. More...
  • Mercury Retropack American manned spacecraft module. 18 launches, 1960.01.21 (Mercury LJ-1B) to 1963.05.15 (Mercury MA-9). More...
  • Orion CM American manned spacecraft module. Orion re-entry vehicle (crew module). A 25% scale-up of the Apollo capsule of the 1960's. More...
  • RAE Orbital Fighter British manned spaceplane. This Royal Aircraft Establishment Orbital Fighter proposal of the 1960's envisioned a two stage vehicle. A ramjet powered first stage would release a second stage orbiter similar to, but smaller than, the US Dynasoar. More...
  • Rocket Chair American manned lunar lander. Study 2005. In 2005 SpaceDev resurrected the 1960 NASA Langley individual crew lunar lander concept. More...
  • Vostok SA Russian manned spacecraft module. Study 1960. Reentry capsule. More...
  • Vostok PO Russian manned spacecraft module. Study 1960. Equipment section. More...
  • Gemini American manned spacecraft. 12 launches, 1964.04.08 (Gemini 1) to 1966.11.11 (Gemini 12). It was obvious to NASA that there was a big gap of three to four years between the last Mercury flight and the first scheduled Apollo flight. More...
  • MORAD American manned spacecraft. Study 1961. MORAD (Manned Orbital Rendezvous and Docking) would require the use of the Mercury-Atlas and Scout in the 1961- 1963 period. More...
  • TKS Heavy Space Station Russian manned space station. Study 1961. The TKS (Heavy Space Station, also known as TOSZ - Heavy Orbital Station of the Earth) was Korolev's first 1961 project for a large N1-launched military space station. More...
  • Gemini LOR American manned lunar lander. Study 1961. Original Mercury Mark II proposal foresaw a Gemini capsule and a single-crew open cockpit lunar lander undertaking a lunar orbit rendezvous mission, launched by a Titan C-3. More...
  • LK-1 Russian manned lunar flyby spacecraft. Cancelled 1965. The LK-1 was the spacecraft designed by Chelomei for the original Soviet manned lunar flyby project. More...
  • Apollo A American manned space station. Study 1961. Apollo A was a lighter-weight July 1961 version of the Apollo spacecraft. More...
  • Apollo Martin 410 American manned lunar lander. Study 1961. The Model 410 was Martin's preferred design for the Apollo spacecraft. More...
  • Advanced Manned System 1961 American manned rescue spacecraft. Study 1961. Six crew ballistic re-entry capsule. Orbital escape - abort capability. Mass per crew 548 kg. More...
  • Apollo Direct TLM American manned spacecraft module. Study 1961. Final letdown, translation hover and landing on the lunar surface from 1800 m above the surface was performed by the terminal landing module. Engine thrust could be throttled down to 1546 kgf. More...
  • Apollo Direct SM American manned spacecraft module. Study 1961. The Service Module housed the fuel cells, environmental control, and other major equipment items required for the mission. More...
  • Apollo Direct RM American manned spacecraft module. Study 1961. The retrograde module supplied the velocity increments required during the translunar portion of the mission up to a staging point approximately 1800 m above the lunar surface. More...
  • Apollo Direct CM American manned spacecraft module. Study 1961. Conventional spacecraft structures were employed, following the proven materials and concepts demonstrated in the Mercury and Gemini designs. More...
  • Apollo Direct 2-Man American manned lunar lander. Study 1961. A direct lunar lander design of 1961, capable of being launched to the moon in a single Saturn V launch through use of a 75% scale 2-man Apollo command module. More...
  • Bendix Manned Lunar Vehicle American manned lunar rover. Study 1961. The Bendix Manned Lunar Vehicle was a lunar rover design of November 1961. The vehicle had 4 wheels and a range of 400 km with a crew of 3 on a 14 day traverse. More...
  • Gemini Lunar Lander American manned lunar lander. Study 1961. A direct lunar lander design of 1961, capable of being launched to the moon in a single Saturn V launch through use of a 2-man Gemini re-entry vehicle instead of the 3-man Apollo capsule. More...
  • Hope Station American manned space station. Study 1961. Douglas space station concept of the early 1960's using a spent Saturn S-IV stage and Gemini spacecraft as crew shuttles. More...
  • KKO-5 Russian pressure suit, operational 1961. The KKO-5 partial pressure suit was introduced for pilots of Mach 2 aircraft such as the MiG-21 and Su-9 at the beginning of the 1960's. It represented the largest production run of any pressure suit model. More...
  • Kehlet Lenticular Vehicle American manned spaceplane. Study 1961. Alan B. Kehlet of NASA's Space Task Group New Projects Panel, worked at NASA Langley and first conceived of his lenticular manned spacecraft design in 1959. More...
  • LEAP American manned lunar flyer. Study 1961. LEAP was an early 1960's British design for getting disabled astronauts on the lunar surface quickly to lunar orbit for ferrying home. More...
  • LM Langley Lighter American manned lunar lander. Study 1961. This early open-cab Langley design used cryogenic propellants. The cryogenic design was estimated to gross 3,284 kg - to be compared with the 15,000 kg / 2 man LM design that eventually was selected. More...
  • LM Langley Light American manned lunar lander. Study 1961. This early open-cab single-crew Langley lunar lander design used storable propellants, resulting in an all-up mass of 4,372 kg. More...
  • LM Langley Lightest American manned lunar lander. Study 1961. Extremely light-weight open-cab lunar module design considered in early Langley studies. More...
  • Marsokhod Russian manned Mars rover. Study 1961. Surface transports were part of all Soviet Mars expeditions. More...
  • Soyuz A Russian manned spacecraft. Study 1962. The 7K Soyuz spacecraft was initially designed for rendezvous and docking operations in near earth orbit, leading to piloted circumlunar flight. More...
  • Soyuz V Russian logistics spacecraft. Cancelled 1964. In the definitive December 1962 Soyuz draft project, the Soyuz B (9K) rocket acceleration block would be launched into a 225 km orbit by a Soyuz 11A511 booster. More...
  • Vostok-Zh Russian manned spacecraft. Study 1961. The Vostok-Zh (or Vostok-7) maneuverable manned satellite was piloted by a single 'cosmonaut assemblyman'. More...
  • Spiral OS Russian manned spaceplane, developed 1965-1980s, including subscale flight article tests. Evolved into the MAKS spaceplane. The Spiral was an ambitious air-launched manned space system designed in the 1960's. More...
  • L1-1962 Russian manned lunar flyby spacecraft. Study 1962. Early design that would lead to Soyuz. A Vostok-Zh manned tug would assemble rocket stages in orbit. It would then return, and a Soyuz L1 would dock with the rocket stack and be propelled toward the moon. More...
  • OS-1962 Russian manned space station. Study 1962. On 10 March 1962 Korolev approved the technical project "Complex docking of spacecraft in earth orbit - Soyuz". This contained the original Soyuz L1 circumlunar design. More...
  • G2G American space suit, tested 1962. The BF Goodrich space suit was developed in competition with the Dave Clark G2C suit for Project Gemini. It was not flown. More...
  • OP Russian manned space station. Study 1962. Korolev's next attempt to win military support for development of the N-I was his fantastic 'Orbitalniy Poyas' (OP -Orbital Belt) scheme of 20 April 1962. More...
  • G4C American space suit, operational 1964. Dave Clark G4C flight suits were designed for wear by Gemini astronauts. More...
  • Apollo CSM American manned lunar orbiter. 22 launches, 1964.05.28 (Saturn 6) to 1975.07.15 (Apollo (ASTP)). The Apollo Command Service Module was the spacecraft developed by NASA in the 1960's as a standard spacecraft for earth and lunar orbit missions. More...
  • A7L American pressure suit, operational 1968. Hamilton Standard had overall development responsibility for the Apollo suit and associated portable life support system. A subcontract was awarded to International Latex Corporation for development of this suit. More...
  • Lunar Bus American lunar logistics spacecraft. Study 1962. The lunar "bus" was an early NASA Apollo logistics vehicle study. More...
  • M2-F2 American manned spaceplane. Study 1966. The least stable of the lifting body designs. The 'flying bathtub' had a rounded belly / flat top layout as opposed to the flat belly / rounded top of the other designs. More...
  • Apollo ULS American lunar logistics spacecraft. Study 1962. An Apollo unmanned logistic system to aid astronauts on a lunar landing mission was studied. More...
  • MORL American manned space station. Study 1962. In June 1964 Boeing and Douglas received Phase I contracts for Manned Orbital Research Laboratory station designs. The recommended concept was a 13. More...
  • Orbital Workshop American manned space station. Study 1965. The Orbital Workshop (OWS) was a 1960's NASA program to create an embryonic space station in orbit using the spent S-IVB rocket stage of a Saturn IB. More...
  • G3C American space suit, operational 1964. Dave Clark G3C initial Gemini production flight suits were worn aboard Gemini 3, and by the spacecraft commanders of Gemini 6 and 8.. More...
  • Soyuz P Russian manned combat spacecraft. Study 1963. In December 1962 Sergei Korolev released his draft project for a versatile manned spacecraft to follow Vostok. The Soyuz A was primarily designed for manned circumlunar flight. More...
  • Soyuz R Russian manned spacecraft. Cancelled 1966. A military reconnaissance version of Soyuz, developed by Kozlov at Samara from 1963-1966. It was to consist of an the 11F71 small orbital station and the 11F72 Soyuz 7K-TK manned ferry. More...
  • 5 Crew Lifeboat American manned rescue spacecraft. Study 1962. Five crew lifeboat capsule, separable, not re-entry capable, short duration. Mass per crew 284 kg. More...
  • Apollo W-1 American manned spacecraft. Study 1962. Martin's W-1 design for the Apollo spacecraft was an alternative to the preferred L-2C configuration. The 2652 kg command module was a blunt cone lifting body re-entry vehicle, 3.45 m in diameter, 3.61 m long. More...
  • Apollo M-1 American manned spacecraft. Study 1962. Convair/Astronautics preferred M-1 Apollo design was a three-module lunar-orbiting spacecraft. More...
  • Apollo D-2 American manned lunar orbiter. Study 1962. The General Electric design for Apollo put all systems and space not necessary for re-entry and recovery into a separate jettisonable 'mission module', joined to the re-entry vehicle by a hatch. More...
  • Apollo R-3 American manned spacecraft. Study 1962. General Electric's Apollo horizontal-landing alternative to the ballistic D-2 capsule was the R-3 lifting body. This modified lenticular shape provided a lift-to-drag ratio of just 0. More...
  • Apollo L-2C American manned spacecraft. Study 1962. Martin's L-2C design was the basis for the Apollo spacecraft that ultimately emerged. The 2590 kg command module was a flat-bottomed cone, 3. 91 m in diameter, 2.67 m high, with a rounded apex. More...
  • Apollo Lenticular American manned spacecraft. Study 1962. The Convair/Astronautics alternate Lenticular Apollo was a flying saucer configuration with the highest hypersonic lift to drag ratio (4.4) of any proposed design. More...
  • DLB Module Russian manned lunar habitat. Cancelled 1974. Basic module developed by Barmin's OKB from 1962 for the Zvezda Lunar Base. Cancelled, together with the N1 booster, in 1974. More...
  • Douglas Astro American manned spaceplane. Study 1962. The Douglas "Astro" was a VTHL TSTO system designed for launching space station crews and cargo by the 1968-70 period. More...
  • EMPIRE Aeronutronic American manned Mars flyby. Study 1962. Aeronutronic's Mars flyby spacecraft design of 1962 had a total mass of 170 metric tons and would be launched into low earth orbit with a single launch of a Nova booster. More...
  • EMPIRE Lockheed American manned Mars flyby. Study 1962. Lockheed's manned Mars flyby spacecraft design of 1962 had a total mass of 100 metric tons. More...
  • EMPIRE General Dynamics American manned Mars flyby. Study 1962. General Dynamics' manned Mars orbiter spacecraft design of 1962 had a total mass of 900 metric tons and would be launched into low earth orbit with a two launches of a Nova booster or eight launches of a Saturn V. More...
  • G1C American space suit, tested 1962. NASA Gemini prototype full pressure suit, closed loop. The G-1C lead to the G-2C, G-3C (IVA suits), G-4C (both IVA and EVA suit), and G-5C with a soft head enclosure for the 14 day Gemini 7 mission. More...
  • Gemini-Centaur American manned lunar flyby spacecraft. Study 1962. In the first Gemini project plans, it was planned that after a series of test dockings between Gemini and Agena rocket stages, Geminis would dock with Centaur stages for circumlunar flights. More...
  • LK-700 Russian manned lunar lander. Chelomei's direct-landing alternative to Korolev's L3 manned lunar landing design. Developed at a low level 1964 to 1974, reaching mockup and component test stage. More...
  • Martin Astrorocket American manned spaceplane. Study 1962. Early two-stage-to-orbit shuttle study, using storable propellants, Dynasoar-configuration delta wing orbiter. More...
  • Macuh Suit American space suit, tested 1962. Closed cell foam suit concept by Macuh Laboratories, USAF/NASA study, report MLTRD-62-13. More...
  • Remova Russian logistics spacecraft. Study 1962. Remova was a Soviet Manned Maneuvering Unit design that first appeared in a German book in 1967. It was said that the study was made at the beginning of the 1960's. More...
  • S901/970 American pressure suit, operational 1962. A-12, F-12A and SR-71 full pressure suit; integrated subsystems, parachute harness, automatic flotation system, urine collection device, redundant pressure control and breathing system, thermal protective garment. More...
  • Stuhlinger Mars 1962 American manned Mars expedition. By 1962 Ernst Stuhlinger's ion-drive Mars expedition had evolved within the Research Projects Division into five 150 m long spacecraft, housing a total crew of 15. A much shorter 475 day mission time was planned. More...
  • S-939 American space suit, cancelled 1962. Full Pressure Suit for the X-20A Dyna-Soar program. More...
  • Soyuz A SA Russian manned spacecraft module. Study 1962. Original Soyuz design, allowing crew of three without spacesuits. Reentry capsule. More...
  • Soyuz A PAO Russian manned spacecraft module. Study 1962. Soyuz 7K-OK basic PAO service module with pump-fed main engines and separate RCS/main engine propellant feed system but with no base flange for a shroud. Equipment-engine section. More...
  • Soyuz A BO Russian manned spacecraft module. Study 1962. Original design with notional docking system with no probe and internal transfer tunnel. Living section. More...
  • USAF Recommended Station American manned space station. Study 1962. During 1962 NASA Centers, the Air Force, and many of the major aerospace contractors were developing possible space station concepts and studying their potential uses. More...
  • X-15A-3 American manned spaceplane. Cancelled 1962. It had been proposed that X-15 number 3 would be reworked to install a delta wing and designed to reach Mach 8. More...
  • Apollo LLRV American manned lunar lander test vehicle. Study 1964. Bell Aerosystems initially built two manned lunar landing research vehicles (LLRV) for NASA to assess the handling characteristics of Apollo LM-type vehicles on earth. More...
  • Apollo LM American manned lunar lander. 10 launches, 1968.01.22 (Apollo 5) to 1972.12.07 (Apollo 17). More...
  • LORL American manned space station. Study 1962. Large Orbiting Research Laboratory was a term applied to a number of NASA and USAF designs of the 1960's intended to succeed MORL. Typically these were rotating stations orbited in a single Saturn V launch. More...
  • G2C American space suit, tested 1963. The Dave Clark G2C was the prototype IVA space suit for project Gemini. None were flown. The flight versions were G4C and G5C. More...
  • L3-1963 Russian manned lunar lander. Study 1963. Korolev's original design for a manned lunar landing spacecraft was described in September 1963 and was designed to make a direct lunar landing using the earth orbit rendezvous method. More...
  • Asset American manned spaceplane. 6 launches, 1963.09.18 (ASSET 1) to 1965.02.23 (ASSET 6). One part of the Dynasoar manned spaceplane project was ASSET ( 'Aerothermodynamic Elastic Structural Systems Environmental Tests') . More...
  • L5-1963 Russian manned lunar rover. Study 1963. The L-5 Heavy Lunar Self-Propelled Craft would be used for extended manned reconnaissance of the lunar surface. More...
  • L4-1963 Russian manned lunar orbiter. Study 1963. The L-4 Manned Lunar Orbiter Research Spacecraft would have taken two to three cosmonauts into lunar orbit for an extended survey and mapping mission. More...
  • Paracone American manned rescue spacecraft. Study 1963. The Douglas Paracone was one of the most minimal schemes for bail-out from orbit. The objective was to hit a continental land mass; for such purposes totally manual re-entry operations were used. More...
  • Apollo LLRF American manned lunar lander test vehicle. Study 1964. The Lunar Landing Research Facility. The huge structure (76.2 m high and 121.9 m long) was used to explore techniques and to forecast various problems of landing on the moon. More...
  • Dynasoar American manned spaceplane. Cancelled 1963. The X-20A Dyna-Soar (Dynamic Soarer) was a single-pilot manned reusable spaceplane, really the earliest American manned space project to result in development contracts. More...
  • Apollo LM Shelter American manned lunar habitat. Cancelled 1968. The LM Shelter was essentially an Apollo LM lunar module with ascent stage engine and fuel tanks removed and replaced with consumables and scientific equipment for 14 days extended lunar exploration. More...
  • Apollo LM Taxi American manned lunar lander. Cancelled 1968. The LM Taxi was essentially the basic Apollo LM modified for extended lunar surface stays. More...
  • 10 Crew Shelter American manned rescue spacecraft. Study 1963. Ten crew emergency shelter capsule, not separable, not re-entry capable, long duration. Mass per crew 301 kg. More...
  • Apollo CSM Boilerplate American manned spacecraft. Boilerplate structural Apollo CSM's were used for various systems and booster tests, especially proving of the LES (launch escape system). More...
  • A4H American space suit, tested 1963. ILC Dover and Hamilton Standard full pressure suit, Contained a secondary bladder and restraint with a wrist cuff/dam for NASA/HSD (1963-1964), modified A4H suit for NASA-AMES (1964-1965). More...
  • Apollo CSM Block I American manned spacecraft. The Apollo Command Service Module was the spacecraft developed by NASA in the 1960's as a standard spacecraft for earth and lunar orbit missions. More...
  • Astrocommuter American manned spaceplane. Study 1963. The Lockheed Astrocommuter was a 1963 design for a manned space shuttle that would use the Saturn 1B as a first stage. More...
  • Bendix Lunar Logistic System American manned lunar rover. Study 1963. The Bendix Lunar Logistic System was a lunar rover design of January 1963. The vehicle had 4 wheels with alternative front or all-wheel steering and a range of 800 km with a crew of 3 on a 14 day traverse. More...
  • Bono Saucer American manned spaceplane. Study 1963. In 1963 Phil Bono of Douglas Aircraft considered a lenticular configuration for a single-stage-to-orbit reusable booster. This was the largest application found to date for the lenticular concept. More...
  • Boeing LES Rover American manned lunar rover. Study 1963. The Boeing Lunar Exploration Systems lunar rover design of November 1963 was for a multipurpose rover with a range of 480 km with a crew of 2 on a 8 day traverse. The cabin had a volume of 4.95 cubic meters. More...
  • Dynasoar AS American manned spacecraft module. Cancelled 1963. Abort Section, equipped with Thiokol XM-92 Minuteman Stage II motor. Contingency boost. More...
  • Faget Mars Expedition American manned Mars expedition. Study 1963. NASA Houston supported a conference in May 1963 which examined a number of Mars expedition scenarios. More...
  • Ford Mars Lander American manned Mars lander. Study 1963. The Mars lander assumed in NASA studies from 1964 to 1966 was a lifting body conceived by Ford Aeronutronic in May-December 1963. Given a go-ahead by 1965, it would be available for Mars missions by 1975. More...
  • Grumman LSS Project 344 Rover - 1 man American manned lunar rover. Study 1963. The Grumman Lunar Logistics System Project 344 single-crew rover of January 1963 had 2 x two-wheeled power modules. Each wheel was 360 cm in diameter, and the rover had a range of 300 km on a 3.3 day traverse. More...
  • Grumman LSS Project 344 Rover - 2 man American manned lunar rover. Study 1963. The Grumman Lunar Logistics System Project 344 two-man rover design of January 1963 consisted of the basic vehicle, a manned module, and a tanker. This provided a range of 370 km on a 7 day traverse. More...
  • Grumman LSS Project 344 Rover - 3 man American manned lunar rover. Study 1963. The Grumman Lunar Logistics System Project 344 three-man lunar rover design of January 1963 used a 3 module vehicle. It had a range of 2340 km on a 28 day traverse. More...
  • Gemini Transport American logistics spacecraft. Study 1963. This Gemini Transport version was proposed as a Gemini program follow-on in 1963. With the extended reentry module, this was the ancestor of the Big Gemini spacecraft of the late 1960's. More...
  • Grumman LSS Project 344 Rover - 2 man 3 kW American manned lunar rover. Study 1963. The Grumman Lunar Logistics System Project 344 alternate three-crew lunar rover design of February 1963 vehicle had three x two wheeled modules. The rover would have a range of 770 km on a 23.5 day traverse. More...
  • Gemini Ferry American manned spacecraft. Study 1963. The Gemini Ferry vehicle would have been launched by Titan 3M for space station replenishment. More...
  • Lockheed Space Taxi American manned spaceplane. Study 1963. Lockheed investigated the economics of reusable launch vehicles for crews and light space station cargo during the early 1960s. Lockheed proposed a new reusable 10-man spaceplane as a follow-on to the Apollo CSM. More...
  • Lockheed 1963 Space Station American manned space station. Study 1963. Lockheed made an unsolicited proposal to NASA in 1963 for an ambitious space station project. The elements would be launched by Saturn I, as would the 'Astrocommuter' shuttle. More...
  • Lockheed RTTOCV American manned spaceplane. Study 1963. In 1962 NASA funded studies with several contractors on Operations and Logistics for Space Stations. More...
  • Lunar Logistic System 13.7 kW American manned lunar rover. Study 1963. This NASA Lunar Logistic System lunar rover design of March 1963 had 4 wheels, rigidly mounted, and a range of 450 km with a crew of 2 on a 30 day traverse. The cabin had a volume of 9.72 cubic meters. More...
  • Lunar Logistic System 6 kW American manned lunar rover. Study 1963. This NASA Lunar Logistic System lunar rover design of March 1963 had 4 wheel unit, each wheel 1.3 m in diameter and 20 cm wide. It had a range of 370 km with a crew of 2 on a 7 day traverse. More...
  • McDonnell Spaceplane 1963 American manned spaceplane. Study 1963. In June 1962 NASA funded studies with several contractors on Operations and Logistics for Space Stations. More...
  • MOOSE American manned rescue spacecraft. Study 1963. MOOSE was perhaps the most celebrated bail-out from orbit system of the early 1960's. The suited astronaut would strap the MOOSE to his back, and jump out of the spacecraft or station into free space. More...
  • Mavr Russian manned Mars flyby. Study 1963. A variation of the TMK-1 scenario by Maksimov's unit would still use a single N1 launch. However a flyby of Venus would be undertaken on the return voyage from Mars. More...
  • Northrop LSS Lunar Rover RV5 American manned lunar rover. Study 1963. This Northrop Lunar Logistic System design of January 1963 was a 3 wheel open cart and had a range of 30 km with a crew of 2. It could also tow the RV6 50 kg, 2 to 4 wheeled dolly or trailer. More...
  • Northrop LSS Lunar Rover RV7 American manned lunar rover. Study 1963. The Northrop Lunar Logistic System RV7 was a lunar rover design of January 1963. The one-crew vehicle was designed for scooping and dozing operations. More...
  • Northrop LSS Lunar Rover RV8 American manned lunar rover. Study 1963. The Northrop Lunar Logistic System RV8 was a lunar rover design of January 1963. Dual single-crew vehicles were designed to be operated separately or together as a system. More...
  • Northrop LSS Lunar Rover RV-1A American manned lunar rover. Study 1963. The Northrop Lunar Logistic System RV-1A crewed rover of January 1963 had 4 tracks and a range of 2900 km on a 27 day traverse. More...
  • NAA Manned Bombardment and Control Vehicle American manned combat spacecraft. Study 1963. In the early 1960's, one configuration studied by North American Aviation for the USAF space bomber study was this 12-m-diameter flying saucer design. More...
  • NAA RTTOCV American manned spaceplane. Study 1963. North American Aviation's Reusable Ten Ton Orbital Carrier Vehicle design of 1963 had as a standard payload a lenticular 12-man orbital transfer vehicle spaceplane for space station logistics and crew transfer. More...
  • Re-Entry Escape System American manned rescue spacecraft. Study 1963. One crew lifting re-entry capsule. No abort capability. Mass per crew 1171 kg. More...
  • Re-Entry Glider-Six Crew American manned rescue spacecraft. Study 1963. A six-man parasail escape system was studied as an elaboration of the single-crew system. It was to provide rescue from manned spacecraft as well as stations. More...
  • Self-Deploying Space Station American manned space station. Study 1963. The first space station designs using the Saturn V launch vehicle involved spinning stations, providing artificial G for the crew. More...
  • TRW Mars American manned Mars expedition. Study 1963. In 1963 TRW designed a Mars expedition using aerobraking at both Mars and Earth, and a swingby of Venus on return. More...
  • X-15A-2 American manned spaceplane. Study 1965. The crash-damaged X-15 number 2 was rebuilt to attain even higher speeds. The body frame was stretched, and two drop tanks were added, increasing propellant load by 75%. More...
  • Almaz APOS Russian manned space station. Cancelled 1966. The initial Almaz program planned in 1965 consisted of two phases. More...
  • A1C American space suit, tested 1965. For the initial Block I Apollo missions a modification of the Gemini G4C suit was to have been flown. After the death of the Apollo 1 crew on the pad, Block I missions were cancelled and the suit never flew. More...
  • Berkut Russian space suit, operational 1965. Berkut was a modified Vostok Sokol space suit. The needs of the cosmonaut were supplied not through the umbilical cord, but rather through a simple open-cycle environmental control system. More...
  • Apollo LM Truck American lunar logistics spacecraft. Cancelled 1968. The LM Truck was an LM Descent stage adapted for unmanned delivery of payloads of up to 5,000 kg to the lunar surface in support of a lunar base using Apollo technology. More...
  • Gemini EMU American space mobility device, tested 1966. Vought developed the EMU, which was to have been flown in the Gemini program. This design approach led to the Space Shuttle's MMU (Manned Maneuvering Unit) was put into operation. More...
  • Voskhod Russian manned spacecraft. 5 launches, 1964.10.06 (Cosmos 47) to 1966.02.22 (Cosmos 110). More...
  • Apollo MSS American manned lunar orbiter. Study 1965. The Apollo Mapping and Survey System was a kit of photographic equipment that was at one time part of the basic Apollo Block II configuration. More...
  • AX5L American space suit, tested 1964. NASA Apollo suit prototype, rated for intravehicular activity only. More...
  • Apollo CM American manned spacecraft module. 22 launches, 1964.05.28 (Saturn 6) to 1975.07.15 (Apollo (ASTP)). More...
  • Apollo SM American manned spacecraft module. 22 launches, 1964.05.28 (Saturn 6) to 1975.07.15 (Apollo (ASTP)). More...
  • AX-Series American space suit, tested 1964-68. Between 1964 and 1968 two hard suit assemblies were developed at NASA-ARC, identified as the AX-1 (Ames Experimental) and AX-2. These suits were the first to demonstrate multiple bearing technology. More...
  • Gemini - Saturn I American manned lunar flyby spacecraft. Study 1964. In the spring of 1964, with manned Apollo flights using the Saturn I having been cancelled, use of a Saturn I to launch a Gemini around the moon was studied. More...
  • Gemini RM American manned spacecraft module. 12 launches, 1964.04.08 (Gemini 1) to 1966.11.11 (Gemini 12). More...
  • Gemini EM American manned spacecraft module. 12 launches, 1964.04.08 (Gemini 1) to 1966.11.11 (Gemini 12). More...
  • Gemini AM American manned spacecraft module. 12 launches, 1964.04.08 (Gemini 1) to 1966.11.11 (Gemini 12). More...
  • Gemini - Saturn V American manned lunar orbiter. In late 1964 McDonnell, in addition to a Saturn 1B-boosted circumlunar Gemini, McDonnell proposed a lunar-orbit version of Gemini to comprehensively scout the Apollo landing zones prior to the first Apollo missions. More...
  • KLE Complex Lunar Expedition Russian manned lunar base. Chelomei's design for a lunar base, studied 1964 to 1974 as a UR-700-launched predecessor or alternative to Barmin's DLB. More...
  • L3 Russian manned lunar expedition. Development begun in 1964. All hardware was test flown, but program cancelled in 1974 due to repeated failures of the project's N1 launch vehicle. More...
  • Lunar Leaper American manned lunar rover. Study 1964. One of the many bizarre modes for lunar transportation proposed in the early 1960's. More...
  • Northrop Molab American manned lunar rover. Study 1964. The Northrop Molab lunar rover design of March 1964 had 4 wheels, each a flexible torus or controlled flexible disc. It could accommodate a crew of 2 on a 14 day traverse. More...
  • Northrop ALSS Rover American manned lunar rover. Study 1964. Northrop completed Molab Studies under a Apollo Logistic Support Systems contract in March 1964. More...
  • Project Selena American manned lunar base. Study 1964. Bono's enormous ROMBUS booster could fly all the way to the lunar surface and back if low Earth orbit rendezvous and propellant transfer were used. He therefore proposed using the booster to establish a lunar base. More...
  • Project Deimos American manned Mars expedition. Study 1964. Project Deimos was a Mars expedition proposed by Philip Bono in the mid-1960's. It would use the huge Rombus single-stage-to-orbit booster, refueled in earth orbit, as the propulsion system to Mars and back. More...
  • Reusable Orbital Carrier American manned spaceplane. Study 1964. The Reusable Orbital Carrier (ROC) was a 1964 Lockheed study of a sled-launched HTHL TSTO. The second stage orbiter rocketplane would use Lox/LH2 propulsion to orbit and make an unpowered glide return and landing. More...
  • RX-Series American space suit, tested 1964. RX-1 Litton full pressure hardsuit, weighed 40 kg, rolling convolute joint technology, 2-plane enclosure, modular sizing, 1964. Followed by RX-2, 40 kg. in 1964 and RX-2A, 36 kg in 1964. More...
  • Saenger I German manned spaceplane. Study 1964. MBB design for a vertical-launch, horizontal landing two-stage winged launch vehicle. More...
  • Soyuz PPK Russian manned combat spacecraft. Study 1964. The Soyuz 7K-PPK (pilotiruemiy korabl-perekhvatchik, manned interceptor spacecraft) was a revised version of the Soyuz P manned satellite inspection spacecraft. More...
  • Soyuz 7K-TK Russian manned spacecraft. Cancelled 1966. To deliver crews to the Soyuz R 11F71 station Kozlov developed the transport spacecraft 11F72 Soyuz 7K-TK. More...
  • Saturn II Stage Wet Workshop American manned space station. Study 1964. Wernher von Braun made a rough sketch of a space station based on fitting out of an expended Saturn II stage in orbit on 24 November 1964. More...
  • UMPIRE Convair American manned Mars expedition. Study 1964. Unfavorable Manned Planetary - Interplanetary Roundtrip Expedition profiles were studied under NASA Huntsville contracts to General Dynamics and Douglas in June 1963. More...
  • UMPIRE Douglas American manned Mars expedition. Study 1964. Unfavorable Manned Planetary - Interplanetary Roundtrip Expedition profiles were studied under NASA Huntsville contracts to General Dynamics and Douglas in June 1963. More...
  • Gemini - Double Transtage American manned lunar orbiter. Study 1965. In June 1965 astronaut Pete Conrad conspired with the Martin and McDonnell corporations to advocate an early circumlunar flight using Gemini. More...
  • MFS American manned lunar flyer. Study 1965. Bell Aerosystems designed a Manned Flying System for Apollo as a tool for lunar surface exploration. More...
  • LFV Bell American manned lunar flyer. Study 1965. Bell Aerosystems designed a rocket-propelled Lunar Flying Vehicle (LFV) to aid Apollo astronauts in their exploration of the moon. More...
  • Apollo LM Lab American manned space station. Study 1965. Use of the Apollo LM as an earth-orbiting laboratory was proposed for Apollo Applications Program missions. More...
  • Soyuz VI Russian manned combat spacecraft. Cancelled 1965. To determine the usefulness of manned military space flight, two projects were pursued in the second half of the 1960's. More...
  • G5C American space suit, operational 1965. This David Clark lightweight suit was developed for long duration project Gemini missions. It was designed to be easily removed during flight and to provide greater comfort than the standard Gemini space suit. More...
  • Radar Evaluation Pod American logistics spacecraft. One launch, 1965.08.21, Gemini 5 REP. The Radar Evaluation Pod was a small reflecting target released from Gemini spacecraft to test the rendezvous radar. More...
  • Apollo Experiments Pallet American manned lunar orbiter. Study 1965. The Apollo Experiments Pallet was a sophisticated instrument payload that would have been installed in the Apollo CSM for dedicated lunar or earth orbital resource assessment missions. More...
  • AX-1C American space suit, tested 1965. Full pressure, Apollo Block II prototype suit for both IVA/EVA by the David Clark Company. Not put into production. More...
  • Apollo LM CSD American manned combat spacecraft. Study 1965. The Apollo Lunar Module was considered for military use in the Covert Space Denial role in 1964. More...
  • AES Series American space suit, tested 1965. Developmental suit hybrids using laminated fabrics, rolling convolutes, toroidal joints, sealed bearings, and modular sizing. Versions by both AiResearch and Litton. More...
  • Bendix Molab American manned lunar rover. Study 1965. The Bendix Molab lunar rover design of June 1965 had 4 wheels and a range of 400 km with a crew of 2 on a 14 day traverse. The cabin had a volume of 12.8 cubic meters. More...
  • Boeing LSSM American manned lunar rover. Study 1965. The Boeing LSSM lunar rover design of June 1965 had 4 wheels of 1.2 or 1.6 m diameter. and a range of 200 km with a crew of 2 on a 14 day traverse. More...
  • Bendix LSSM American manned lunar rover. Study 1965. The Bendix LSSM lunar rover design of October 1965 had 4 wheels. and a range of 400 km with a crew of 2 on a 14 day traverse. More...
  • Bendix ALSS Rover American manned lunar rover. Study 1965. The Bendix ALSS Payloads lunar rover design of June 1965 had a range of 400 km with a crew of 2 on a 14 day traverse. A variety of configurations were studied in detail. More...
  • CSU-5/P American pressure suit, operational 1965. A modified bladder type partial pressure CSU-4/P suit with integrated wet suit. More...
  • CSU-4/P American pressure suit, operational 1965. A bladder type partial pressure suit, with quick don, 8 sizes. More...
  • EFA-30 French pressure suit, operational 1965. French partial pressure capstan suit using full pressure buffet protective helmet. More...
  • Extended Mission Gemini American manned spacecraft. Study 1965. A McDonnell concept for using Gemini for extended duration missions. The basic Gemini would dock with an Agena upper stage. More...
  • GE Lunar NEP Tug American lunar logistics spacecraft. Nuclear electric tug proposed by General Electric in a 1965 study to support an Apollo Applications Lunar Base. A Snap-50 space reactor generating 1.9 MW would power the tug. More...
  • Gemini Satellite Inspector American manned spacecraft. Study 1965. A modification of Gemini to demonstrate rendezvous and inspection of noncooperative satellites was proposed. The Gemini would rendezvous with the enormous Pegasus satellite in its 500 x 700 km orbit. More...
  • Isinglass American manned spaceplane. Study 1965. CIA air-launched, rocket-powered high speed manned vehicle project of 1965-1968 that developed basic technologies used in later shuttle and reusable launch vehicle programs. More...
  • Janus American manned spaceplane. Study 1965. This TRW design of 1965 used a unique concept - a lifting body main stage, that provided both ascent propulsion and re-entry protection. More...
  • LK-1 VA Russian manned spacecraft module. Cancelled 1965. Total internal volume 8.37 m3. Assumes capsule was similar to TKS VA. Reentry Capsule. More...
  • LK-1 PAO Russian manned spacecraft module. Cancelled 1965. Calculated masses, specific impulse based on mission requirements and drawing of spacecraft. Equipment-engine section. More...
  • MORL Mars Flyby American manned Mars flyby. Study 1965. Near-term manned Mars flyby spacecraft proposed by Douglas in 1965 for flight as early as 1973. More...
  • NASA Mars Flyby 1965 American manned Mars flyby. Study 1965. Mars flyby mission designed by NASA Huntsville in 1965 to use existing Apollo hardware, allowing a manned flyby of Mars by 1975. More...
  • S-100 American pressure suit, operational 1965. Pressure suit which introduced many modifications from the early MC-3A capstan suits. More...
  • S-1029 American pressure suit, tested 1965. Developmental bladder type partial pressure suit. More...
  • Space Sled American space mobility device, tested 1965. Marquardt developed a sled design in the mid-1960's for maneuvering in the vicinity of a spacecraft. The space sled approach was dropped in preference to the shuttle manned maneuvering unit. More...
  • Salkeld Shuttle American manned spaceplane. Study 1965. 1965 concept for a manned spaceplane equipped with drop tanks, which would be air-launched from a C-5 More...
  • Type B British pressure suit, operational 1965. Full pressure suit designed by R. E. Simpson, and developed by Baxter, Woodhouse and Taylor Ltd. for the Royal Air Force. More...
  • TFX American pressure suit, tested 1965. Prototype bladder type partial pressure suit with a separate Anti-G suit valve. APL program with Navy and ILC Dover. More...
  • Umanskiy Space Capsule Soviet manned spacecraft. Study 1965. Small minimum space capsule for emergency return of crew or urgent payloads from orbit. Proposed by an engineer at Soviet Factory 918 in 1965, but no support from the entrenched space interests. More...
  • Voskhod KDU Russian manned spacecraft module. Study 1965. Auxilliary Retrorocket. More...
  • Apollo ATM American manned space station. Study 1966. The Apollo Telescope Mount began as a solar telescope built into the spaceframe of an Apollo lunar module. More...
  • G4C AMU American space suit, operational 1966. This space suit was designed to provide thermal protection to astronauts using the Astronaut Maneuvering Unit (AMU). More...
  • Apollo LMSS American manned space station. Cancelled 1967. Under the Apollo Applications Program NASA began hardware and software procurement, development, and testing for a Lunar Mapping and Survey System. The system would be mounted in an Apollo CSM. More...
  • Soyuz 7K-OK Tether Russian manned spacecraft. Study 1965. Korolev was always interested in application of artificial gravity for large space stations and interplanetary craft. He sought to test this in orbit from the early days of the Vostok program. More...
  • Von Braun Mars Expedition - 1969 American manned Mars expedition. Study 1969. Von Braun's final vision for a manned expedition to Mars was a robust plan that eliminated much of the risk of other scenarios. Two ships would fly in convoy from earth orbit to Mars and back. More...
  • IMIS 1968 American manned Mars expedition. Study 1968. In January 1968 Boeing issued a report that was the result of a 14 month study on manned Mars missions. More...
  • Lunar Worm American manned lunar rover. Study 1966. The Aeronutronic Division of Philco Corp. proposed the unique Lunar Worm Planetary Roving Vehicle Concept in 1966. More...
  • KK Russian manned Mars expedition. Study 1966. Work on the TMK project continued, including trajectory trade-off studies and refinement of the design. More...
  • Gemini Lunar Surface Rescue Spacecraft American manned lunar lander. Study 1966. This version of Gemini would allow a direct manned lunar landing mission to be undertaken in a single Saturn V flight, although it was only proposed as an Apollo rescue vehicle. More...
  • Atlas Target Docking Adapter American logistics spacecraft. One launch, 1966.06.01, Gemini 9 ATDA. An unpowered Gemini docking collar less the Agena rocket stage, launched one time by an Atlas when the Agena stage was not available. Fairing separation failed. More...
  • M2-F3 American manned spaceplane. 43 launches, 1966.07.12 to 1971.12.21 . The crashed M2-F2 was rebuilt as the M2-F3 with enlarged vertical stabilizers. Maximum speed achieved was Mach 1.6, top altitude 21,800 m. More...
  • Yastreb Russian space suit, operational 1969. The Yastreb suit was the first suit designed in the Soviet Union for extra-vehicular activity. Design began in 1965. Initially to be worn on the aborted Soyuz 1/2 1967 crew transfer mission. More...
  • MOL American manned space station. Cancelled 1969. MOL (Manned Orbiting Laboratory) was the US Air Force's manned space project after Dynasoar was cancelled, until it in turn was cancelled in 1969. The earth orbit station used a helium-oxygen atmosphere. More...
  • Soyuz 7K-OK Russian manned spacecraft. 17 launches, 1966.11.28 (Cosmos 133) to 1970.06.01 (Soyuz 9). Development of a three-manned orbital version of the Soyuz, the 7K-OK was approved in December 1963. More...
  • Prime American manned spaceplane. 3 launches, 1966.12.21 (Prime 1) to 1967.04.19 (Prime 3). The Prime (Precision Recovery Including Maneuvering Entry) project was the second part of the USAF START program. More...
  • HL-10 American manned spaceplane. 37 launches, 1966.12.22 to 1970.07.17 . The HL-10 was the favored lifting body configuration of NASA Langley in the 1960's. It reached Mach 1.86 and 27,700 m during its flight tests. More...
  • Apollo LASS S-IVB American lunar logistics spacecraft. Study 1966. The Douglas Company (DAC) proposed the "Lunar Application of a Spent S-IVB Stage (LASS)". The LASS concept required a landing gear on a S-IVB Stage. More...
  • Apollo SMLL American lunar logistics spacecraft. Study 1966. North American Aviation (NAA) proposed use of the SM as a lunar logistics vehicle (LLV) in 1966. The configuration, simply stated, put a landing gear on the SM. More...
  • Boyles Law Suit American pressure suit, tested 1966. Concept by Otto Schueller, patented by Davis, Moore, Ritzinger and Whitmore at USAFSAM. More...
  • DU-1 Rocket Belt Russian space mobility device. Cancelled 1966. This rocket belt was planned for use aboard a follow-on Voskhod mission in the 1960's. The mission was cancelled and the belt never tested. More...
  • FLEM American manned Mars expedition. Study 1966. More...
  • Gemini LSRS RM American manned spacecraft module. Study 1966. Calculated mass based on mission requirements, drawing of spacecraft. More...
  • Gemini LSRS LOIM American manned spacecraft module. Study 1966. Calculated mass based on mission requirements, drawing of spacecraft, dimensions of propellant tanks. More...
  • Gemini LSRS LM American manned spacecraft module. Study 1966. Calculated mass based on mission requirements, drawing of spacecraft, dimensions of propellant tanks. More...
  • Gemini LSRS AM American manned spacecraft module. Study 1966. Calculated mass based on mission requirements, drawing of spacecraft, dimensions of propellant tanks. More...
  • Gemini Paraglider American manned spacecraft. Study 1966. The paraglider was supposed to be used in the original Gemini program but delays in getting the wing to deploy reliably resulted in it not being flown. More...
  • GE Life Raft American manned rescue spacecraft. Study 1966. The GE Life raft was a rigid unpressurized aeroshell. Three crew in space suits with parachutes would strap themselves into the seats. More...
  • Gemini Observatory American manned spacecraft. Study 1966. Proposed version of Gemini for low-earth orbit solar or stellar astronomy. This would be launched by a Saturn S-IB. It has an enlarged reentry module which seems to be an ancestor of the 'Big Gemini' of 1967. More...
  • Hyperion SSTO American manned spacecraft. Study 1966. Yet another of Philip Bono's single-stage-to-orbit designs of the 1960's, using a plug-nozzle engine for ascent and as a re-entry heat shield. More...
  • Ithacus American manned spacecraft. Study 1966. Adaptation of Phillip Bono's enormous ROMBUS plug-nozzle semi-single-stage-orbit launch vehicle as a 1,200 soldier intercontinental troop transport. More...
  • JAG Mars Flyby 1966 American manned Mars flyby. Study 1966. Final NASA attempt to mount a manned Mars flyby mission by 1975 using Apollo hardware. It took the best elements of the NASA Huntsville and Douglas concepts of 1965, requiring only four Saturn V launches. More...
  • Lockheed EEOED American manned rescue spacecraft. Study 1966. Lockheed's EEOED was a three-crew Discovery-type re-entry vehicle. More...
  • LLV L-II American manned spacecraft module. Study 1966. Landing stage for delivery of up to 13,400 kg payload from lunar orbit to lunar surface. Propulsion 2 x RL10-A3 with N2O4/MMH thrusters for orientation, midcourse, and ullage. Delivery of lunar base elements from lunar orbit to lunar surface. More...
  • LLV L-I American manned spacecraft module. Study 1966. Lunar Orbit Insertion stage for placing LLV into lunar orbit. Propulsion 2 x RL10-A3 with N2O4/MMH thrusters for orientation, midcourse, and ullage. Lunar orbit insertion of Lunar Logistics Vehicle lander and payload. More...
  • MOBEV R1B American manned lunar rover. Study 1966. Early manned operations would utilize the basic Apollo LM or an augmented version of it. The augmented version would a small mobility unit. More...
  • MOBEV R1CB American manned lunar rover. Study 1966. The MOBEV R1CB Base Support Vehicle -- Special Purpose was a manned lunar tractor, which provided base support capability in terms of earth moving, towing, and general utility within close proximity of the base. More...
  • MOBEV F1B American manned lunar flyer. Study 1966. The MOBEV F1B one-man pogo flying vehicle was the selected configuration for the one-man pogo application from three alternatives. Maximum operational mass with astronaut and payload, 258 kg. More...
  • MOBEV R3DE American manned lunar rover. Study 1966. The MOBEV R3DE Extended Traverse Vehicle was a 90-Day MOBEX, a manned mobile laboratory used for exploration of the moon. More...
  • MOBEV F2E American manned lunar flyer. Study 1966. The MOBEV selected return to orbit vehicle, F2E, was provided with six degree of freedom control for rendezvous as well as normal attitude control. Maximum operational mass with 2 astronauts and payload, 1364.5 kg. More...
  • MOBEV R1DE American manned lunar rover. Study 1966. The MOBEV R1DE recommended Lunar Station Vehicle was a Cabined LSSM, a manned exploration vehicle designed to provide a shirt-sleeve (open spacesuit faceplate) environment. More...
  • MOBEV R2C(1)E American manned lunar rover. Study 1966. The MOBEV R2C(1)E manned Mobile Laboratory Vehicle (MOLAB) was to be used for exploration of the moon. The MOLAB provided complete life support capabilities for its two-man crew during a 14-day, 400-km mission. More...
  • MOBEV RIB(1)E American manned lunar rover. Study 1966. The MOBEV RIB(1)E recommended Lunar Station Vehicle was a Greater Versatility LSSM, an exploration vehicle designed for both manned and unmanned operation. More...
  • MOLEM American manned lunar rover. Study 1966. Third generation versions of LM derivative equipment were studied by Grumman in a report delivered on 10 May 1966. More...
  • MOCOM American manned lunar rover. Study 1966. Third generation versions of the CM were studied by North American in 1966 to further modify a CM shelter to provide mobility. Essentially the CM was mounted on a four-wheel chassis. More...
  • MOCAN American manned lunar rover. Study 1966. The MOCAN was a manned Lunar Rover using the planned Boeing pressurized Apollo Multipurpose Mission Module (CAN) as the basic structure and MOLAB wheels More...
  • Pegasus VTOVL American manned spacecraft. Study 1966. Bono design for semi-single-stage-to-orbit ballistic VTOVL launch vehicle. More...
  • Rescue Gemini American manned rescue spacecraft. Study 1966. A version of Gemini was proposed for rescue of crews stranded in Earth orbit. This version, launched by a Titan 3C, used a transtage for maneuvering. More...
  • Republic Moon Suit American pressure suit, tested 1966. This was a Republic Aviation design for a hard space suit for extended operations on the lunar surface. More...
  • Soyuz 7K-OK SA Russian manned spacecraft module. 17 launches, 1966.11.28 (Cosmos 133) to 1970.06.01 (Soyuz 9). Post-Soyuz 1 modification, allowing crew of three without spacesuits. Analogue sequencer and computers operate spacecraft. Reentry capsule. More...
  • Soyuz 7K-OK BO Russian manned spacecraft module. 17 launches, 1966.11.28 (Cosmos 133) to 1970.06.01 (Soyuz 9). Heavy-duty male/female docking system with no internal transfer tunnel. Igla automatic rendezvous and docking system. Living section. More...
  • Soyuz 7K-OK PAO Russian manned spacecraft module. 17 launches, 1966.11.28 (Cosmos 133) to 1970.06.01 (Soyuz 9). Soyuz 7K-OK basic PAO service module with pump-fed main engines and separate RCS/main engine propellant feed system. Equipment-engine section. More...
  • SAVER American manned rescue spacecraft. Study 1966. The Rockwell SAVER concept provided return of a single crew member in his ejection seat. A nosecap only the size of the seat absorbed most of the re-entry heat. More...
  • Winged Gemini American manned spaceplane. Study 1966. Winged Gemini was the most radical modification of the basic Gemini reentry module ever considered. More...
  • OS-1 (1969) Russian manned space station. Study 1969. By 1969 the giant OS-1 space station had evolved to this configuration. More...
  • Soyuz 7K-L1 Russian manned lunar flyby spacecraft. 12 launches, 1967.03.10 (Cosmos 146) to 1970.10.20 (Zond 8). The Soyuz 7K-L1, a modification of the Soyuz 7K-OK, was designed for manned circumlunar missions. More...
  • ALSS Lunar Base American manned lunar base. Cancelled 1968. The ALSS (Apollo Logistics Support System) Lunar Base would require a new development, the LM Truck, to allow delivery of up to 4100 kg in payload to the lunar surface. More...
  • AES Lunar Base American manned lunar base. Cancelled 1968. AES (Apollo Extension Systems) was planned as the first American lunar base. It would involve minimal modification of Apollo hardware. The Apollo CSM would be modified for long duration lunar orbit storage. More...
  • Soyuz OB-VI Russian manned space station. Cancelled 1970. In December 1967 OKB-1 chief designer Mishin managed to have Kozlov's Soyuz VI project killed. In its place he proposed to build a manned military station based on his own Soyuz 7K-OK design. More...
  • L5-1967 Russian manned lunar lander. Study 1967. At a Lunar Soviet meeting in October 1967 preliminary agreement was reached to study a follow-on to the first N1-L3 lunar landings. A new N1 model was to be developed to launch a new 'L5' spacecraft. More...
  • A/P22S-4 American pressure suit, operational 1967. Full pressure suit replacement for the A/P22S-2, 8 sizes for use in bomber and reconnaissance aircraft. Evolved from the original MC-2 design. More...
  • Apollo RM American logistics spacecraft. Study 1967. In 1967 it was planned that Saturn IB-launched Orbital Workshops would be supplied by Apollo CSM spacecraft and Resupply Modules (RM) with up to three metric tons of supplies and instruments. More...
  • Big Gemini AM American manned spacecraft module. Reached mockup stage 1967. Earth orbit maneuver and retrofire. More...
  • Big Gemini CM American manned spacecraft module. Reached mockup stage 1967. Space station resupply. More...
  • Big Gemini RV American manned spacecraft module. Reached mockup stage 1967. Crew and cargo return. More...
  • Gemini LORV RM American manned spacecraft module. Study 1967. Calculated mass based on mission requirements, drawing of spacecraft. More...
  • Gemini LORV SM American manned spacecraft module. Study 1967. Calculated mass based on mission requirements, drawing of spacecraft, dimensions of propellant tanks. More...
  • Gemini LSSS LM American manned spacecraft module. Study 1967. Calculated mass based on mission requirements, drawing of spacecraft, dimensions of propellant tanks. More...
  • Gemini Lunar RM American manned spacecraft module. Study 1967. Calculated mass based on mission requirements, drawing of spacecraft. More...
  • Gemini LSSS SM American manned spacecraft module. Study 1967. Calculated mass based on mission requirements, drawing of spacecraft. More...
  • Gemini Lunar Surface Survival Shelter American manned lunar habitat. Study 1967. Prior to an Apollo moon landing attempt, the shelter would be landed, unmanned, near the landing site of a stranded Apollo Lunar Module. More...
  • Gemini LORV American manned lunar orbiter. Study 1967. This version of Gemini was studied as a means of rescuing an Apollo CSM crew stranded in lunar orbit. The Gemini would be launched unmanned on a translunar trajectory by a Saturn V. More...
  • MEM American manned Mars lander. Study 1967. The Mars Excursion Module was designed by North American for the Marshall Spaceflight Center in an October 1966-August 1967 study. More...
  • Manned Venus Orbiting Mission American manned Venus orbiter. A 1967 a NASA study examined requirements for a manned Venus orbiter. It concluded such a mission could be mounted by 1975 using Apollo technology. More...
  • Soyuz 7K-L1 SA Russian manned spacecraft module. 12 launches, 1967.03.10 (Cosmos 146) to 1970.10.20 (Zond 8). Increased heat shield protection and presumably reaction control system propellant for re-entry from lunar distances. Reentry capsule. More...
  • Soyuz 7K-L1 SOK Russian manned spacecraft module. 12 launches, 1967.03.10 (Cosmos 146) to 1970.10.20 (Zond 8). Separates before trans-lunar injection. Jettisonable support cone. More...
  • Soyuz 7K-L1 PAO Russian manned spacecraft module. 12 launches, 1967.03.10 (Cosmos 146) to 1970.10.20 (Zond 8). Modification of Soyuz 7K-OK basic PAO service module with pump-fed main engines and separate RCS/main engine propellant feed system. Equipment-engine section. More...
  • L3M-1970 Russian manned lunar lander. Study 1970. The first design of the L3M lunar lander had the crew of two accommodated in a Soyuz capsule atop the lander. More...
  • DLB Lunar Base Russian manned lunar base. Substantial development activity from 1962 to cancellation in 1974. The N1 draft project of 1962 spoke of 'establishment of a lunar base and regular traffic between the earth and the moon'. More...
  • Orlan Russian space suit, operational 1978. The Orlan spacesuit was used for Russian EVA's on Salyut, Mir, and the International Space Station. It was designed by the Zvezda OKB, and derived from the Kretchet suit intended for use on the lunar surface. More...
  • Krechet Russian space suit, tested 1969. The Krechet spacesuit was designed by the Zvezda OKB for use on the lunar surface. It consisted of flexible limbs attached to a one-piece rigid body / helmet unit. More...
  • Apollo 120 in Telescope American manned space station. Study 1968. Concept for use of a Saturn V-launched Apollo CSM with an enormous 10 m diameter space laboratory equipped with a 3 m diameter astronomical telescope. More...
  • Apollo LPM American lunar logistics spacecraft. Study 1968. The unmanned portion of the Lunar Surface Rendezvous and Exploration Phase of Apollo envisioned in 1969 was the Lunar Payload Module (LPM). More...
  • Apollo ELS American manned lunar habitat. Cancelled 1968. The capabilities of a lunar shelter not derived from Apollo hardware were surveyed in the Early Lunar Shelter Study (ELS), completed in February 1967 by AiResearch. More...
  • Apollo LASS American manned lunar habitat. Cancelled 1968. In the LASS (LM Adapter Surface Station) lunar shelter concept, the LM ascent stage was replaced by an SLA 'mini-base' and the position of the Apollo Service Module (SM) was reversed. More...
  • Apollo LM DS American manned spacecraft module. 10 launches, 1968.01.22 (Apollo 5) to 1972.12.07 (Apollo 17). More...
  • Apollo LM AS American manned spacecraft module. 10 launches, 1968.01.22 (Apollo 5) to 1972.12.07 (Apollo 17). More...
  • AIRMAT American manned rescue spacecraft. Study 1968. Inflatable; space suits required; ejection seat; requires development of flexible heat shield and new materials. Mass per crew 570 kg. More...
  • EEM American manned spacecraft module. Study 1968. Re-entry at extreme velocities from manned interplanetary missions.. More...
  • ILRV American manned spaceplane. Study 1968. In late 1968 the USAF Flight Dynamics Laboratory proposed its Integrated Launch and Re-entry Vehicle. This was a 1.5 stage-to-orbit concept with an external drop tank. More...
  • LK-700 Block 11 Russian manned spacecraft module. Study 1968. Differed from the lateral Block 1 stages in having an engine unit for orientation of the assembly. Main engine of 23,500 kgf and three engines for soft landing / midcourse maneuvers of 1,670 kgf each. Midcourse manoeuvre/lunar braking stage. More...
  • LK-700 Block 1 Russian manned spacecraft module. Study 1968. Three identical stages of 34,491 kg each clustered around the core. Translunar Injection Stage. More...
  • Lunar Exploration Program 1968 American manned lunar base. Cancelled 1968. In January 1968, Bellcomm, NASA's Apollo project management advisor, proposed a four-phase program for exploration of the lunar surface using Apollo and Apollo-derived hardware. More...
  • LK-700 VA Russian manned spacecraft module. Study 1968. VA Re-entry Capsule. More...
  • LESA Lunar Base American manned lunar base. Cancelled 1968. LESA (Lunar Exploration System for Apollo) represented the ultimate lunar base concept studied by NASA prior to the cancellation of further Saturn V production in June 1968. More...
  • LSSM American manned lunar rover. Study 1968. The Bendix Local Science Survey Module was a forerunner of the Lunar Rover. The LSSM was a small size vehicle used to support a local manned survey. It was proposed for delivery with an LM Shelter. More...
  • Lunar Orbit OPS Russian manned lunar orbiter. Study 1968. In Chelomei's draft project for the UR-700, he proposed that lunar versions of the Almaz OPS be placed in lunar orbit to conduct detailed reconnaissance of the surface using manned assistance. More...
  • LK-700 Block 1V Russian manned spacecraft module. Study 1968. Main engine of 13,400 kgf and three engines for soft landing / midcourse maneuvers of 1,670 kgf each. Trans-earth injection / midcourse manoeuvre stage. More...
  • Molab American manned lunar rover. Cancelled 1968. The moderate capacity mobile laboratory (MOLAB) concept was studied in two NASA/MT contracts to determine configurations and capabilities of vehicles in the 2950 to 3850 kg class. More...
  • MOBEV F2B American manned lunar flyer. Cancelled 1968. The F2B was the MOBEV selected configuration for a multi-man surface-to-surface flying vehicle. Maximum operational mass with 2 astronauts and payload, 844 kg. More...
  • MM American manned Mars orbiter. Study 1968. The Mission Module (MM) could be modified according to requirements of a particular interplanetary manned mission. More...
  • NAZ-3 Russian space emergency kit, operational 1968. The NAZ-3 emergency-landing kit was used in cosmonaut training in all seasons and extremes of temperature, and on all manner of terrain: mountains, steppes, tundra, desert, taiga, and in water. More...
  • Orion Mars American manned Mars expedition. Study 1968. Nuclear pulse spacecraft for manned mission to Mars. More...
  • Rib Stiffened Expandable Escape System American manned rescue spacecraft. Study 1968. This Rockwell concept was stowed in a canister. In an emergency, the articulated rib-truss structure would be deployed into a mechanically rigid aeroshell shape. More...
  • S1010 American pressure suit, operational 1968. A special variant of the S901, designated the S1010 PPA, was developed specifically for use in the U-2R aircraft in the mid-1960s. More...
  • Swedish Jerkin Swedish pressure suit, operational 1968. Partial coverage garment - two pressure flying suit with diaphragmatic bladder, used with high pressure mask equivalent to A-13 with Hardman kit. More...
  • VERAS French manned spaceplane. Study 1968. A Mach 10 spaceplane demonstrator proposed by Nord Aviation in 1968. More...
  • Soyuz 7K-L1A Russian manned lunar orbiter. 2 launches, 1969.02.21 (N-1 3L) to 1969.07.03 (N-1 5L). Hybrid spacecraft used in N1 launch tests. More...
  • X-24A American manned spaceplane. 28 launches, 1969.04.17 to 1971.06.04 . The X-24A was the Martin Corporation's subsonic test version of the US Air Force's preferred manned lifting body configuration. More...
  • Soyuz Kontakt Russian manned spacecraft. Cancelled 1974. Modification of the Soyuz 7K-OK spacecraft to test in earth orbit the Kontakt rendezvous and docking system. More...
  • MK-700 Russian manned Mars flyby. Study 1972. Chelomei was the only Chief Designer to complete an Aelita draft project and present it to the Soviet government. More...
  • A9L American space suit, tested 1969. Two hard-shell, constant-volume suits entered development for the Apollo Applications Program. More...
  • MKBS Russian manned space station. Cancelled 1974. The culmination of ten years of designs for N1-launched space stations, the MKBS would be cancelled together with the N1. More...
  • Apollo LRM American manned lunar orbiter. Study 1969. Grumman proposed to use the LM as a lunar reconnaissance module. But NASA had already considered this and many other possibilities (Apollo MSS, Apollo LMSS); and there was no budget available for any of them. More...
  • LLV American lunar logistics spacecraft. Study 1966. Many versions of new Lunar Logistic Vehicles (LLV's) using several possible candidate propellants were studied by NASA and its contractors in the mid-1960's for post-Apollo lunar base support. More...
  • LESA Shelter American manned lunar habitat. Study 1966. LESA (Lunar Exploration System for Apollo) was an advanced lunar surface shelter. More...
  • LFV North American American manned lunar flyer. Cancelled 1969. The North American design for a Lunar Flying Vehicle would have taken one astronaut and up to 167 kg of cargo to a distance of 3. 2 to 8.5 km from a lunar landing site in minutes, at a maximum speed of 85 m/s. More...
  • Soyuz 7K-L1E Russian manned lunar orbiter. 2 launches, 1969.11.28 (Soyuz 7K-L1E s/n 1) and 1970.12.02 (Cosmos 382). Modification of Soyuz circumlunar configuration used in propulsion tests of the Block D stage. More...
  • Apollo MET American lunar hand cart. Flown 1971. NASA designed the MET lunar hand cart to help with problems such as the Apollo 12 astronauts had in carrying hand tools, sample boxes and bags, a stereo camera, and other equipment on the lunar surface. More...
  • Gemini B AM American manned spacecraft module. Cancelled 1969. Adapter module for Gemini B, the engines serving as both abort motors during ascent to orbit and for retrofire on return to earth. Abort/deorbit propulsion. More...
  • Gemini B RM American manned spacecraft. Cancelled 1969. Gemini was extensively redesigned for the MOL Manned Orbiting Laboratory program. The resulting Gemini B, although externally similar, was essentially a completely new spacecraft. Reentry capsule. More...
  • IMLSS American space mobility device. Cancelled 1969. In 1968-69 Hamilton Standard developed this Integrated Maneuvering Life Support System (IMLSS) for the USAF Manned Orbiting Laboratory program. More...
  • MEK Russian manned Mars expedition. Study 1969. The Mars Expeditionary Complex (MEK) was designed to take a crew of from three to six to Mars and back with a total mission duration of 630 days. More...
  • MOL LM American manned space station module. Cancelled 1969. The Laboratory Module consisted of a forward unpressurized section 2.43 m long, followed by an aft pressurized section, a 3.37 m long cylinder with 2.79 m diameter hemispherical bulkheads at each end. Space station military. More...
  • MOL MM American manned space station module. Cancelled 1969. The MOL Mission Module took up most of the spacecraft. It had a length of 11.24 m and was divided into two major bays, the forward section 4.42 m long, and the aft section 6.82 m long. More...
  • MURP American manned spaceplane. Study 1969. The McDonnell Douglas Space Shuttle Phase A studies were conducted under contract NAS9-9204. Their Class I vehicle was dubbed MURP - Manned Upper Reusable Payload. More...
  • MOL Space Suit American space suit. Cancelled 1969. Space suit designed to support launch/re-entry and Extra-Vehicular Activity (EVA) aboard the USAF Manned Orbiting Laboratory. Developed from 1965-1969, when MOL was cancelled. More...
  • OS-1 Lunar Russian manned lunar orbiter. Study 1969. A version of the OS-1 station was proposed for use in lunar orbit. No other details beyond this sketch. More...
  • LK Russian manned lunar lander. 3 launches, 1970.11.24 (Cosmos 379) to 1971.08.12 (Cosmos 434). The LK ('Lunniy korabl' - lunar craft) was the Soviet lunar lander - the Russian counterpart of the American LM Lunar Module. More...
  • Apollo Rescue CSM American manned rescue spacecraft. Study 1970. Influenced by the stranded Skylab crew portrayed in the book and movie 'Marooned', NASA provided a crew rescue capability for the first time in its history. More...
  • Baklan Russian pressure suit, operational 1970. The Baklan full-pressure suit was developed by Zvezda for the crew of high altitude strategic aviation aircraft.. More...
  • ENCAP American manned rescue spacecraft. Study 1970. The ENCAP encapsulated bailout-from-orbit concept consisted of a folded heat shield. The astronaut would exit his stranded spacecraft and strap into the seat. More...
  • EIS/OES American space suit, tested 1970. Developmental 0.54 bar Emergency Intravehicular Suit (EIS) and Orbital Extravehicular Suit (OES) programs were conducted by NASA in the 1970's. More...
  • L3M Russian manned lunar base. Study 1970-1972. Follow-on to the L3, a two N1-launch manned lunar expedition designed and developed in the Soviet Union between 1969 and 1974. More...
  • S1030 American pressure suit, operational 1970. Upgraded SR-71 full pressure suit, link net with integrated subsystems. More...
  • Space Base American manned space station. Study 1970. Growth of Space Station into a 50 man Space Base was a required capability in the Phase B NASA Space Station studies of 1969-1970. More...
  • Skylab Lunar Orbit Station American manned lunar orbiter. Study 1970. McDonnell Douglas (Seal Beach, CA) did a study on modifying the to modify the Skylab as a moon-orbiting observatory and station More...
  • S-IVB Advanced Station American manned space station. Study 1970. Follow-on to Skylab proposed by Douglas. The station would still use the S-IVB stage as the basis, but would be much more extensively outfitted for larger crews. More...
  • Tsien Spaceplane 1978 Chinese manned spaceplane. Study late 1970s. Tsien Hsue-shen's manned spacecraft design proposed in the late 1970's was a winged spaceplane, launched by a CZ-2 core booster with two large strap-on boosters. More...
  • VMSK-4 Russian pressure suit, operational 1970. The VMSK-4 was a partial pressure immersion suit developed for Soviet Naval Aviation pilots. More...
  • Penguin Russian anti-zero-G suit, tested 1975. Prophylactic Body-Loading Suit, in use from 1978-; looked like the standard Russian blue in-flight suit, but had additional elastic bands and pulleys that created artificial force against which the body could work. More...
  • Shuguang 1 Chinese manned spacecraft. Cancelled 1972. Shuguang-1 (Dawn-1) was China's first manned spacecraft design. The two-man capsule would have been similar to the American Gemini capsule and been launched by the CZ-2 booster. More...
  • Salyut 1 Russian manned space station. 2 launches, 1971.04.19 (Salyut 1) and 1972.07.29 (Zarya s/n 122). Salyut 1 was the first DOS long duration orbital station. More...
  • Soyuz 7KT-OK Russian manned spacecraft. 2 launches, 1971.04.23 (Soyuz 10) to 1971.06.06 (Soyuz 11). This was a modification of Soyuz 7K-OK with a lightweight docking system and a crew transfer tunnel. More...
  • Mars 1986 Russian manned Mars expedition. Studied 1978-1986. NPO Energia resumed study of a Mars project once development began of the new Energia booster in place of the cancelled N1. More...
  • Soyuz 7K-LOK Russian manned lunar orbiter. 2 launches, 1971.06.26 (N-1 6L) to 1972.11.23 (LOK). The two-crew LOK lunar orbiting spacecraft was the largest derivative of Soyuz developed. More...
  • Apollo LRV American manned lunar rover. 3 launches, 1971.07.26 (LRV-1) to 1972.12.07 (LRV-3). More...
  • Chibis Russian anti-zero-G device, in use from 1971 (Salyut 1) to the ISS era. More...
  • DLB Lunokhod 1 Russian manned lunar rover. Study 1971. One of several conceptual models of Lunokhod or Marsokhod pressurized surface rovers planned for Soviet moon or Mars expeditions. More...
  • DLB Lunokhod 2 Russian manned lunar rover. Study 1971. One of several conceptual models of Lunokhod or Marsokhod pressurized surface rovers planned for Soviet moon or Mars expeditions. More...
  • DLB Lunokhod 3 Russian manned lunar rover. Study 1971. One of several conceptual models of Lunokhod or Marsokhod pressurized surface rovers planned for Soviet moon or Mars expeditions. More...
  • DLB Beacon Lander Russian lunar logistics spacecraft. Study 1971. In most Soviet manned lunar landing scenarios, versions of the Ye-8 unmanned landers would precede manned landings on the moon. More...
  • Hawker Siddeley Waverider-1971 British manned spaceplane. Study 1971. The Hawker Siddeley Waverider study of 1971 laid out a space vehicle with a waveriding airbreathing hypersonic first stage, and a rocket propelled, lifting body second stage. More...
  • LOK PAO Russian manned spacecraft module. 2 launches, 1971.06.26 (N-1 6L) to 1972.11.23 (LOK). Unique PAO developed for Soyuz lunar orbiter. Powerful sophisticated engine for lunar orbit rendezvous maneuvers and trans-earth injection. Equipment-engine section. More...
  • LSV American manned lunar rover. Study 1971. The Lunar Sortie Vehicle (LSV), was a North American Rockwell design of 1971, conceived as a railroad train without the rails. More...
  • NASA Mars Expedition 1971 American manned Mars expedition. Study 1971. Final NASA Mars expedition before the 1980's. The spacecraft would use shuttle hardware, including SSME engines in the rocket stages. More...
  • Sokol-K1 Russian space suit, operational 1971. After the Soyuz 11 tragedy, in which all three unsuited cosmonauts died in a decompression accident, the Soviets scrambled to produce new IVA suits. More...
  • Soyuz 7K-LOK SA Russian manned spacecraft module. 2 launches, 1971.06.26 (N-1 6L) to 1972.11.23 (LOK). Increased heat shield protection and presumably reaction control system propellant for re-entry from lunar distances. Reentry capsule. More...
  • Soyuz 7K-OKS SA Russian manned spacecraft module. 2 launches, 1971.04.23 (Soyuz 10) to 1971.06.06 (Soyuz 11). Post-Soyuz 1 modification, allowing crew of three without spacesuits. Analogue sequencer and computers operate spacecraft. Reentry capsule. More...
  • Soyuz 7K-OKS PAO Russian manned spacecraft module. 2 launches, 1971.04.23 (Soyuz 10) to 1971.06.06 (Soyuz 11). Soyuz 7K-OK basic PAO service module with pump-fed main engines and separate RCS/main engine propellant feed system. Equipment-engine section. More...
  • Soyuz 7K-LOK BO Russian manned spacecraft module. 2 launches, 1971.06.26 (N-1 6L) to 1972.11.23 (LOK). Living section. More...
  • Soyuz 7K-OKS BO Russian manned spacecraft module. 2 launches, 1971.04.23 (Soyuz 10) to 1971.06.06 (Soyuz 11). Lightweight male/female docking system with roller-type probe, internal transfer tunnel. Living section. More...
  • Space Activity Suit American space suit, tested 1971. Prototype for a Mechanical Counter Pressure suit made up of six layers of elastic material accompanied by a full bubble helmet. More...
  • X-38 American manned spaceplane. 2 launches, 1972.02.16 (HL-10 LB Test?) to 1972.05.20 (HL-10 LB Test?). Lifting body reentry vehicle designed as emergency return spacecraft for International Space Station crew. More...
  • L3M-1972 Russian manned lunar lander. Study 1972. Revised L3M design of the L3M lunar lander for use with the Block Sr crasher stage. The Soyuz return capsule was completely enclosed in a pressurized 'hangar'. More...
  • Almaz OPS-2 Russian manned space station. Cancelled 1979. The initial Almaz military space station program planned in 1965 consisted of two phases. More...
  • Soyuz 7K-T Russian manned spacecraft. 23 launches, 1972.06.26 (Cosmos 496) to 1981.05.14 (Soyuz 40). More...
  • Aerospike Test Vehicle American manned spacecraft. George Detko of NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center produced a design for a minimum SSTO VTOVL vehicle in 1972. The vehicle had a gross liftoff mass of only 22 metric tons, and could deliver a two-person crew to orbit. More...
  • EGRESS American manned rescue spacecraft. Study 1972. The EGRESS space escape system was based on the proven Encapsulated Ejection Seat System developed for the B-58 bomber in the 1960's. More...
  • LK-3 Russian manned lunar lander. Reached mock-up stage, 1972. The LK-3 was Chelomei's preliminary design for a direct-landing alternative to Korolev's L3 manned lunar landing design. More...
  • Mini-shuttle American manned rocketplane. Study 1972. In August 1972 it was proposed to test a subscale version of the shuttle to test the aerodynamics. The 13,750 kg vehicle would be 11 m long and have a wingspan of 7 m. More...
  • Modularised Space Station American manned space station. Study 1972. Space station design of 1972 using modules sized for transport in the Space Shuttle payload bay. could be carried inside the Shuttle orbiter payload bay. More...
  • Soyuz 7K-T SA Russian manned spacecraft module. 23 launches, 1972.06.26 (Cosmos 496) to 1981.05.14 (Soyuz 40). Post-Soyuz 11 modification for crew of two in spacesuits. Reentry capsule. More...
  • Soyuz 7K-T PAO Russian manned spacecraft module. 23 launches, 1972.06.26 (Cosmos 496) to 1981.05.14 (Soyuz 40). Soyuz 7K-OK basic PAO service module with pump-fed main engines and separate RCS/main engine propellant feed system. Equipment-engine section. More...
  • Soyuz 7K-T BO Russian manned spacecraft module. 23 launches, 1972.06.26 (Cosmos 496) to 1981.05.14 (Soyuz 40). Lightweight male/female docking system with roller-type probe, internal transfer tunnel (Collar Length: 0.22 m. Probe Length: 0. Living section. More...
  • Almaz OPS Russian manned space station. 3 launches, 1973.04.03 (Salyut 2) to 1976.06.22 (Salyut 5). Vladimir Chelomei's Almaz OPS was the only manned military space station ever actually flown. More...
  • Almaz Russian manned space station. 3 launches, 1973.04.03 (Salyut 2) to 1976.06.22 (Salyut 5). Chelomei's Almaz space station was designed to conduct orbital research into the usefulness of manned observation of the earth. More...
  • Salyut 4 Russian manned space station. 2 launches, 1973.05.11 (Cosmos 557) to 1974.12.26 (Salyut 4). Four of the initial DOS-1 versions of a civilian Soviet space station were built using converted Almaz military stations. More...
  • Skylab American manned space station. One launch, 1973.05.14. First US space station. The project began life as the Orbital Workshop- outfitting of an S-IVB stage with a docking adapter with equipment launched by several subsequent S-1B launches. More...
  • X-24B American manned spaceplane. 36 launches, 1973.08.01 to 1975.11.26 . More...
  • LEK SA Russian manned spacecraft module. Study 1973. Descent module was contained within pressurized cabin of LEK ascent stage. Crew may have entered hatch in heat shield. Landing apparatus - Reentry capsule for crew and lunar samples.. More...
  • LEK PS Russian manned spacecraft module. Study 1973. Descent stage very similar in appearance to that of Apollo LM, with same function - descent from lunar orbit to landing of crewed module on surface of moon. Landing stage - Carry LEK ascent stage from lunar orbit to lunar surface; act as launching platform for LEK ascent stage.. More...
  • LEK VS Russian manned spacecraft module. Study 1973. Ascent stage, carried a crew of three from the lunar surface to trans-earth trajectory. Contained within the pressurized cabin was a Soyuz descent module for reentry by the crew into the earth's atmosphere. Ascent stage - Carry crew and Soyuz descent module from lunar surface to trans-earth trajectory. Provide crew quarters and midcourse corrections during return journey from lunar surface to earth.. More...
  • Skylab MDA American manned space station module. One launch, 1973.05.14. Docking module for two CSM, one ATM. More...
  • Skylab ATM American manned space station module. One launch, 1973.05.14. Solar Telescope module. More...
  • Skylab AM American manned space station module. One launch, 1973.05.14. Airlock for EVA's, mounting of STS and TNL. More...
  • Space Cruiser American manned combat spacecraft. Study 1973. The space cruiser was a US Navy design for a single-place crewed space interceptor designed to destroy Soviet satellites used to track the location of US warships. More...
  • Skylab OWS American manned space station module. One launch, 1973.05.14. Main laboratory. More...
  • Skylab AMU American space mobility device, tested 1973. One of several extravehicular mobility devices tested by the Skylab astronauts within the spacious station. More...
  • S-IVB IU American manned space station module. One launch, 1973.05.14. Used for guidance during orbital insertion only. More...
  • Soyuz 7K-TM Russian manned spacecraft. 4 launches, 1974.04.03 (Cosmos 638) to 1975.07.15 (Soyuz 19 (ASTP)). The Soyuz 7K-T as modified for the docking with Apollo. More...
  • Soyuz 7K-T/A9 Russian manned spacecraft. 8 launches, 1974.05.27 (Cosmos 656) to 1978.06.27 (Soyuz 30). Version of 7K-T for flights to Almaz. Known difference with the basic 7K-T included systems for remote control of the Almaz station and a revised parachute system. More...
  • Enterprise American manned spaceplane. Study 1974. Enterprise was the first Space Shuttle Orbiter. It was rolled out on September 17, 1976. More...
  • X-24C American manned spaceplane. Cancelled 1977. Two X-24C NHFRF (National Hypersonic Flight Research Facility) aircraft were to be built under a $ 200 million budget. More...
  • Soyuz 7K-S Russian manned spacecraft. 3 launches, 1974.08.06 (Cosmos 670) to 1976.11.29 (Cosmos 869). The Soyuz 7K-S had its genesis in military Soyuz designs of the 1960's. More...
  • Albatros Raketoplan Russian manned spaceplane. Study 1974. Unique Russian space shuttle design of 1974. Hydrofoil-launched, winged recoverable first and second stages. More...
  • LEK Lunar Expeditionary Complex Russian manned lunar base. Cancelled 1974. Although the N1, L3, and DLB projects were cancelled, Glushko still considered the establishment of a moon base to be a primary goal for his country. More...
  • MTKVA Russian manned spaceplane. Study 1974. Manned lifting body spaceplane, designed by Soviet engineers as a recoverable spacecraft in the early 1970's. More...
  • Manned Orbiting Facility American manned space station. Study 1974. NASA carried out a number of space station studies while the Shuttle was being developed in the mid-1970s. More...
  • Soyuz ASTP SA Russian manned spacecraft module. 4 launches, 1974.04.03 (Cosmos 638) to 1975.07.15 (Soyuz 19 (ASTP)). Post-Soyuz 11 modification for crew of two in spacesuits. Reentry capsule. More...
  • Skylab AME American space mobility device, tested 1974. Another of the EVA maneuvering units tested by the Skylab astronauts within the capacious station. More...
  • Soyuz ASTP BO Russian manned spacecraft module. 4 launches, 1974.04.03 (Cosmos 638) to 1975.07.15 (Soyuz 19 (ASTP)). Universal docking system designed for ASTP with three petaled locating system and internal transfer tunnel. No automated rendezvous and docking system. Living section. More...
  • Soyuz ASTP PAO Russian manned spacecraft module. 4 launches, 1974.04.03 (Cosmos 638) to 1975.07.15 (Soyuz 19 (ASTP)). Soyuz 7K-OK basic PAO service module with pump-fed main engines and separate RCS/main engine propellant feed system. Equipment-engine section. More...
  • Apollo ASTP Docking Module American manned space station module. One launch, 1975.07.15, Docking Module 2. The ASTP docking module was basically an airlock with docking facilities on each end to allow crew transfer between the Apollo and Soyuz spacecraft. More...
  • A/P22S-6 American pressure suit, operational 1975. Full pressure suit replacement for the A/P22S-4. 12 sizes, for bomber, reconnaissance and fighter aircraft. More...
  • A/P22S-6A American pressure suit, operational 1975. Modified A/P22S-6 suit to add urine collection device with other material and hardware changes. More...
  • Lunokhod LEK Russian manned lunar rover. Study 1973. Lunar rover for the Vulkan Lunar Expedition. The rover provided pressurized quarters for 2 crew, allowing trips up to 200 km from the lunar base at a top speed of 5 km/hr. More...
  • LEK Russian manned lunar lander. Study 1973. Lunar lander for the Vulkan surface base. As in the original LK lunar lander, this would be taken to near zero velocity near the lunar surface by the Vulkan Block V 'lunar crasher' rocket stage. More...
  • LZM Russian manned lunar habitat. Study 1973. Laboratory-Factory Module for the Vulkan surface base. More...
  • LZhM Russian manned lunar habitat. Study 1973. Laboratory-living module. Three story lunar surface residence and laboratory for Vulkan-launched Lunar Expedition. More...
  • MOSES American manned rescue spacecraft. Study 1975. The General Electric MOSES space rescue concept of the early 1980's took advantage of large re-entry capsules already developed for classified US military projects. More...
  • Mir-2 Russian manned space station. Study 1989. The Mir-2 space station was originally authorized in the February 1976 resolution setting forth plans for development of third generation Soviet space systems. More...
  • Soyuz 7K-MF6 Russian manned spacecraft. One launch, 1976.09.15, Soyuz 22. Soyuz 7K-T modified with installation of East German MF6 multispectral camera. Used for a unique solo Soyuz earth resources mission. More...
  • MiG 105-11 Russian manned spaceplane. 8 launches, 1976.10.11 to 1978.09.15 . Atmospheric flight test version of the Spiral OS manned spaceplane. The 105-11 incorporated the airframe and some of the systems of the planned orbital version. More...
  • TKS VA Russian manned spacecraft module. 13 launches, 1976.12.15 (Cosmos 881) to 1985.09.27 (Cosmos 1686). The VA reentry capsule was similar in configuration to the American Apollo, but 30% smaller. Reusable re-entry capsule. More...
  • Apollo CM Escape Concept American manned rescue spacecraft. Study 1976. Escape capsule using Apollo command module studied by Rockwell for NASA for use with the shuttle in the 1970's-80's. Mass per crew: 750 kg. More...
  • Northrop LBEC American manned rescue spacecraft. Study 1976. Northrop, building on its work on the HL-10 and M2-F3 lifting bodies, proposed a lifting body three-crew lifeboat. The piloted spacecraft would use a parasail for recovery. More...
  • OPS + TKS Russian manned space station. Cancelled 1976. Designation give to combined TKS+OPS Almaz station. More...
  • Rockwell SHS American manned rescue spacecraft. Study 1976. The Rockwell Spherical Heat Shield escape concept used a return capsule shell like a Vostok capsule cut in half. Two crew could be returned in a pressurized environment. Mass per crew 220 kg. More...
  • Soyuz 7K-MF6 SA Russian manned spacecraft module. One launch, 1976.09.15, Soyuz 22. Post-Soyuz 11 modification for crew of two in spacesuits. Reentry capsule. More...
  • Soyuz 7K-MF6 BO Russian manned spacecraft module. One launch, 1976.09.15, Soyuz 22. MKF6 Camera replaced docking system and Igla automatic rendezvous and docking system deleted. Four windows, BO separated after retrofire. Living section. More...
  • Soyuz 7K-MF6 PAO Russian manned spacecraft module. One launch, 1976.09.15, Soyuz 22. Soyuz 7K-OK basic PAO service module with pump-fed main engines and separate RCS/main engine propellant feed system. Equipment-engine section. More...
  • KSI Russian logistics spacecraft. Study 1977. Capsule designed to return film and data materials from the Almaz military space station. More...
  • TKS Russian manned spacecraft. 4 launches, 1977.07.17 (Cosmos 929) to 1985.09.27 (Cosmos 1686). More...
  • Salyut 6 Russian manned space station. One launch, 1977.09.29. The Salyut 6 space station was the most successful of the DOS series prior to Mir. It was aloft for four years and ten months, completing 27,785 orbits of the earth. More...
  • HAFO American pressure suit, operational 1977. High Altitude Flying Outfit. Prototype developmental full pressure suit with integrated thermal/pressure/chemical defense/immersion and anti-G protection, ILC Dover. More...
  • HAPS American pressure suit, operational 1977. High Altitude Protective System (HAPS). Hybrid get-me-down system assembled for NASA Dryden Flight Research Center test pilots. More...
  • PHAFO American pressure suit, tested 1977. Prototype High Altitude Flying Outfit. Prototype partial pressure suit by David Clark to integrate altitude, thermal, immersion, chemical defense and anti-G protection. More...
  • TKS FGB Russian manned spacecraft module. 4 launches, 1977.07.17 (Cosmos 929) to 1985.09.27 (Cosmos 1686). Orbital Living and Service Module. More...
  • TKS BSO Russian manned spacecraft module. 4 launches, 1977.07.17 (Cosmos 929) to 1985.09.27 (Cosmos 1686). The BSO was equipped with the retro-rocket for deorbit of the VA capsule following separation from the space station. Deorbit Block. More...
  • TKS SAS Russian manned spacecraft module. 4 launches, 1977.07.17 (Cosmos 929) to 1985.09.27 (Cosmos 1686). Emergency escape system. More...
  • Progress Russian logistics spacecraft. 43 launches, 1978.01.20 (Progress 1) to 1990.05.06 (Progress 42). Progress took the basic Soyuz 7K-T manned ferry designed for the Salyut space station and modified it for unmanned space station resupply. More...
  • Soyuz T Russian manned spacecraft. 18 launches, 1978.04.04 (Cosmos 1001) to 1986.03.13 (Soyuz T-15). Soyuz T had a long gestation, beginning as the Soyuz VI military orbital complex Soyuz in 1967. More...
  • Chinese Space Suit The Shenzhou flight suits were reverse-engineered from the Russia Sokol suit. The suits are designed to protect the astronaut in the event of cabin depressurization, and not for use in extra-vehicular activity. More...
  • EA Russian manned Mars lander. Studied 1978-1986. Mars landing craft originally designed for aborted 1972 Aelita Mars study by OKB-1, and revived in the 1980's for new Energia-launched Mars expedition studies. More...
  • Progress OKD Russian manned spacecraft module. 43 launches, 1978.01.20 (Progress 1) to 1990.05.06 (Progress 42). Fuel module for refueling space stations. Refuelling section. More...
  • Progress PAO Russian manned spacecraft module. 43 launches, 1978.01.20 (Progress 1) to 1990.05.06 (Progress 42). Derived from Soyuz 7K-OK basic PAO service module with pump-fed main engines and separate RCS/main engine propellant feed system. Equipment-engine section. More...
  • Progress GO Russian manned spacecraft module. 43 launches, 1978.01.20 (Progress 1) to 1990.05.06 (Progress 42). Igla automatic rendezvous and docking system. Cargo section. More...
  • Soyuz T SA Russian manned spacecraft module. 18 launches, 1978.04.04 (Cosmos 1001) to 1986.03.13 (Soyuz T-15). Significantly improved Soyuz re-entry capsule, based on development done in Soyuz 7K-S program. Accommodation for crew of three in spacesuits. Reentry capsule. More...
  • Soyuz T BO Russian manned spacecraft module. 18 launches, 1978.04.04 (Cosmos 1001) to 1986.03.13 (Soyuz T-15). Lightweight male/female docking system with flange-type probe, internal transfer tunnel. Igla automatic rendezvous and docking system. Living section. More...
  • Soyuz T PAO Russian manned spacecraft module. 18 launches, 1978.04.04 (Cosmos 1001) to 1986.03.13 (Soyuz T-15). Improved PAO service module derived from Soyuz 7K-S with pressure-fed main engines and unitary RCS/main engine propellant feed system. Equipment-engine section. More...
  • 37K-Mir Russian manned space station. Cancelled 1983. The basic 37K design consisted of a 4.2 m diameter pressurized cylinder with a docking port at the forward end. It was not equipped with its own propulsion system. More...
  • 37KS Russian manned space station module. Cancelled 1983. Would have been launched by Proton and delivered and docked to the Mir station by a new lighter weight FGO tug. More...
  • NPG Russian manned space station. Cancelled 1986. A later version of the 37K design for military experiments, the NPG Retained Payload, would be mounted in the payload bay of Buran and connected to the orbiter's cockpit area by an access tunnel. More...
  • LO Russian manned space station. Study 1984. A later version of the 37K design for civilian experiments, the LO Laboratory Compartment, would be retained in the payload bay of Buran and connected to the orbiter's cockpit area by an access tunnel. More...
  • Space Operations Center American manned space station. Study 1979. The Space Operations Center was proposed by NASA's Johnson Spaceflight Center in 1979. More...
  • Dream Chaser American manned spaceplane. Study 2016. A six-passenger human space transport system announced in 2006 by SpaceDev, based on the ten-passenger HL-20 Personnel Launch System developed by NASA Langley in the 1980's. More...
  • EES American space suit, operational 1980. The initial series of shuttle flights were equipped with specially adapted SR-71 ejection seats for the two crew. More...
  • S1031 American pressure suit, operational 1980. The S1010 and several S1010 dash variants were later replaced by a further advanced model, the S1031 PPA. The S1031 special projects full pressure suit came in 12 sizes and was used in the TR-1 and U-2R. More...
  • Skylab Reboost Module American logistics spacecraft. Cancelled 1980. Module developed for Shuttle to deliver to Skylab to boost it to a higher orbit for use during the Shuttle program. More...
  • Science and Applications Manned Space Platform American manned space station. Study 1980. While NASA/Johnson was studying the Space Operations Center concept, the Marshall Space Flight Center was lobbying for its own station -- the Science and Applications Manned Space Platform (SAMSP). More...
  • STS External Tank Station American manned space station. Study 1980. NASA studied several concepts in the 1980's using the 'wet workshop' approach to the capacious External Tank carried into orbit with every shuttle flight. More...
  • Shuttle EMU American space suit, operational 1980. Space Shuttle Extravehicular Mobility Unit reusable suit. For a particular crew member and mission it was tailored from a stock of standard-size parts. Certified for eight EVA's. More...
  • TR-1 American pressure suit, tested 1980. Prototype full pressure suit developed by ILC Dover for the TR-1 aircraft. More...
  • TAV American manned spaceplane. Developed in the 1980s but halted in favor of the X-30. USAF program of the 1980's that reached the test hardware stage and was leading to a single-stage-to-orbit, rocket-powered, winged manned vehicle. More...
  • Columbia American manned spaceplane. 28 launches, 1981.04.12 (STS-1) to 2003.01.16 (STS-107). Columbia, the first orbiter in the Shuttle fleet, was named after the sloop that accomplished the first American circumnavigation of the globe. More...
  • LEH Helmet American space wear, operational 1981. US Space Shuttle crews on operational flights (STS-5 through Mission 51-L) wore no special protective pressure garments. More...
  • PH-D Proposal American manned Mars orbiter. Study 1981. 1981 Mars orbiter expedition design, using Phobos and Deimos as bases, and using solar electric propulsion. More...
  • System 49 Russian manned spaceplane. Study 1981. System 49 was the design that followed Spiral and preceded MAKS in the Soviet quest for a flexible air-launched manned space launcher. More...
  • System 49-M Russian manned spaceplane. Study 1981. The 49M was an application of the system 49 air-launched design concept, but with a larger carrier aircraft. The orbiter mass was 28 metric tons in orbit, including a 9 metric ton payload in a 8. More...
  • Salyut 7 Russian manned space station. One launch, 1982.04.19. Salyut 7 was the back-up article for Salyut 6 and very similar in equipment and capabilities. More...
  • BOR-4 Russian manned spaceplane. 4 launches, 1982.06.04 (Cosmos 1374) to 1984.12.19 (Cosmos 1614). BOR-4 were subscale test versions of the Spiral manned spaceplanes. More...
  • Bizan Russian manned spaceplane. Study 1982. Bizan was the 1982 Soviet air-launched spaceplane design iteration between the '49' and 'MAKS' concepts. Like the '49', it was air-launched from atop an An-124 transport. More...
  • Industrial Space Facility American manned space station module. Study 1982. In 1982 Space Industries Inc. planned to develop an 'Industrial Space Facility' (ISF), a 'mini space station' that would fly unmanned most of the time but be serviced regularly by the Space Shuttle. More...
  • Mars via Solar Sail British manned Mars expedition. Study 1982. In 1982 a minimum-mass approach to a Mars expedition was proposed, using aerocapture at Mars and the use of a long-duration solar sail cargo transport. More...
  • Space Station Designs - 1982 American manned space station. Study 1982. NASA regarded a permanently manned space station as the next 'logical step' in manned spaceflight after the Space Shuttle entered service in April 1981. More...
  • TLSS/ALSS American pressure suit, tested 1982. Tactical Life Support System. Developed by the USAF and Boeing/Gentex to provide get-me-down protection from 18 km. More...
  • Challenger American manned spaceplane. 10 launches, 1983.04.04 (STS-6) to 1986.01.28 (STS-51-L). More...
  • LKS Russian manned spaceplane. Mock-up stage when cancelled in 1983. The LKS was a Chelomei design for a reusable manned winged spacecraft, similar to the later European Hermes spaceplane. More...
  • Spacelab American manned space station module. 20 launches, 1983.11.28 (Spacelab 1) to 1998.04.17 (Neurolab). More...
  • HL-20 American manned spaceplane. Study 1988. The HL-20 was a NASA Langley design for a manned spaceplane as a backup to the space shuttle (in case it was abandoned or grounded) and as a CERV (Crew Emergency Return Vehicle) for the Freedom space station. More...
  • Discovery American manned spaceplane. 39 launches, 1984.08.30 to 2011.02.24. More...
  • Buran Analogue Russian manned spaceplane. Study 1984. This Buran OK-GLI 'Analogue' was a version of the Buran spaceplane equipped with jet engines to allow it to be flown in handling and landing system tests at subsonic speed in the earth's atmosphere. More...
  • Case for Mars II American manned Mars expedition. Study 1984. The Case for Mars II Mars expedition plan was presented at a conference on 10-14 July 1984. More...
  • Columbus Space Station European manned space station. Study 1984. The European Space Agency Columbus module began as an independent European space station but would up as an unflown module of the International Space Station. More...
  • Copper Canyon American manned spaceplane. Study 1984. DARPA program of 1984 that proved the technologies and concept for the X-30 National Aerospace Plane concept. More...
  • Energia-Buran Russian manned spaceplane. Study 1984. Article number for combined Energia (launch vehicle) - Buran (manned spaceplane) complex. See Buran for details. More...
  • JSC Moon Base 1984 American manned lunar base. Study 1984. In 1984 a Johnson Space Center team lad by Barney Roberts took NASA's first look at a return to the moon after the shuttle was in service. More...
  • Lunar Orbit Station American manned lunar orbiter. Study 1984. A variety of lunar orbital way-stations, based on space station components, were studied by NASA in the 1980's. More...
  • OK-M1 Russian manned spaceplane. Study 1984. The OK-M1 manned spaceplane was designed by NPO Molniya as a follow-on to the OK-M of NPO Energia. The OK-M1 was an integrated part of a unique launch vehicle, the MMKS reusable multi-module space system. More...
  • OK-M2 Russian manned spaceplane. Study 1984. The OK-M2 was a manned spaceplane, a straight delta wing joined to a broad fuselage with an upturned nose. More...
  • OK-M Russian manned spaceplane. Study 1984. 1980's design for a spaceplane, smaller than Buran, to replace Soyuz and Progress spacecraft for space station crew rotation/replenishment tasks. More...
  • Polar Platform American manned space station. Study 1984. In order to increase the Space Station's and Space Shuttle's appeal, NASA tried to involve as many users as possible. More...
  • Rescue Ball American manned rescue spacecraft. Study 1984. The Personal Rescue Enclosure (PRE) Rescue Ball was an 86 cm diameter high-tech beach ball for transport of astronauts from a spacecraft in distress to the space shuttle. More...
  • Space Station 1984 American manned space station. Design as of 1984. President Reagan finally approved a space station project for NASA in January 1984. More...
  • Shuttle MMU American space mobility device, tested 1984. The MMU Manned Maneuvering Unit was designed for maneuvering by astronauts untethered from the shuttle. It was used on several satellite retrieval missions in the early 1980's. More...
  • Zarya Russian manned spacecraft. Cancelled 1989.' Super Soyuz' replacement for Soyuz and Progress. More...
  • International Space Station American manned space station. Development from 1994. Assembled in orbit from 1998, with completion expected 2010. In 1987-1993 the Russians successfully assembled and operated the 124-metric ton Mir station. More...
  • Atlantis American manned spaceplane. 33 launches, 1985.10.03 to 2011.07.08. The space shuttle Atlantis was the fourth orbiter to become operational at Kennedy Space Center, and the last of the original production run. More...
  • AX-5 American space suit, tested 1985. The AX-5 high pressure, zero prebreathe hard suit was developed at NASA Ames Research Center in the 1980s. It achieved mobility through a constant volume, using a hard metal/composite rigid exoskeleton design. More...
  • Columbus Attached Pressurised Module European manned space station module. Study 1985. The European Space Agency formally joined the American Space Station project in May 1985, but the negotiations between ESA and NASA were often difficult. More...
  • Dual Keel Space Station - 1985 American manned space station. Study 1985. NASA radically changed its Space Station baseline design in October 1985 following frequent complaints from users and astronauts. More...
  • Horus German manned spaceplane. Hypersonic Orbital Upper Stage was part of the Saenger-II spaceplane studied in Germany from 1985-1993. It would have separated from the lower stage at Mach 6.6 and flown to orbit. More...
  • Lagrangian Interplanetary Shuttle Vehicle American manned Mars expedition. Study 1985. A Lagrangian approach to Mars exploration was proposed in June 1985. This would use the L1 sunward point of equal Earth/Moon/Sun gravity to assemble and refuel a large Interplanetary Shuttle Vehicle spacecraft. More...
  • Mir Modules-FGB Russian manned space station. Study 1985. Space station modules derived from the Chelomei TKS ferry. See entries for Kvant-2, Priroda, Spektr, and Kristal for details on each. More...
  • MK ZPS American space suit, tested 1985. NASA Zero Pre-breathe full pressure Suit developed to preclude the need for denitrogenation prior to EVA. More...
  • NASA-LANL Manned Mars Mission 1985 American manned Mars flyby. Study 1985. Joint Los Alamos/NASA design for a quick Mars flyby mission using hardware planned for development by NASA in the 1990's. More...
  • VKS Russian manned spaceplane. Study 1986. The Energia VKS was designed as a hypersonic rocketplane with multi-regime engines, in response to the Soviet Ministry of Defenses' MVKS single-stage reusable aerospaceplane system requirement. More...
  • Yakovlev MVKS Russian manned spaceplane. Study 1986. In reaction to US X-30 project, government decrees of 27 January and 19 July 1986 ordered development of a Soviet equivalent. More...
  • Tu-2000 Russian manned spaceplane. Study 1986. In reaction to US X-30 project, government decrees of 27 January and 19 July 1986 ordered development of a Soviet equivalent. More...
  • Mir Russian manned space station. One launch, 1986.02.20. Improved model of the Salyut DOS-17K space station with one aft docking port and five ports in a spherical compartment at the forward end of the station. More...
  • Soyuz TM Russian manned spacecraft. 34 launches, 1986.05.21 (Soyuz TM-1) to 2002.04.25 (Soyuz TM-34). More...
  • Columbus Man-Tended Free Flyer - MTFF European manned space station. Study 1986. In April 1986, Italy's Aeritalia finally proposed that the European Space Agency build a second free-flying pressurized module to be used with the Space Station. More...
  • ESA Polar Platform European manned space station. Study 1986. Britain initially expressed strong interest in developing an unmanned Polar Platform for Earth observation as part of the European Columbus package. In 1986 the platform was scheduled for a 1995 launch. More...
  • Mir complex Russian manned space station. Assembled 1986 to 1996. Designation given to the entire Mir space station. More...
  • NASA ACRV American manned spaceplane. Study 1986. The early Space Station proposals assumed the facility would be equipped with a 'safe haven' where the crew would wait for a rescue Shuttle in case of emergency. More...
  • Pioneering the Space Frontier American manned Mars expedition. Study 1986. In 1984 a National Commission on Space was formed, with ex-NASA Administrator Thomas Paine at its head. More...
  • Soyuz TM SA Russian manned spacecraft module. 34 launches, 1986.05.21 (Soyuz TM-1) to 2002.04.25 (Soyuz TM-34). Significantly improved Soyuz re-entry capsule, based on development done in Soyuz 7K-S program. Accommodation for crew of three in spacesuits. Reentry capsule. More...
  • Soyuz TM PAO Russian manned spacecraft module. 34 launches, 1986.05.21 (Soyuz TM-1) to 2002.04.25 (Soyuz TM-34). Further improvement of Soyuz T PAO service module with pressure-fed main engines and unitary RCS/main engine propellant feed system. Equipment-engine section. More...
  • Soyuz TM BO Russian manned spacecraft module. 34 launches, 1986.05.21 (Soyuz TM-1) to 2002.04.25 (Soyuz TM-34). Lightweight male/female docking system with flange-type probe, internal transfer tunnel. Kurs automatic rendezvous and docking system . Living section. More...
  • Shuttle LES American space suit, operational 1986. After the Challenger disaster, it was decided to provide the crew with pressure suits to be worn during launch and re-entry. More...
  • Kvant Russian manned space station. One launch, 1987.03.31 (Kvant 1). The Kvant spacecraft represented the first use of a new kind of Soviet space station module, designated 37K. More...
  • Uragan Space Interceptor Russian manned combat spacecraft. 2 launches, 1987.08.01 (Cosmos 1871) to 1987.08.28 (Cosmos 1873). Russian sources continue to maintain that the Uragan manned spaceplane project never existed. More...
  • AHAFS American pressure suit, operational 1987. Advanced High Altitude Flight Suit. High pressure (0.40 bar) full pressure suit developed for the USAF to increase mobility at higher operating pressures. More...
  • DRM 1 Mars Local Rover American manned Mars rover. Study 1987. The local unpressurized rover for the Mars Design Reference Mission was conceptually the same as the Apollo lunar rover. More...
  • Flight Telerobotic Servicer American logistics spacecraft. Study 1987. NASA decided to develop a $288-million Flight Telerobotic Servicer in 1987 after Congress voiced concern about American competitiveness in the field of robotics. More...
  • Kvant FGB Russian manned spacecraft module. One launch, 1987.03.31 (Kvant 1). Used only once, tug docked Kvant module to station, then separated and was commanded to destructive reentry over Pacific Ocean. Space station module tug. More...
  • Kvant AM Russian manned space station module. One launch, 1987.03.31 (Kvant 1). Space station module astrophysics. More...
  • Multi-Role Recovery Capsule British manned spacecraft. Study 1987. Britain was the only European Space Agency member opposed to ESA's ambitious man-in-space plan, and the British conservative government refused to approve the November 1987 plan. More...
  • MRC SM British manned spacecraft module. Study 1987. Expendable equipment section. More...
  • MRC DM British manned spacecraft module. Study 1987. Reusable re-entry capsule. More...
  • Outpost on the Moon American manned lunar base. Study 1987. Former astronaut Sally Ride was asked to head a task force to formulate a new NASA strategic plan in August 1986. More...
  • Ride Report American manned Mars expedition. Study 1987. Former astronaut Sally Ride was asked to head a task force to formulate a new NASA strategic plan in August 1986. More...
  • Buran Russian manned spaceplane. One launch, 1988.11.15. Soviet copy of the US Space Shuttle. Unlike the Shuttle, the main engines were not mounted on Buran and were not reused. More...
  • 37KB Russian manned space station module. One launch, 1988.11.15. Carried in the payload bay of the Buran space shuttle. They could remain attached to the bay or (modified to the 37KBI configuration) be docked to the Mir-2 station. More...
  • Chang Cheng 1 Chinese manned spaceplane. Study 1988. Vertical takeoff / horizontal landing two-stage compromise design; three expendable liquid oxygen/kerosene modular boosters and a winged reusable second stage. More...
  • Energia Lunar Expedition Russian manned lunar base. Study 1988. In 1988, with development of the Buran space shuttle completed, Glushko ordered new studies on a lunar based that could be established using the Energia booster. More...
  • H-2 HTOHL Chinese manned spaceplane. Study 1988. The H-2 horizontal takeoff / horizontal landing two-stage reusable space shuttle was proposed by Institute 601 of the Air Ministry in 1988. More...
  • LOK Energia Russian manned lunar orbiter. Study 1988. Lunar orbiter for Energia-launched lunar expedition. The LOK and LK lander would be inserted into lunar orbit by separate Energia launches. More...
  • LOK Energia SA Russian manned spacecraft module. Study 1988. Descent module of Soyuz configuration but 50% larger dimensionally and nearly twice as heavy. Reentry capsule for crew and lunar samples. More...
  • LK Energia Russian manned lunar lander. Study 1988. Lunar lander for Energia-launched lunar expedition. The LOK and LK lander would be inserted into lunar orbit by separate Energia launches. More...
  • LOK Energia PAO Russian manned spacecraft module. Study 1988. The LOK provided a pressurized volume for three crew. Within the cabin was a descent module of the same configuration as Soyuz, but almost 50% larger. Equipment-engine section - Lunar orbit maneuver, trans-orbit propulsion, pressurized crew quarters.. More...
  • LK Energia PS Russian manned spacecraft module. Study 1988. Descent stage similar in appearance to Apollo LM and LEK stages, but of differing dimensions. Descent from lunar orbit to lunar surface, launch platform for ascent stage.. More...
  • LK Energia VS Russian manned spacecraft module. Study 1988. Although similar in appearance to LEK ascent stage, 80% smaller and no descent module for reentry into earth's atmosphere. Ascent from lunar surface to lunar orbit, dock with LOK Energia.. More...
  • Mars Expedition 88 American manned Mars expedition. Study 1988. In 1988, in response to a perceived Soviet plan to start a new space race to Mars, NASA made in depth case studies of a rapid US response. More...
  • Mars Evolution 1988 American manned Mars expedition. Study 1988. In 1988 NASA made four case studies of a rapid response to the threat of a Soviet manned expedition to Mars. More...
  • MAKS Orbiter Russian manned spaceplane. Reached advanced stage of development testing and prototype construction when project was cancelled in 1988. The MAKS spaceplane was the ultimate development of the OK-M studies NPO Molniya conducted with NPO Energia. More...
  • Mir-2 KB Salyut Russian manned space station. Cancelled 1988. Alternative design for the Mir-2 space station by KB Salyut. If Polyus had successfully made it to orbit, it might have been the core for such a station. More...
  • Phobos Expedition 88 American manned Mars expedition. Study 1988. Human Expedition to Phobos was one of four in-depth NASA case studies in 1988 in response to a perceived imminent Soviet manned Mars program. More...
  • Tian Jiao 1 Chinese manned spaceplane. Study 1988. The Tian Jiao 1 (Pre-eminent in Space 1) manned spaceplane was proposed by the First Academy (now the China Academy of Launch Technology) in 1988. More...
  • Tian Jiao 2 Chinese manned spaceplane. Study 2006. What appeared to be an evolved version of 1988's Tian Jiao 1 manned spaceplane concept was proposed by the China Academy of Launch Technology in 2006. A 2020 operational date was mentioned. More...
  • V-2 VTOHL Chinese manned spaceplane. Study 1988. The V-2 vertical takeoff / horizontal landing two-stage reusable space shuttle was proposed by Beijing Department 11 of the Air Ministry in 1988. More...
  • Progress M Russian logistics spacecraft. Operational, first launch 1989.08.23 (Progress M-1). Progress M was an upgraded version of the original Progress. New service module and rendezvous and docking systems were adopted from Soyuz T. More...
  • Space Station Freedom American manned space station. Design as of 1988. NASA's first detailed cost assessment for the US space station caused a political uproar in Congress, where many politicians had started to express doubt about the project. More...
  • Kvant-2 Russian manned space station. One launch, 1989.11.26, Kvant 2. Kvant-2 was a utility module launched to the Mir station. It provided an airlock, additional electric power, and additional gyrodynes for orienting the station. More...
  • 90 Day Study American manned Mars expedition. Study 1989. Following the Ride Report, the Bush administration indicated a willingness to support a new manned space initiative after completion of the space station. More...
  • APS American pressure suit, tested 1989. The Advanced Pressure Suit (APS) was a bladder type partial pressure suit designed and developed by Northrop and ILC Dover for the F-23 Advanced Tactical Fighter. More...
  • KKO-15 Russian pressure suit, operational 1989. Protective partial pressure suit was used by pilots of Russian high-performance combat aircraft. It featured better performance and G-protection than earlier models . More...
  • Lunar Evolution Base 1989 American manned lunar base. Study 1989. In August 1989 NASA's Office of Exploration completed a two-year, NASA-wide plan for future manned space exploration. More...
  • LOTRAN American manned lunar rover. Study 1989. The LOTRAN (LOcal TRANsportation) two-crew rover was the unpressurized lunar rover intended for local base operations in NASA's 90-Day-Study moon base concept of 1989. More...
  • LEV American manned lunar lander. Study 1989. The Lunar Excursion Vehicle (LEV) figured in numerous NASA studies of the 1980's and 1990's. More...
  • Mars Evolution 1989 American manned Mars expedition. Study 1989. In 1989 NASA's Mars Evolution case study examined one approach to develop a permanent, largely self-sufficient Mars outpost with significant scientific research capability. More...
  • Mars 1989 Russian manned Mars expedition. Study 1989. In 1989 yet another Mars project was proposed by NPO Energia. More...
  • Mars Expedition 89 American manned Mars expedition. Study 1989. The primary objective of the 1989 Mars Expedition case study was to determine how to accomplish a single human expedition to the surface of Mars as early in the 21st century as practical. More...
  • MOSAP American manned lunar rover. Study 1989. MOSAP (MObile Surface APplication traverse vehicle) was the pressurized lunar rover that was the key to NASA's 90-Day-Study moon base concept of 1989. It would greatly extend the range of manned lunar expeditions. More...
  • Mars Cycler American manned Mars flyby. Study 1989. As part of a space infrastructure, it was proposed that four space stations be placed in cyclical orbits. These would allow departures for a six-month journey to Mars every 26 months. More...
  • Progress M OKD Russian manned spacecraft module. Operational, first launch 1989.08.23 (Progress M-1). Fuel module for refueling space stations. Refuelling section. More...
  • Progress M PAO Russian manned spacecraft module. Operational, first launch 1989.08.23 (Progress M-1). Improved PAO service module derived from Soyuz 7K-S with pressure-fed main engines and unitary RCS/main engine propellant feed system. Equipment-engine section. More...
  • Progress M GO Russian manned spacecraft module. Operational, first launch 1989.08.23 (Progress M-1). Two Kurs-type rendezvous antennas. Cargo section. More...
  • Zarya VA Russian manned spacecraft module. Cancelled 1989. The Zarya landing module was enlarged from the Soyuz 2.4 m diameter to 4.1 m diameter, while keeping the same shape and L/D coefficient of 0.26 at Mach 6. Reusable re-entry capsule. More...
  • Zarya NO Russian manned spacecraft module. Cancelled 1989. Maneuver system consisted of two engines, each of 300 kgf. Expendable module for orbital maneuvering and experiments. More...
  • Kristall Russian manned space station. One launch, 1990.05.31. Kristal was a dedicated zero-gravity materials and biological science research module for the Mir space station, launched in January 1990 More...
  • British Aerospace Space Station European manned space station. Study 1990. British Aerospace Ltd. (BAe) investigated alternate European space station designs for the European Space Agency. More...
  • Blackstar American manned spaceplane. 2006 reports claimed it was flown covertly in the 1990s. More...
  • Command Control Pressure Suit American space suit. This 1990 concept placed the avionics required for landing open-cockpit lunar landers or operating rovers or other spacecraft within the suit itself. More...
  • Daylight Rover American manned lunar rover. Study 1990. The Daylight Rover was a Boeing concept of 1990, which consisted of two separate pressure vessels. The forward served as the driving station, and the rear served as a storm shelter and EVA airlock. More...
  • Light Utility Rover American manned lunar rover. Study 1990. In 1990, Boeing Advanced Civil Space Systems performed an Advanced Civil Space Systems Piloted Rover Technology Assessment Study, which considered both a large pressurized and a small unpressurized rover. More...
  • Pathfinder American manned spaceplane. Study 2003. Pioneer Rocketplane planned in the late 1990's to produce the Pathfinder aerial propellant transfer spaceplane. More...
  • Sokol-KV2 Russian space suit, operational 1990. Improved version of the Sokol IVA suit developed for use aboard Soyuz T. More...
  • Spacecab British manned spaceplane. Study 1990. Six passenger orbiter portion of a two-stage vehicle proposed by David Ashford of Bristol Spaceplanes Ltd. in the 1980`s / 1990's. It would serve as the prototype for the even more ambitious Spacebus. More...
  • Strizh Russian space suit, operational 1990. The Strizh full-pressure suit was developed for the Buran program. It was qualified to protect the cosmonaut in ejections from the spaceplane at altitudes up to 30 km and speeds of up to Mach 3. More...
  • SPK Russian space mobility device, tested 1990. The Soviet Union developed a manned maneuvering unit and flew it from Mir in 1990. More...
  • Spacebus British manned spaceplane. Study 1990. 50 passenger orbiter portion of a two-stage vehicle proposed by David Ashford of Bristol Spaceplanes Ltd. in the 1980`s / 1990's. More...
  • Mars Semi-Direct 1991 American manned Mars expedition. Study 1991. Mars Semi-Direct was a NASA concept bridge between Zubrin's Mars Direct and NASA's Design Reference Mission 1.0. It was essentially a low-cost version of Boeing's STCAEM. More...
  • Mars Direct American manned Mars expedition. Study 1991. In 1991 Martin Marietta and NASA Ames (Zubrin, Baker, and Gwynne) proposed 'Mars Direct' - a Mars expedition faster, cheaper, and better than the standard NASA plan. More...
  • Space Station Fred American manned space station. Design as of 1991. Following the collapse of the Space Station Freedom project, NASA unveiled its new Space Station design in March 1991. More...
  • STCAEM Cryogenic AeroBrake American manned Mars expedition. Study 1991. The STCAEM cryogenic / aerobrake (CAB) concept was used as the NASA reference vehicle. More...
  • STCAEM SEP American manned Mars expedition. Study 1991. The solar electric propulsion (SEP) Mars transfer concept was the only non-nuclear advanced propulsion option in the STCAEM study. More...
  • STCAEM MEV American manned Mars lander. Study 1991. The reference Mars Excursion vehicle (MEV) was a manned lander that could transport a crew of four to the surface. More...
  • STCAEM Cryogenic AeroBrake MTV American manned Mars orbiter. Study 1991. The Mars Transfer Vehicle (MTV) configuration consisted of a transit habitat sized for four crew, an aerobrake, and a TEl Propulsion system. More...
  • Synthesis Study American manned Mars expedition. Study 1991. On 11 May 1991 President Bush declared that he would support a Space Exploration Initiative program leading to a Mars Landing by 2014. More...
  • Endeavour American manned spaceplane. 25 launches, 1992.05.07 to 2011.05.16. Built as a replacement after the loss of the Challenger; named after the first ship commanded by James Cook. More...
  • ESA MTFF-Derived Space Station European manned space station. Study 1987. Back in the heady days of 1987, Europe was making plans to build an autonomous space station derived from the Columbus Man-Tended Free-Flying (MTFF) platform as the next logical step after Space Station Freedom. More...
  • Ascender British manned rocketplane. Study 1992. The Bristol Spaceplanes Ascender of the 1990's was a sub-orbital manned spaceplane concept proposed by David Ashford. More...
  • ESA ACRV European manned spacecraft. Study 1992. As Hermes gradually faded into oblivion, the European Space Agency started to take a closer a look at cheaper and less complicated manned space capsules. More...
  • First Lunar Outpost American manned lunar base. Study 1992. The First Lunar Outpost was a very comprehensive moon base study carried out by NASA's Office of Exploration in 1992. More...
  • Hermes French manned spaceplane. Cancelled 1992. The Hermes spaceplane would have provided independent European manned access to space. Hermes was designed to take three astronauts to orbits of up to 800 km altitude on missions of 30 to 90 days in space. More...
  • Mega Rover American manned lunar rover. Study 1992. The Mega Rover was conceived to support a crew of six over thousands of kilometers of traverses. Variants had masses as great as 45 metric tons, exclusive of the descent and landing system. More...
  • NASA Mark III American space suit, tested 1992. The NASA Mark III was an advanced NASA space suit design of the 1990's. More...
  • Pressurized Lunar Rover - Dual Hull American manned lunar rover. Study 1992. An alternate April 1992 USRA study by students at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University sketched out a design for a Pressurized Lunar Rover (PLR) using dual hulls. More...
  • PLR American manned lunar rover. Study 1992. A May 1992 USRA study by students at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University sketched out a design for a Pressurized Lunar Rover (PLR). More...
  • Rover First American manned lunar rover. Study 1992. Boeing updated their Apollo-era MOLAB pressurized rover concept in 1992. The concept, dubbed "Rover First," was smaller than the traditional pressurized rovers, and did not require a separate landing vehicle. More...
  • Spacehab American manned space station module. 14 launches, 1993.06.21 (Spacehab SH-01) to 1999.05.27 (Spacehab-DM). Founded by Bob Citron in 1982, Spacehab Inc. was the only entrepreneurial company to successfully develop a commercial manned spaceflight module. More...
  • Black Colt American manned spaceplane. Study 1993. Winged, first stage of a launch vehicle using aerial refueling and existing engines. More...
  • Crew Lander Reference Version 1 American manned Mars lander. Study 1993. The first version of the NASA Crew Lander for the design reference mission would land the crew and a Mars surface habitat on the surface near the previously-landed cargo lander. More...
  • Cargo Lander Reference Version 3 American manned Mars lander. Study 1993. The second version of the NASA Cargo Lander for the design reference mission 3.0 was similar in concept to the first but mass was reduced nearly 30% by a thorough study and scrub of each element. More...
  • Early Lunar Access American manned lunar base. Study 1993. Early Lunar Access (ELA) was a "cheaperfasterbetter" manned lunar mission study, carried out by General Dynamics in 1992-93. More...
  • F-22 PPS American pressure suit, operational 1993. Partial pressure suit development for F-22 Aircraft. Get-me-down partial pressure ensemble combining Mask/Vest/uniform pressure anti-G garment for protection to 18 km. More...
  • ISS MPLM American manned space station reusable supply module. Launched and returned to earth, 2001-2011. When the International Space Station (ISS) was redesigned again in 1993, it was decided to expand the original Mini-Pressurized Logistics Module design. More...
  • ISS EMU American space suit, operational 1993. Upgraded version of the Shuttle EMU with improved sizing and mobility, 25 EVA certification, Hamilton Standard and ILC Dover. More...
  • ISS Columbus Orbiting Facility European manned space station. Launched 2008.02.07. In October 1993, ESA decided to further slash its overall budget by a combined $4.8 billion in 1994-2000. The Columbus space station module survived, but in a reduced form. More...
  • LII Spaceplane Russian manned spaceplane. Study 1993. LII (the Gromov Experimental Flight Institute at Zhukovskiy) designed several alternate spaceplane concepts for air-launch from the An-225 transport. These were similar to the various MAKS concepts. More...
  • Lunox American manned lunar base. Study 1993. The NASA/JSC LUNOX proposal of 1993 tried to reduce the cost of maintaining a First Lunar Outpost by producing liquid oxygen propellant for the return to Earth from lunar soil. More...
  • Progress M2 Russian logistics spacecraft. Cancelled 1993. As Phase 2 of the third generation Soviet space systems it was planned to use a more capable resupply craft for the Mir-2 space station. More...
  • Project 921-2 Chinese manned space station. Study 2007. Phase 2 of China's Project 921 was to culminate in orbiting of an 8-metric ton man-tended mini-space station. More...
  • Progress M VBK Russian manned spacecraft module. Two launched, 1993-1994. This payload return capsule was brought to the Mir space station aboard a Progress M freighter. It was loaded by the cosmonauts aboard the station, then reinstalled in the Progress M. Ballistic landing capsule - return of experimental materials from Mir space station. More...
  • Space Station Options 1993 American manned space station. Study 1993. Following the collapse of Space Station Fred, NASA quickly formed a Space Station redesign team which identified three major redesign options in April 1993.... More...
  • Black Horse American manned spaceplane. Study 1994. Winged, single stage to orbit launch vehicle using aerial refueling and lower performance, non-cryogenic propellants. More...
  • Mars 1994 Russian manned Mars expedition. Study 1994. Soviet / Russian design for a Mars expedition powered by RD-0410 bi-modal nuclear thermal engines. A crew of five would complete the trip to Mars and back in 460 days. More...
  • Spektr Russian manned space station. One launch, 1995.05.20. Spektr was a module of the Mir space station. It began life as a dedicated military research unit. More...
  • Mir-Shuttle Docking Module Russian manned space station. One launch, 1995.11.12. A specialized SO docking module was originally designed for docking the Buran space shuttle with the Mir-2 space station. More...
  • ACES American space suit, operational 1995. The Shuttle Advanced Crew Escape Suit (ACES) replaced the Launch/Entry Suit (LES) from 1995 on. The ACES fulfilled the same functions as the LES. More...
  • DC-Y American manned spacecraft. Study 1995. The ultimate goal of the Delta Clipper program, a prototype reusable single-stage to orbit, vertical takeoff/vertical landing space truck. The DC-I Delta Clipper would be the full production version. More...
  • EVA 2000 Russian space suit, tested 1995. Prototype full pressure suit effort between ESA and USSR to upgrade the Orlan DMA. More...
  • ESA European space suit, tested 1995. Prototype full pressure suit for the European Space Agency (ESA), produced by Dornier, Dassault, Zodiac, et. al., 0.40 bar. More...
  • Hytex German manned rocketplane. Study 1995. Following the cancellation of Saenger II, Germany briefly considered a manned X-15/NASP type flight test vehicle (HYTEX) capable of Mach 6 flight. This too was cancelled for cost reasons. More...
  • Japanese Space Plane Japanese manned spacecraft. Study 1995. NAL / Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd. design for a single stage to orbit spaceplane. Crew of ten, empty mass 110 metric tons. LACE / Scramjet engines, 29 m wingspan. More...
  • Kankoh Maru Japanese manned spacecraft. Study 1995. Kawasaki design for single stage to orbit reusable booster. Would carry 50 passengers to orbiting hotels or fast intercontinental flights. More...
  • Priroda Russian manned space station. One launch, 1996.04.23. Priroda was the last Mir module launched. It was originally an all-Soviet remote sensing module for combined civilian and military surveillance of the earth. More...
  • Alpha Lifeboat Russian manned rescue spacecraft. Study 1995. 1995 joint Energia-Rockwell-Khrunichev design for space station Alpha lifeboat based on the Zarya reentry vehicle with a solid retrofire motor, cold gas thruster package. Five years on-orbit storage. More...
  • Athena American manned Mars flyby. Study 1996. In 1996 Robert Zubrin proposed a new version of a manned Mars flyby mission, dubbed Athena. More...
  • Crew Lander Reference Version 3 American manned Mars lander. Study 1996. The second version of the NASA Crew Lander for the design reference mission would land the crew and a Mars surface habitat on the surface near the previously-landed cargo lander. More...
  • Design Reference Mission 3 American manned Mars expedition. Study 1996. This July 1997 DRM was a subscale version of the original, with a scrub of the original payloads to reduce mass wherever possible. More...
  • Starchaser 5 British manned spacecraft. Study 2004. X-Prize suborbital ballistic spacecraft concept of Starchaser Industries, Cheshire, England. The concept used a rocket powered vertical takeoff followed by a parachute descent to land. More...
  • Inspector German logistics spacecraft. One launch, 1997.10.05, X-Mir Inspector. Robotic spacecraft designed for free flight and camera inspection of the exterior of the Space Shuttle or International Space Station. More...
  • AERCam American logistics spacecraft. 2 launches, 1997.11.19 (AERCam/Sprint) and (AERCam/Sprint). Remotely guided maneuvering spacecraft to be released and later retrieved from Shuttle or ISS. Purpose: examination of external surface of space vehicles. More...
  • DRM 1 Mars Rover - Pressurized American manned Mars rover. Study 1997. Hoffman and Kaplan proposed a large pressurized rover for long duration exploration sorties on Mars as a part of the Mars Design Reference Mission study. More...
  • HL-42 American manned spaceplane. Study 1997. The HL-42 was a reusable, lifting body manned spacecraft designed to be placed into low-Earth orbit by an expendable booster. More...
  • LANTR Moon Base American manned lunar base. Study 1997. Liquid oxygen mined from the moon combined with a LOX-Augmented Nuclear Thermal Rocket earth-to-moon shuttle to achieve dramatic reductions in launch requirements for a lunar base. More...
  • LB-X American manned spaceplane. Study 2004. X-Prize suborbital spaceplane concept of Kelly Space & Technology, San Bernardino, California. More...
  • Chinese Lunar Base Chinese manned lunar base. Study 2025. Beginning in 2000, Chinese scientists began discussing preliminary work on a Chinese manned lunar base. More...
  • ISS Unity American manned space station. One launch, 1998.10.29, Unity. Unity was the first U.S.-built component of the International Space Station. More...
  • Combo Lander Mission American manned Mars expedition. Study 1998. During the spring of 1998, NASA conducted a special study to design a human Mars mission that could be accommodated for launch by three heavy-lift launch vehicles. More...
  • D-1 American space suit, operational 1998. The D-1 (S1035X) space suit assembly was developed to provide a functional all-soft suit technology demonstrator prototype model to be used for mobility system testing and evaluation. More...
  • Design Reference Mission 4 SEP American manned Mars expedition. Study 1998. In 1998 NASA Lewis studied a Solar Electric Transfer Vehicle for use in a Mars Expedition. This would never leave earth orbit yet provide most of the delta-V to send a spacecraft toward Mars. More...
  • Design Reference Mission 4 NTR American manned Mars expedition. Study 1998. The design reference mission 4.0 took into account all of the changes in payload masses as a result of further study of individual elements. More...
  • M-Suit American space suit, tested 1998. In the fall of 1998, two soft suit prototypes were delivered to NASA by two companies, ILC Dover and David Clark. ILC Dover's M-Suit operated at a pressure of 0.26 atmospheres and weighed 30 kg. More...
  • Transhab Module American manned space station module. Cancelled 1998. Cost overruns soon forced NASA to consider other options for the International Space Station's habitation module. The space agency originally intended to use the same 8. More...
  • VKK Russian manned spaceplane. Study 1998. A Russian concept of the 1990's harking back to Chelomei's Raketoplan of three decades earlier. A manned aircraft would be protected during launch and re-entry by an expendable aeroshell heat shield. More...
  • Shenzhou Chinese manned spacecraft. Operational, first launch 1999.11.19. The Chinese Shenzhou manned spacecraft resembled the Russian Soyuz spacecraft, but was of larger size and all-new construction. More...
  • Dual Lander Mission American manned Mars expedition. Study 1999. After some discussion within NASA, in the Combo Lander mission was found to be too lean. More...
  • Lunar Polar Rover American manned lunar rover. Study 1999. Pressurized rover concept for a hypothetical lunar polar mission. More...
  • Mars Society Mission American manned Mars expedition. Study 1999. In 1999 the Mars Society, noting certain defects in NASA's Design Reference Mission, requested California Institute of Technology to develop an alternative scenario to meet these concerns. More...
  • Shenzhou SM Chinese manned spacecraft module. Operational, first launch 1999.11.19. The service module, developed by the Shanghai Academy of Space Technology, provides the electrical power, attitude, control and propulsion for the spacecraft in orbit. More...
  • Shenzhou RV Chinese manned spacecraft module. Operational, first launch 1999.11.19. The re-entry vehicle was conceptually based on the Soyuz, but was not a copy. More...
  • Progress M1 Russian logistics spacecraft. 11 launches, 2000.02.01 (Progress M1-1) to 2004.01.29 (Progress M1-11). Progress M1 was a modified version of the Progress M resupply spacecraft capable of delivering more propellant than the basic model to the ISS or Mir. More...
  • IRDT Russian manned rescue spacecraft. First launch 2000.02.08. Inflatable re-entry and descent technology vehicle designed to return payloads from space to the earth or another planet. Tested three times, with only one partially successful recovery. More...
  • ISS Zvezda Russian manned space station. One launch, 2000.07.12, Zvezda. The Zvezda service module of the International Space Station had its origins a quarter century before it was launched. More...
  • Habot American manned lunar rover. Study 2000. The Habot (Habitat Robot) modules would land on six articulated legs, which also provided the locomotion. These walking modules could operate autonomously or in a teleoperation mode. More...
  • Marpost Russian manned Mars expedition. Study 2000. In December 2000 Leonid Gorshkov of RKK Energia proposed a manned Mars orbital expedition as an alternative to Russian participation in the International Space Station. More...
  • Roton American manned spacecraft. Study 2000. The Roton was a piloted commercial space vehicle design intended to provide rapid and routine access to orbit for both its two-person crew and their cargo. More...
  • Gauchito Argentinan manned spacecraft. Study 2004. X-Prize suborbital ballistic spacecraft concept of Pablo De Leon of Buenos Aires, Argentina. Reached the stage of engineering tests by 2003. More...
  • Wild Fire Canadian manned spacecraft. Study 2004. X-Prize suborbital balloon-launched ballistic spacecraft concept of the Da Vinci Project, led by Brian Feeney of Toronto, Canada. Reached the stage of engineering tests by 2003. More...
  • Orizont Romanian manned spacecraft. Study 2004. X-Prize suborbital ballistic spacecraft concept of Aeronautics and Cosmonautics Romanian Association. Reached the stage of engineering tests by 2003. More...
  • Bio-Suit American space suit, study of 2001. Novel approach that used biomedical breakthroughs in skin replacement and materials to replace the bulky conventional balloon spacesuit with a second skin approach. More...
  • ISS Quest Joint Airlock American manned space station module. One launch, 2001.07.12. The Quest Joint Airlock was delivered to the ISS by STS-104 and installed onto the Unity module. More...
  • ISS Pirs Russian manned space station module. One launch, 2001.09.14. Russian docking and airlock module for the International Space Station. The Stikovochniy Otsek No. 1 (SO1, Docking Module 1), article 240GK No. More...
  • ISS Destiny American manned space station module. Launched 2001. American ISS module, a cylindrical structure that functioned as a science and technology module and the primary control module for the ISS. More...
  • Orion LAS American manned spacecraft module. Orion launch abort system; consists of launch escape tower, adapter cone, and boost protective cover. Provides emergency crew escape during early boost phase of ascent to orbit. More...
  • Canadian Arrow Canadian manned spacecraft. Study 2004. X-Prize suborbital ballistic spacecraft concept of Geoff Sheerin, Toronto. Reached the stage of engineering tests by 2003. More...
  • Black Armadillo American manned spacecraft. Study 2004. X-Prize suborbital ballistic spacecraft concept of Armadillo Aerospace, Mesquite, Texas. Reached the stage of engineering tests by 2003. More...
  • Soyuz TMA Russian three-crew manned spacecraft. Operational, first launch 2002.10.30. Designed for use as a lifeboat for the International Space Station. After the retirement of the US shuttle in 2011, Soyuz TMA was the only conveying crews to the ISS. Except for the Chinese Shenzhou, it became mankind's sole means of access to space. More...
  • Astroliner American manned rocketplane. Study 2002. The Kelly Space & Technology Astroliner Space Launch System was a two-stage-to-orbit, towed space launch concept. More...
  • Cosmopolis 21 Russian manned spaceplane. Mock-up unveiled in 2002. On 15 March 2002 Space Adventures unveiled the mock-up of their C-21 (Cosmopolis 21) spaceplane at Zhukovskiy Air Base, Moscow. More...
  • Soyuz TMA SA Russian manned spacecraft module. Operational. First launch 2002.10.30. Reentry capsule. More...
  • Soyuz TMA BO Russian manned spacecraft module. Operational. First launch 2002.10.30. Lightweight male/female docking system with flange-type probe, internal transfer tunnel. Kurs automatic rendezvous and docking system with two Kurs antennae, no tower. Living section. More...
  • Soyuz TMA PAO Russian manned spacecraft module. Operational. First launch 2002.10.30. Further improvement of Soyuz T PAO service module with pressure-fed main engines and unitary RCS/main engine propellant feed system. Equipment-engine section. More...
  • SpaceShipOne American manned spaceplane. 14 launches, 2003.05.20 to 2004.05.13 . X-Prize suborbital spaceplane concept of Scaled Composites, Mojave, California. More...
  • Mayflower American manned spaceplane. Study 2004. X-Prize suborbital seaplane-spacecraft of Advent Launch Services of Houston, Texas. Reached the stage of engineering tests by 2003. More...
  • Eagle X-Prize American manned spacecraft. Study 2004. X-Prize suborbital ballistic spacecraft concept of Vanguard Spacecraft of Bridgewater, Massachusetts. More...
  • Crusader X American manned spacecraft. Study 2004. X-Prize suborbital ballistic spacecraft concept of Micro-Space, Inc of Denver, Colorado. More...
  • Shenzhou OM Chinese manned spacecraft module. Operational, first launch 1999.11.19. The orbital module provided quarters for the crew during the space mission, and could be fitted out with different internal and external equipment according to mission requirements. More...
  • Aurora X-Prize American manned spaceplane. Study 2004. X-Prize suborbital spaceplane concept of Fundamental Technology Systems, Orlando, Florida. More...
  • Cosmos Mariner American manned spaceplane. Study 2004. X-Prize suborbital spaceplane concept of Lone Star Space Access, Houston, Texas. More...
  • Kitten American manned spaceplane. Study 2004. X-Prize suborbital rocketplane concept of Kittyhawk of Oroville, Washington. More...
  • Kliper Russian manned spaceplane. Study 2004. The Kliper manned spacecraft replacement for Soyuz was first announced at a Moscow news conference on 17 February 2004. More...
  • Lucky Seven American manned spacecraft. Study 2004. X-Prize suborbital ballistic spacecraft concept of Acceleration Engineering, Bath, Michigan. More...
  • Liberator American manned spacecraft. Study 2004. X-Prize suborbital ballistic spacecraft concept of HARC, Huntsville, Alabama. More...
  • Michelle-B American manned spacecraft. Study 2004. X-Prize suborbital ballistic spacecraft concept of TGV Rockets, Bethesda, Maryland. As of 2005, flight testing of the Michelle-B was expected to begin no earlier than 2007. More...
  • Morphlab American manned lunar rover. Study 2004. Morphlab (Modular Roving Planetary Habitat, Laboratory, and Base) was a lunar exploration system proposed by the University of Maryland. More...
  • Negev 5 Israeli manned spacecraft. Study 2004. X-Prize suborbital balloon-launched ballistic spacecraft concept of IL Aerospace Technologies (ILAT), Israel. More...
  • Pioneer XP American manned spaceplane. Study 2004. X-Prize suborbital spaceplane concept of Pioneer Rocketplane, Solvang, California. No backing forthcoming. More...
  • Rubicon American manned spacecraft. Study 2004. X-Prize suborbital ballistic spacecraft concept of STC. More...
  • SabreRocket American manned spaceplane. Study 2004. X-Prize suborbital spaceplane concept of Panaero, Fairfax, Virginia. It envisioned conversion of a Sabre-40 business jet to rocket power. More...
  • Solaris X American manned spacecraft. Study 2004. X-Prize suborbital ballistic spacecraft concept of Interorbital Systems of Mojave, California. More...
  • The Space Tourist American manned spaceplane. Study 2004. X-Prize suborbital flying saucer concept of Discraft Corporation of Portland, Oregon. More...
  • The Green Arrow British manned spacecraft. Study 2004. X-Prize suborbital ballistic spacecraft concept of Flight Exploration of London, England. More...
  • The Spirit of Liberty American manned spacecraft. Study 2004. X-Prize suborbital ballistic spacecraft concept of American Astronautics Corporation, Oceanside, California. More...
  • Apex RV American logistics spacecraft. Study 2005. Spacehab's Apex design provided a family of launcher-neutral maneuverable spacecraft that could be used for resupply of the ISS and return of payloads to earth. More...
  • CEV Spacehab American manned spacecraft. Study 2005. The final Spacehab CEV concept was a three-module spacecraft using a slightly enlarged Apollo command module for return of the crew to earth. More...
  • CEV Andrews RM American manned spacecraft module. Study 2005. The Andrews CEV Re-entry Module would be reusable and normally accommodate four crew. Six could be fitted in for the space-station ferry role. More...
  • CEV Spacehab CM American manned spacecraft module. Study 2005. A 10% enlargement of the Apollo capsule, this re-entry vehicle provided the minimum volume for four crew to make re-entry from lunar distances. More...
  • CEV Spacehab SHM American manned spacecraft module. Study 2005. The Stowage/Habitation Module (SHM) provided generous living space for the crew during cislunar transit. More...
  • CEV Spacehab SM American manned spacecraft module. Study 2005. The Support Module (SM) could provide 2.3 km/s delta-V, enough for lunar orbit insertion and trans-earth injection. It also was the primary source for electrical power during the mission. More...
  • CEV Andrews MM American manned spacecraft module. Study 2005. The Andrews CEV mission module provided a pressurized cabin for use by the crew while in transit from the moon to the earth. More...
  • CEV Andrews American manned spacecraft. Study 2005. The Andrews Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) design adopted NASA's preferred Apollo CM re-entry vehicle shape, but combined it with a mission module crew cabin to minimize the CEV's mass. More...
  • CEV Andrews OTV American manned spacecraft module. Study 2005. The Andrews CEV used a standard Orbital Transfer Vehicle for propulsion in low earth orbit or lunar transfer operations. More...
  • DSE-Alpha Russian manned lunar flyby spacecraft. Study 2005. Potential commercial circumlunar manned flights were offered in 2005, using a modified Soyuz spacecraft docked to a Block DM upper stage. More...
  • European Mars Mission European manned Mars expedition. Study 2005. In 2005 the Mars Society Germany proposed a European Mars Mission (EMM) that could be launched using an improved version of the Ariane 5 booster. More...
  • Orion American manned spacecraft. In development. NASA's Crew Excursion Vehicle for the 21st Century More...
  • Tier Two American manned spacecraft. Study 2005. After the successful win of the X-Prize for the first suborbital flight by Burt Rutan's Tier One / SpaceShipOne, the designer hinted a follow-on orbital spacecraft was being designed. More...
  • New Shepard American manned spacecraft. Flight tests begun 2006. Vertical takeoff/vertical landing suborbital tourist spacecraft being developed by Blue Origin and scheduled to begin commercial operation in 2010. More...
  • CEV SM American manned spacecraft module. Study 2006. The Service Module of NASA's Crew Exploration Vehicle provided basic consumables, control systems, and sufficient delta-V for return of the CEV from lunar orbit to the earth. More...
  • CEV American manned spacecraft. Study 2006. The Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) was NASA's planned manned spacecraft intended to carry human crews from Earth into space and back again from 2012 on. More...
  • Mars Oz Australian manned Mars expedition. Study 2006. 2001 design study by the Mars Society Australia that incorporated many innovative elements to produce a minimum-mass non-nuclear Mars expedition concept. More...
  • Venturestar American manned spaceplane. Study 2006. Production reusable single-stage-to-orbit launch vehicle using technology developed in X-33 testbed. More...
  • Feitian Chinese space suit for extravehicular activity, operational 2008. Reverse-engineered copy of Russian Orlan suits purchased in . Many details different, new Chinese avionics and control systems, all-Chinese materials. More...
  • NASDA Japanese Experiment Module Japanese manned space station module. Launched to ISS in three sections, 2008-2009. The Japanese Experiment Module (JEM) has been a rare island of stability in the often tumultuous Space Station program. More...
  • Parom Russian logistics spacecraft. Study 2009. In its latest iteration, RKK Energia's Parom was a reusable interorbital tug intended to transport cargo containers and the Kliper manned ferry from low earth orbit to the International Space Station. More...
  • Quad American manned lunar lander. Study 2009. Prototype lunar lander developed by Armadillo Aerospace with private funds. Quad was the only entry in the 2006 competition for the X-Prize Cup Lunar Lander challenge. More...
  • SpaceShipTwo American manned spaceplane. Study 2009. Development of the much larger SpaceShipTwo suborbital commercial manned spacecraft was announced in July 2005. More...
  • Sundancer American manned space station. Study 2010. The Sundancer inflatable space station had provisions for three crew. It was to be launched by 2010 aboard a Falcon 9, Zenit-2, or Atlas V booster. More...
  • CEV SAIC American manned spacecraft. Study 2012. SAIC's notional CEV was a Soyuz-shaped aeroshell, enclosing a common pressurized module, and accommodating a crew of four. More...
  • CEV Lockheed American manned spacecraft. Study 2012. The Crew Exploration Vehicle first proposed by Lockheed was a lifting body with a total mass of 18 metric tons and a crew of four. More...
  • CEV Boeing American manned spacecraft. Study 2012. Boeing's CEV consisted of a four-crew Apollo-type capsule, a service module, and a pressurized mission module. More...
  • CEV Orbital American manned spacecraft. Study 2012. Orbital's nominal CEV was an Apollo-derived capsule. The CEV's service module would take the capsule from low earth orbit, to lunar orbit, and back to earth. More...
  • CEV Raytheon American manned spacecraft. Study 2012. Raytheon's CEV was a low L/D capsule, designed for three crew, sized so that an existing EELV Heavy could send it towards L1. More...
  • CEV Northrop American manned spacecraft. Study 2012. Northrop Grumman kept its CEV final proposal very secret, citing competitive concerns. More...
  • CEV Schafer American manned spacecraft. Study 2012. Schafer proposed a lightweight 11 metric ton integral CEV, staged from L1. More...
  • CEV Draper MIT American manned spacecraft. Study 2012. The Draper-MIT CEV proposal was an 8-metric ton integral ballistic capsule. More...
  • CXV American manned spacecraft. Study 2012. Crew Transfer Vehicle proposed by `t/Space and Burt Rutan's Scaled Composites for NASA's Crew Exploration Vehicle requirement. More...
  • Chinese Space Laboratory Chinese manned space station. Study 2012. The latest models displayed of the Chinese Space Laboratory show it to have a larger-diameter module, about 4 m in diameter, and a narrower module forward, about 3 m in diameter. More...
  • Dragon American manned spacecraft. Commercial space capsule developed by SpaceX as a shuttle to take cargo and crews to the International Space Station and the Bigelow Commercial Station from 2011 on. First launched in 2010. More...
  • Nautilus American manned space station module. Study 2013. Inflatable pressurized habitat module for use in manned space stations, lunar, or interplanetary spacecraft or bases. Developed by Bigelow Aerospace using private funds. More...
  • Stabilo Romanian manned spacecraft. Study 2013. Stabilo was a suborbital manned system developed by ARCA. More...
  • CSS Skywalker American manned space station. Study 2015. Commercial Space Station Skywalker was hotel entrepreneur Bigelow's concept for the first space hotel. More...
  • MDPB American manned space station module. Study 2015. Propulsion module for space stations based on Bigelow Nautilus inflatable habitats. More...
  • Orbital Vehicle Indian manned spacecraft. Study 2015. Design of an Indian manned spacecraft began in October 2006. Dependent on a full funding decision at the end of 2008, planned first flight of the two-man capsule was 2015. More...
  • Rocketplane XP American manned spaceplane. Study 2015. The Rocketplane XP Vehicle was a proposed suborbital manned spaceplane with accommodations for four crew. More...
  • Shenzhou Circumlunar Chinese manned lunar flyby spacecraft. In January and February 2003 Chinese sources began discussing plans for a Chinese manned circumlunar mission by 2008. Nothing came of these plans. More...
  • Xerus American manned spaceplane. Study 2016. Suborbital vehicle that XCOR planned to design and build on a commercial basis. Rocket powered, it would take off from a runway, and be capable of high altitude, high speed flight. More...
  • Big Soyuz Russian manned spacecraft. Study 2018. This enlarged version of the Soyuz reentry vehicle shape was one alternative studied for the next-generation Russian launch vehicle. More...
  • CTV CM European manned spacecraft module. Study 2018. Re-entry vehicle portion of the proposed European CTV manned spacecraft. More...
  • CTV European manned spacecraft. Study 2018. Proposed European manned spacecraft to shuttle crews to the International Space Station from 2018. More...
  • LSAM American manned lunar lander. Study 2018. Lunar lander proposed by NASA in 2005 for their planned return to the moon by 2018. More...
  • Neptune American manned space station. Study 2018. A unique aspect of the Neptune stage-and-a-half commercial launch vehicle concept was that the main rocket structure, once in orbit, could act as a small space station. More...
  • PK Russian manned spacecraft. Study 2018. This conical, six-crew space capsule represented the Russian Space Agency's preferred design to support Russian spaceflight in the 2018-2068 period. More...
  • Mini Space Station European manned space station. Study 2020. Potential European independent space station consisting of two docked ATV's with additional life support systems. More...
  • Safe Haven European manned space station. Study 2020. The ATV could evolve towards an unmanned free-flying laboratory providing a better microgravity level than the ISS. More...
  • Orion SA American manned spacecraft module. Orion spacecraft adapter. Transition section between Service Module and Ares booster. More...
  • Altairis American manned spacecraft. Study 2026. Rocket utilizing liquid oxygen / kerosene propulsion, launched vertically and with the planned capability of sending seven tourists on a suborbital space trip. More...
  • Lunex US Air Force manned lunar base. Studied 1958-1961. The final lunar expedition plan of 1961 was for a 21-airman underground Air Force base on the moon by 1968 at a total cost of $ 7.5 billion. More...
  • Lunex US Air Force manned lunar base. Studied 1958-1961. The final lunar expedition plan of 1961 was for a 21-airman underground Air Force base on the moon by 1968 at a total cost of $ 7.5 billion. More...
  • MOBEV American manned lunar rover. need summary - see links More...
  • Orion SM American manned spacecraft module. Orion service module. Masses estimated based on delta-V released by NASA. More...

Manned Chronology


1943 January 10 - .
  • BI-1 Flight 2 - . Crew: Bakhchivangi. Payload: BI-1 # 2 flight 1. Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Bakhchivangi. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: BI-1. Summary: Maximum Speed - 400 kph. Maximum Altitude - 1110 m. .

1943 February 10 - .
  • BI-1 Flight 3 - . Crew: Gruzdev. Payload: BI-1 # 2 flight 2. Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Gruzdev. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: BI-1. Summary: Maximum Speed - 675 kph. Maximum Altitude - 2190 m. Date estimated..

1943 March 11 - .
  • BI-1 Flight 4 - . Crew: Bakhchivangi. Payload: BI-1 # 2 flight 3. Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Bakhchivangi. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: BI-1. Summary: Maximum Altitude - 4000 m..

1943 March 14 - .
  • BI-1 Flight 5 - . Crew: Bakhchivangi. Payload: BI-1 # 2 flight 4. Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Bakhchivangi. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: BI-1. Summary: Maximum Altitude - 4000 m..

1943 March 21 - .
1943 March 27 - .
  • BI-1 Flight 7 - . Crew: Bakhchivangi. Payload: BI-1 # 3 flight 2. Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Bakhchivangi. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: BI-1. Summary: Maximum Speed - 800 kph. Unofficial world speed record.The aircraft crashed into the ground, killing the pilot. Plans for production were abandoned. Rocketplane testing in the USSR only resumed with the testing of German designs after the war..

1944 December 13 - .
  • X-1 manned supersonic rocket aircraft begun. - . Nation: USA. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. Summary: In an AAF-NACA conference, Air Force representatives indicated strong preference for use of rocket engines instead of jets in X-1 research airplane project..

1946 January 19 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 1 - . Crew: Woolams. Payload: XS-1 # 1 flight 1. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Woolams. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. Summary: Bell flight 1. First glide flight of AAF-NACA XS-1 rocket research airplane (No.1 of the original three X-1's built), by Jack Woolams, Bell Aircraft test pilot, at Pinecastle Army Air Base, Fla..

1946 February 5 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 3 - . Crew: Woolams. Payload: XS-1 # 1 flight 3. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Woolams. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. Summary: Bell flight 3. At Pinecastle AAF, Florida..

1946 February 5 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 2 - . Crew: Woolams. Payload: XS-1 # 1 flight 2. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Woolams. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. Summary: Bell flight 2. At Pinecastle AAF, Florida..

1946 February 11 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 4 - . Crew: Woolams. Payload: XS-1 # 1 flight 4. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Woolams. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. Summary: Bell flight 4. Gear retracted, left wing damaged. At Pinecastle AAF, Florida..

1946 February 19 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 5 - . Crew: Woolams. Payload: XS-1 # 1 flight 5. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Woolams. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. Summary: Bell flight 5. Nosewheel retracted on landing runout. Landing-gear door damaged. At Pinecastle AAF, Florida..

1946 February 25 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 7 - . Crew: Woolams. Payload: XS-1 # 1 flight 7. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Woolams. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. Summary: Bell flight 7. Longitudinal and directional stability investigation. At Pinecastle AAF, Florida..

1946 February 25 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 6 - . Crew: Woolams. Payload: XS-1 # 1 flight 6. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Woolams. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. Summary: Bell flight 6. Static directional stability investigation. At Pinecastle AAF, Florida..

1946 February 26 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 8 - . Crew: Woolams. Payload: XS-1 # 1 flight 8. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Woolams. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. Summary: Bell flight 8. Dynamic stability check. At Pinecastle AAF, Florida..

1946 February 26 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 9 - . Crew: Woolams. Payload: XS-1 # 1 flight 9. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Woolams. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. Summary: Bell flight 9. Rate of roll investigation. At Pinecastle AAF, Florida..

1946 March 6 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 10 - . Crew: Woolams. Payload: XS-1 # 1 flight 10. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Woolams. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. Summary: Bell flight 10. Static longitudinal stability investigation. At Pinecastle AAF, Florida..

1946 October 7 - .
  • X-1 moved to Edwards. - . Nation: USA. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. Summary: First of three XS-1 (later X-1) rocket research airplanes moved from Bell Aircraft's Niagara Falls plant to Muroc, Calif..

1946 October 11 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 11 - . Crew: Goodlin. Payload: XS-1 # 2 flight 1. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Goodlin. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. Summary: Bell flight 1. Glide flight, pilot familiarization..

1946 October 14 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 12 - . Crew: Goodlin. Payload: XS-1 # 2 flight 2. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Goodlin. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. Summary: Bell flight 2. Glide flight..

1946 October 17 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 13 - . Crew: Goodlin. Payload: XS-1 # 2 flight 3. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Goodlin. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. Summary: Bell flight 3. Glide flight, small check..

1946 December 2 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 14 - . Crew: Goodlin. Payload: XS-1 # 2 flight 4. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Goodlin. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. Summary: Bell flight 4. Glide flight, check of fuel-jettison system..

1946 December 9 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 15 - . Crew: Goodlin. Payload: XS-1 # 2 flight 5. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Goodlin. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. Summary: Bell flight 5. First XS-1 powered flight. Mach 0.79 at 10675 m. Minor engine fire. At Edwards AFB, California..

1946 December 20 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 16 - . Crew: Goodlin. Payload: XS-1 # 2 flight 6. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Goodlin. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. Summary: Bell flight 6. Familiarization powered flight..

1947 January 8 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 17 - . Crew: Goodlin. Payload: XS-1 # 2 flight 7. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Goodlin. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. Summary: Bell flight 7. Buffet boundary investigation. Mach 0.80 at 10675 m..

1947 January 17 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 18 - . Crew: Goodlin. Payload: XS-1 # 2 flight 8. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Goodlin. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. Summary: Bell flight 8. Buffet boundary investigation. Full-power climb. Plane reached mach 0.82..

1947 January 22 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 19 - . Crew: Goodlin. Payload: XS-1 # 2 flight 9. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Goodlin. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. Summary: Bell flight 9. Buffet boundary investigation. Full-power climb. Telemetry failure..

1947 January 23 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 20 - . Crew: Goodlin. Payload: XS-1 # 2 flight 10. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Goodlin. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. Summary: Bell flight 10. Buffet boundary investigation. Full-power climb..

1947 January 30 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 21 - . Crew: Goodlin. Payload: XS-1 # 2 flight 11. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Goodlin. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. Summary: Bell flight 11. Accelerated stalls. Partial power due to engine igniters. Mach 0.75..

1947 January 31 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 22 - . Crew: Goodlin. Payload: XS-1 # 2 flight 12. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Goodlin. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. Summary: Bell flight 12. Buffet boundary investigation. Mach 0.7..

1947 February 5 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 23 - . Crew: Goodlin. Payload: XS-1 # 2 flight 13. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Goodlin. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. Summary: Bell flight 13. Machmeter calibration..

1947 February 7 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 24 - . Crew: Goodlin. Payload: XS-1 # 2 flight 14. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Goodlin. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. Summary: Bell flight 14. Buffet boundary investigation..

1947 February 19 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 25 - . Crew: Goodlin. Payload: XS-1 # 2 flight 15. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Goodlin. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. Summary: Bell flight 15. Accelerated stalls..

1947 February 21 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 26 - . Crew: Goodlin. Payload: XS-1 # 2 flight 16. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Goodlin. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. Summary: Bell flight 16. Flight aborted after drop because of low engine-chamber pressure..

1947 April 10 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 27 - . Crew: Goodlin. Payload: XS-1 # 1 flight 11. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Goodlin. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. Summary: Bell flight 11. Glide flight and stall check. At Muroc Dry Lake, California..

1947 April 11 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 28 - . Crew: Goodlin. Payload: XS-1 # 1 flight 12. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Goodlin. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. Summary: Bell flight 12. Nosewheel damaged. First powered flight of XS-1 # 1 aircraft. At Muroc Dry Lake, California..

1947 April 29 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 29 - . Crew: Goodlin. Payload: XS-1 # 1 flight 13. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Goodlin. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. Summary: Bell flight 13. Handling qualities check. At Muroc Dry Lake, California..

1947 April 30 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 30 - . Crew: Goodlin. Payload: XS-1 # 1 flight 14. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Goodlin. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. Summary: Bell flight 14. Handling qualities check. At Muroc Dry Lake, California..

1947 May 5 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 31 - . Crew: Goodlin. Payload: XS-1 # 1 flight 15. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Goodlin. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. Summary: Bell flight 15. Handling qualities check. At Muroc Dry Lake, California..

1947 May 15 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 32 - . Crew: Goodlin. Payload: XS-1 # 1 flight 16. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Goodlin. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. Summary: Bell flight 16. Buffet-boundary investigation. Aileron-damper malfunction..

1947 May 19 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 33 - . Crew: Goodlin. Payload: XS-1 # 1 flight 17. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Goodlin. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. Summary: Bell flight 17. Buffet-boundary investigation. At Muroc Dry Lake, California..

1947 May 21 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 34 - . Crew: Goodlin. Payload: XS-1 # 1 flight 18. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Goodlin. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. Summary: Bell flight 18. Buffet-boundary investigation. At Muroc Dry Lake, California..

1947 May 22 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 35 - . Crew: Johnston, Alvin. Payload: XS-1 # 2 flight 17. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Johnston, Alvin. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. Summary: Bell flight 17. Pilot familiarization flight. Mach 0.72, 8 g pullout..

1947 May 29 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 36 - . Crew: Goodlin. Payload: XS-1 # 2 flight 18. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Goodlin. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. Summary: Bell flight 18. Airspeed calibration flight to mach 0.72. End of Bell contractor program..

1947 June 5 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 37 - . Crew: Goodlin. Payload: XS-1 # 1 flight 19. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Goodlin. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. Summary: Bell flight 19. Demonstration flight for Aviation Writers Association. At Muroc Dry Lake, California..

1947 August 6 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 38 - . Crew: Yeager. Payload: XS-1 # 1 flight 20. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Yeager. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. Summary: AF glide flight 1. Pilot familiarization..

1947 August 7 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 39 - . Crew: Yeager. Payload: XS-1 # 1 flight 21. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Yeager. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. Summary: AF glide flight 2. .

1947 August 8 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 40 - . Crew: Yeager. Payload: XS-1 # 1 flight 22. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Yeager. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. Summary: AF glide flight 3. .

1947 August 29 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 41 - . Crew: Yeager. Payload: XS-1 # 1 flight 23. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Yeager. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. Summary: AF powered flight 1. Mach 0.85..

1947 September 4 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 42 - . Crew: Yeager. Payload: XS-1 # 1 flight 24. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Yeager. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. Summary: AF flight 2. About mach 0.89. Telemeter failure required repeat of this flight..

1947 September 8 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 43 - . Crew: Yeager. Payload: XS-1 # 1 flight 25. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Yeager. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. Summary: AF flight 3..

1947 September 10 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 44 - . Crew: Yeager. Payload: XS-1 # 1 flight 26. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Yeager. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. Summary: AF flight 4. Mach 0.91. Stability and control investigation..

1947 September 12 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 45 - . Crew: Yeager. Payload: XS-1 # 1 flight 27. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Yeager. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. Summary: AF flight 5. Mach 0.92. Check of elevator and stabilizer effectiveness. Also buffet investigation..

1947 September 25 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 46 - . Crew: Yeager. Payload: XS-1 # 2 flight 19. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Yeager. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. Summary: NACA acceptance flight. Number 4 cylinder burned out..

1947 October 3 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 47 - . Crew: Yeager. Payload: XS-1 # 1 flight 28. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Yeager. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. Summary: AF flight 6. Check of elevator and stabilizer effectiveness. Also buffet investigation..

1947 October 8 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 48 - . Crew: Yeager. Payload: XS-1 # 1 flight 29. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Yeager. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. Summary: AF flight 7. Airspeed calibration flight. Plane attained mach 0.925..

1947 October 10 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 49 - . Crew: Yeager. Payload: XS-1 # 1 flight 30. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Yeager. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. Summary: AF flight 8. Stability and control investigation. Plane attained mach 0.997..

1947 October 14 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 50 - first supersonic manned flight - . Crew: Yeager. Payload: XS-1 # 1 flight 31. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Yeager. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. Summary: AF flight 9. World's first supersonic flight in level or climbing flight was made by Capt. Charles E. Yeager (USAF) at Muroc, Calif., in a rocket-powered NACA-USAF research plane, Bell XS-1XS-1 # 1 attained mach 1.06 at 13,115 m, approximately 1126 kph..

1947 October 21 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 51 - . Crew: Hoover. Payload: XS-1 # 2 flight 20. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Hoover. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. Summary: NACA glide-familiarization flight for NACA pilot. Stall check. Nosewheel collapsed on landing..

1947 October 27 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 52 - . Crew: Yeager. Payload: XS-1 # 1 flight 32. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Yeager. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. Summary: AF flight 10. Electric power failure. No rocket ignition..

1947 October 28 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 53 - . Crew: Yeager. Payload: XS-1 # 1 flight 33. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Yeager. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. Summary: AF flight 11. Telemetry failure..

1947 October 29 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 54 - . Crew: Yeager. Payload: XS-1 # 1 flight 34. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Yeager. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. Summary: AF flight 12. Telemetry failure..

1947 October 31 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 55 - . Crew: Yeager. Payload: XS-1 # 1 flight 35. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Yeager. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. Summary: AF flight 13..

1947 November 3 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 56 - . Crew: Yeager. Payload: XS-1 # 1 flight 36. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Yeager. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. Summary: AF flight 14..

1947 November 4 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 57 - . Crew: Yeager. Payload: XS-1 # 1 flight 37. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Yeager. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. Summary: AF flight 15..

1947 November 6 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 58 - . Crew: Yeager. Payload: XS-1 # 1 flight 38. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Yeager. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. Summary: AF flight 16. Mach 1.35 at 14823 m..

1947 December 16 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 59 - . Crew: Hoover. Payload: XS-1 # 2 flight 21. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Hoover. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. Summary: NACA powered flight 1. Familiarization. Mach 0.84. No telemetry record..

1947 December 17 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 60 - . Crew: Hoover. Payload: XS-1 # 2 flight 22. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Hoover. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. Summary: NACA flight 2. Familiarization. Mach 0.8..

1948 January 6 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 61 - . Crew: Hoover. Payload: XS-1 # 2 flight 23. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Hoover. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. Summary: NACA flight 3. Turns and pull-ups to buffet. Mach 0.74..

1948 January 8 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 62 - . Crew: Hoover. Payload: XS-1 # 2 flight 24. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Hoover. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. Summary: NACA flight 4. Turns and pull-ups to buffet. Mach 0.83..

1948 January 9 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 63 - . Crew: Lilly. Payload: XS-1 # 2 flight 25. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Lilly. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. Summary: NACA flight 5. Pilot familiarization..

1948 January 15 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 64 - . Crew: Lilly. Payload: XS-1 # 2 flight 26. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Lilly. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. Summary: NACA flight 6. Turns and pull-ups to buffet. Sideslips. Mach 0.76..

1948 January 16 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 65 - . Crew: Yeager. Payload: XS-1 # 1 flight 39. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Yeager. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. Summary: AF flight 17. Airspeed calibration. Mach 0.9..

1948 January 21 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 66 - . Crew: Hoover. Payload: XS-1 # 2 flight 27. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Hoover. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. Summary: NACA flight 7. Stabilizer effectiveness investigation. Mach 0.82 at 8845 m..

1948 January 22 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 67 - . Crew: Yeager. Payload: XS-1 # 1 flight 40. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Yeager. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. Summary: AF flight 18. Pressure distribution survey. Mach 1.2..

1948 January 23 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 68 - . Crew: Hoover. Payload: XS-1 # 2 flight 28. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Hoover. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. Summary: NACA flight 8. Attempted high-speed run aborted at mach 0.83, drop in chamber pressure..

1948 January 27 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 69 - . Crew: Hoover. Payload: XS-1 # 2 flight 29. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Hoover. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. Summary: NACA flight 9. High-speed run to mach 0.925 at 11590 m. Cylinders 2 and 3 failed to fire..

1948 January 30 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 70 - . Crew: Yeager. Payload: XS-1 # 1 flight 41. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Yeager. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. Summary: AF flight 19. Pressure distribution survey. Mach 1.1..

1948 February 24 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 71 - . Crew: Fitzgerald. Payload: XS-1 # 1 flight 42. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Fitzgerald. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. AF flight 20. Engine fire after launch forced jettisoning of propellants, completed as a glide flight. However Fitz-Gerald reached 12.1 km and reached Mach 1.10 before the engine was shut off, in the process becoming the second person to break the sound barrier.

1948 March 4 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 72 - . Crew: Hoover. Payload: XS-1 # 2 flight 30. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Hoover. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. Summary: NACA flight 10. High-speed run to mach 0.943 at 12200 m..

1948 March 10 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 73 - . Crew: Hoover. Payload: XS-1 # 2 flight 31. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Hoover. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. Summary: NACA flight 11. First NACA supersonic flight. First civilian supersonic flight. Mach 1.065. Nosewheel failed to extend for landing. Minor damage..

1948 March 11 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 74 - . Crew: Yeager. Payload: XS-1 # 1 flight 43. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Yeager. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. Summary: AF flight 21. Attained mach 1.25 in dive..

1948 March 22 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 75 - . Crew: Hoover. Payload: XS-1 # 2 flight 32. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Hoover. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. Summary: NACA flight 12. Stability and loads investigation. Mach 1.12..

1948 March 26 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 76 - . Crew: Yeager. Payload: XS-1 # 1 flight 44. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Yeager. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. Summary: AF flight 22. Attained mach 1.45 at 12239 m during dive. Fastest flight ever made in original XS-1 aircraft..

1948 March 30 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 77 - . Crew: Hoover. Payload: XS-1 # 2 flight 33. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Hoover. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. Summary: NACA flight 13. Stability and loads investigation. Mach 0.90..

1948 March 31 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 79 - . Crew: Yeager. Payload: XS-1 # 1 flight 45. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Yeager. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. Summary: AF flight 23. Engine shutdown after launch. Propellants jettisoned, completed as glide flight..

1948 March 31 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 78 - . Crew: Lilly. Payload: XS-1 # 2 flight 34. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Lilly. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. Summary: NACA flight 14. Stability and loads investigation. Plane attained mach 1.1..

1948 April 5 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 80 - . Crew: Lilly. Payload: XS-1 # 2 flight 35. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Lilly. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. Summary: NACA flight 15. Engine failed to ignite. Propellants jettisoned, completed as glide flight..

1948 April 6 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 81 - . Crew: Fitzgerald. Payload: XS-1 # 1 flight 46. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Fitzgerald. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. Summary: AF flight 24. Pilot-check flight. Mach 1.1, during 4-cylinder run at 12505 m..

1948 April 7 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 82 - . Crew: Lundquist. Payload: XS-1 # 1 flight 47. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Lundquist. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. Summary: AF flight 25. Glide flight only..

1948 April 8 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 83 - . Crew: Fitzgerald. Payload: XS-1 # 1 flight 48. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Fitzgerald. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. Summary: AF flight 26. Familiarization flight..

1948 April 9 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 85 - . Crew: Lundquist. Payload: XS-1 # 1 flight 49. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Lundquist. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. Summary: AF flight 27. Powered pilot-check flight..

1948 April 9 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 84 - . Crew: Lilly. Payload: XS-1 # 2 flight 36. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Lilly. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. Summary: NACA flight 16. Stability and loads investigation. Mach 0.89..

1948 April 16 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 86 - . Crew: Lilly. Payload: XS-1 # 2 flight 37. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Lilly. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. Summary: NACA flight 17. Stability and loads investigation. Plane's nosewheel collapsed on landing. Moderate damage..

1948 April 16 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 87 - . Crew: Lundquist. Payload: XS-1 # 1 flight 50. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Lundquist. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. Summary: AF flight 28. Pressure distribution survey. Only cylinders 2 and 4 ignited..

1948 April 26 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 88 - . Crew: Fitzgerald. Payload: XS-1 # 1 flight 51. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Fitzgerald. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. Summary: AF flight 29. Aborted because of inconsistent rocket operation. Reached mach 0.9..

1948 April 29 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 89 - . Crew: Lundquist. Payload: XS-1 # 1 flight 52. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Lundquist. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. Summary: AF flight 30. Pressure distribution survey. Attained mach 1.18..

1948 May 4 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 90 - . Crew: Fitzgerald. Payload: XS-1 # 1 flight 53. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Fitzgerald. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. Summary: AF flight 31. Pressure distribution survey. Mach 1.15..

1948 May 21 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 91 - . Crew: Lundquist. Payload: XS-1 # 1 flight 54. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Lundquist. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. Summary: AF flight 32. Stability and control and buffeting investigation. Mach 0.92..

1948 May 25 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 92 - . Crew: Fitzgerald. Payload: XS-1 # 1 flight 55. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Fitzgerald. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. Summary: AF flight 33. Buffet investigation, wing and tail loads. Mach 1.08..

1948 May 26 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 93 - . Crew: Yeager. Payload: XS-1 # 1 flight 56. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Yeager. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. Summary: AF flight 34. Buffet investigation, wing and tail loads. Mach 1.05..

1948 June 3 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 94 - . Crew: Lundquist. Payload: XS-1 # 1 flight 57. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Lundquist. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. Summary: AF flight 35. Left main gear door opened in flight. Nosewheel collapsed on landing..

1948 November 1 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 95 - . Crew: Hoover. Payload: XS-1 # 2 flight 38. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Hoover. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. Summary: NACA flight 18. Stability and control. Mach 0.9. Number 4 cylinder failed to fire..

1948 November 15 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 96 - . Crew: Hoover. Payload: XS-1 # 2 flight 39. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Hoover. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. Summary: NACA flight 19. Stability and control. Also pressure-distribution survey. Mach 0.98..

1948 November 23 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 97 - . Crew: Champine. Payload: XS-1 # 2 flight 40. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Champine. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. Summary: NACA flight 20. Pilot familiarization. Check on handling qualities and pressure distribution..

1948 November 29 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 98 - . Crew: Champine. Payload: XS-1 # 2 flight 41. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Champine. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. Summary: NACA flight 21. Check on handling qualities and pressure distribution. Mach 0.88..

1948 November 30 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 99 - . Crew: Champine. Payload: XS-1 # 2 flight 42. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Champine. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. Summary: NACA flight 22. Check on handling qualities and pressure distribution. .

1948 December 1 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 100 - . Crew: Yeager. Payload: XS-1 # 1 flight 58. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Yeager. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. Summary: AF flight 36. Handling qualities and wing and tail loads at mach 1..

1948 December 2 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 101 - . Crew: Champine. Payload: XS-1 # 2 flight 43. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Champine. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. Summary: NACA flight 23. Check on handling qualities and pressure distribution. Plane exceeded mach 1 briefly..

1948 December 13 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 102 - . Crew: Yeager. Payload: XS-1 # 1 flight 59. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Yeager. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. Summary: AF flight 37. Handling qualities and wing and tail loads at mach 1..

1948 December 23 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 103 - . Crew: Yeager. Payload: XS-1 # 1 flight 60. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Yeager. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. Summary: AF flight 38. Wing and tail loads during supersonic flight at high altitudes. Mach 1.09..

1949 During the Year - .
  • Tsien Passenger Spaceplane - . Nation: China. Related Persons: Tsien. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Tsien Spaceplane 1949. Summary: Tsien Hsue-shen proposed a 22,000 kg single stage winged rocket that would carry ten passengers from New York to Los Angeles in 45 minutes..

1949 January 5 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 104 - . Crew: Yeager. Payload: XS-1 # 1 flight 61. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Yeager. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. Summary: AF flight 39. Rocket takeoff from the ground..

1949 March 11 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 105 - . Crew: Ridley. Payload: XS-1 # 1 flight 62. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Ridley. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. Summary: AF flight 40. Familiarization flight. Mach 1.23 at 10675 m. Small engine fire due to loose igniter..

1949 March 16 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 106 - . Crew: Boyd. Payload: XS-1 # 1 flight 63. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Boyd. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. Summary: AF flight 41. Familiarization flight. Inflight engine fire and shutdown..

1949 March 21 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 107 - . Crew: Everest. Payload: XS-1 # 1 flight 64. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Everest. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. Summary: AF flight 42. Familiarization flight. Mach 1.22 at 12200 m..

1949 March 25 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 108 - . Crew: Everest. Payload: XS-1 # 1 flight 65. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Everest. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. Summary: AF flight 43. Check of pressure suit for altitude operation. Mach 1.24 at 14640 m. Rocket fire and automatic engine shutdown..

1949 April 14 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 109 - . Crew: Ridley. Payload: XS-1 # 1 flight 66. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Ridley. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. Summary: AF flight 44. Accelerated stall check at transonic speeds. Mach 1.1 at 12200 m..

1949 April 19 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 110 - . Crew: Everest. Payload: XS-1 # 1 flight 67. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Everest. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. Summary: AF flight 45. Altitude attempt. Only 2 cylinders fired..

1949 May 2 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 111 - . Crew: Yeager. Payload: XS-1 # 1 flight 68. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Yeager. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. Summary: AF flight 46. Partial engine malfunction, faulty engine ignition plug..

1949 May 5 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 112 - . Crew: Everest. Payload: XS-1 # 1 flight 69. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Everest. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. Summary: AF flight. Engine chamber exploded, jamming rudder. Everest landed safely..

1949 May 6 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 113 - . Crew: Champine. Payload: XS-1 # 2 flight 44. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Champine. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. Summary: NACA flight 24. Check on airplane instrumentation. Mach 0.88 at 12200 m..

1949 May 13 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 114 - . Crew: Champine. Payload: XS-1 # 2 flight 45. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Champine. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. Summary: NACA flight 25. Spanwise pressure distribution, stability and control. Mach 0.91..

1949 May 27 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 115 - . Crew: Champine. Payload: XS-1 # 2 flight 46. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Champine. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. Summary: NACA flight 26. Spanwise pressure distribution, stability and control. Mach 0.91. Stabilizer found more effective than the elevator during pull-ups at mach 0.91..

1949 June 16 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 116 - . Crew: Champine. Payload: XS-1 # 2 flight 47. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Champine. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. Summary: NACA flight 27. Spanwise pressure distribution, stability and control. Rolls and pull-ups around mach 0.91..

1949 June 23 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 117 - . Crew: Champine. Payload: XS-1 # 2 flight 48. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Champine. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. Summary: NACA flight 28. Spanwise pressure distribution, stability and control. Rolls, pull-ups, check of stabilizer effectiveness..

1949 July 11 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 118 - . Crew: Champine. Payload: XS-1 # 2 flight 49. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Champine. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. Summary: NACA flight 29. Spanwise pressure distribution, stability and control. Rolls, pull-ups, check of stabilizer effectiveness. Mach 0.91. Number 2 cylinder failed to fire..

1949 July 19 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 119 - . Crew: Champine. Payload: XS-1 # 2 flight 50. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Champine. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. Summary: NACA flight 30. Spanwise pressure distribution, stability and control. Rolls, pull-ups, check of stabilizer effectiveness. Mach 0.91. Number 2 cylinder failed to fire..

1949 July 25 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 120 - . Crew: Everest. Payload: XS-1 # 1 flight 70. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Everest. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. Summary: AF flight 48. Altitude attempt. Attained 20388 m altitude..

1949 July 27 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 121 - . Crew: Champine. Payload: XS-1 # 2 flight 51. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Champine. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. Summary: NACA flight 31. Spanwise pressure distribution, stability and control. Rolls, pull-ups, check of stabilizer effectiveness..

1949 August 4 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 122 - . Crew: Champine. Payload: XS-1 # 2 flight 52. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Champine. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. Summary: NACA flight 32. Spanwise pressure distribution, stability and control. Rolls, pull-ups, check of stabilizer effectiveness..

1949 August 8 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 123 - . Crew: Everest. Payload: XS-1 # 1 flight 71. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Everest. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. Summary: AF flight 49. Altitude attempt. Attained 21930 m altitude..

1949 August 25 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 124 - . Crew: Everest. Payload: XS-1 # 1 flight 72. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Everest. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. Summary: AF flight 50. First use of partial pressure suit to save life of pilot during flight at high altitude. X-1 # 1 lost cockpit pressurization about 21000 m. Everest made safe emergency descent..

1949 September 23 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 125 - . Crew: Griffith. Payload: XS-1 # 2 flight 53. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Griffith. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. Summary: NACA flight 33. Pilot familiarization. Mach 0.9..

1949 October 6 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 126 - . Crew: Fleming. Payload: XS-1 # 1 flight 73. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Fleming. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. Summary: AF flight 51. Pilot familiarization..

1949 October 26 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 127 - . Crew: Johnson. Payload: XS-1 # 1 flight 74. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Johnson. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. Summary: AF flight 52. Pilot familiarization..

1949 November 22 - . Launch Site: Edwards.
  • D-558 first supersonic flight. - . Nation: USA. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: D-558-2. Summary: D-558-II Skyrocket exceeded the speed of sound at Edwards AFB, Calif. It was powered by both a Westinghouse J-34 turbojet engine and a Reaction Motors, Inc. rocket motor..

1949 November 29 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 128 - . Crew: Everest. Payload: XS-1 # 1 flight 75. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Everest. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. Summary: AF flight 53. High-altitude wing-tail loads investigation..

1949 November 30 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 129 - . Crew: Griffith. Payload: XS-1 # 2 flight 54. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Griffith. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. Summary: NACA flight 33. Mach 0.91..

1949 December 2 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 130 - . Crew: Everest. Payload: XS-1 # 1 flight 76. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Everest. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. Summary: AF flight 54. High-altitude wing-tail loads investigation..

1950 January 1 - . Launch Vehicle: Buran; Burya; MKR.
  • Design of 8,000 km range winged missile begun - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Korolev. Program: Navaho. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Summary: In parallel with the R-5 Korolev OKB NII-88 begins design of 8,000 km range winged missile..

1950 February 21 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 131 - . Crew: Everest. Payload: XS-1 # 1 flight 77. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Everest. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. Summary: AF flight 55. Wing-and-tail-loads investigation..

1950 April 26 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 132 - . Crew: Yeager. Payload: XS-1 # 1 flight 78. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Yeager. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. Summary: AF flight 56. Lateral stability and control investigation..

1950 May 5 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 133 - . Crew: Ridley. Payload: XS-1 # 1 flight 79. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Ridley. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. Summary: AF flight 57. Buffeting, wing and tail loads..

1950 May 8 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 134 - . Crew: Ridley. Payload: XS-1 # 1 flight 80. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Ridley. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. Summary: AF flight 58. Buffeting, wing and tail loads..

1950 May 12 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 135 - . Crew: Griffith. Payload: XS-1 # 2 flight 55. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Griffith. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. Summary: NACA flight 34. Spanwise pressure distribution, stability and control. Pull-ups and rolls..

1950 May 12 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 136 - . Crew: Yeager. Payload: XS-1 # 1 flight 81. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Yeager. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. Summary: AF flight 59. Last flight of XS-1 No. 1 rocket research airplane, for RKO motion picture "Test Pilot," which was turned over to the National Air Museum at the Smithsonian on August 28th..

1950 May 17 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 137 - . Crew: Griffith. Payload: XS-1 # 2 flight 56. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Griffith. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. Summary: NACA flight 35. Spanwise pressure distribution, stability and control. Pull-ups and rolls. Mach 1.13 at 12810 m..

1950 May 26 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 138 - . Crew: Griffith. Payload: XS-1 # 2 flight 57. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Griffith. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. Summary: NACA flight 36. Spanwise pressure distribution, stability and control. Pull-ups and rolls. Mach 1.20. Nosewheel collapsed on landing..

1950 August 9 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 139 - . Crew: Griffith. Payload: XS-1 # 2 flight 58. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Griffith. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. Summary: NACA flight 38. For pressure distribution and stability and control data. Check of stabilizer effectiveness. Mach 0.98..

1950 August 11 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 140 - . Crew: Griffith. Payload: XS-1 # 2 flight 59. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Griffith. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. Summary: NACA flight 39. For pressure distribution and stability and control data. Check of stabilizer effectiveness. .

1950 September 21 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 141 - . Crew: Griffith. Payload: XS-1 # 2 flight 60. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Griffith. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. Summary: NACA flight 40. For pressure distribution and stability and control data. Check of stabilizer effectiveness. Also drag investigation. Pull-ups. Mach 0.90..

1950 October 4 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 142 - . Crew: Griffith. Payload: XS-1 # 2 flight 61. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Griffith. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. Summary: NACA flight 41. For pressure distribution and stability and control data. Check of stabilizer effectiveness. Also drag investigation. Pull-ups..

1951 April 6 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 143 - . Crew: Yeager. Payload: XS-1 # 2 flight 62. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Yeager. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. Summary: NACA flight 42. Flight for RKO film Jet Pilot. Slight engine fire but no damage..

1951 April 20 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 144 - . Crew: Crossfield. Payload: XS-1 # 2 flight 63. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Crossfield. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. Summary: NACA flight 43. Pilot familiarization. Reached mach 1.07..

1951 April 27 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 145 - . Crew: Crossfield. Payload: XS-1 # 2 flight 64. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Crossfield. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. Summary: NACA flight 44. Plane and instrument check..

1951 May 15 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 146 - . Crew: Crossfield. Payload: XS-1 # 2 flight 65. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Crossfield. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. Summary: NACA flight 45. Wing loads and aileron effectiveness. Aileron rolls at mach 0.90..

1951 June 11 - . Launch Site: Edwards.
  • D-558 test flight. - . Crew: Bridgeman. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Bridgeman. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: D-558-2. Summary: Navy D-558-II Douglas Sky-rocket, flown by test pilot William Bridgeman, set a new unofficial airplane speed and altitude record at Edwards AFB, Muroc Dry Lake, Calif.; speed estimated at more than 1,200 mph; altitude estimated 70,000 feet..

1951 July 12 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 147 - . Crew: Crossfield. Payload: XS-1 # 2 flight 66. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Crossfield. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. Summary: NACA flight 46. Wing loads and aileron effectiveness. Aileron rolls at mach 1.07..

1951 July 20 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 148 - . Crew: Crossfield. Payload: XS-1 # 2 flight 67. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Crossfield. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. Summary: NACA flight 47. Wing loads and aileron effectiveness. Abrupt rudder fixed aileron rolls left and right, from mach 0.70 to mach 0.88..

1951 July 24 - .
  • X-1D Flight 1 - . Crew: Ziegler. Payload: X-1D flight 1. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Ziegler. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: X-1D. Summary: Bell flight 1. Glide flight for familiarization. Nose landing gear broken on landing. Following repairs, plane turned over to the Air Force..

1951 July 31 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 149 - . Crew: Crossfield. Payload: XS-1 # 2 flight 68. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Crossfield. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. Summary: NACA flight 48. Wing loads and aileron effectiveness..

1951 August 3 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 150 - . Crew: Crossfield. Payload: XS-1 # 2 flight 69. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Crossfield. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. Summary: NACA flight 49. Wing loads and aileron effectiveness..

1951 August 8 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 151 - . Crew: Crossfield. Payload: XS-1 # 2 flight 70. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Crossfield. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. Summary: NACA flight 50. Wing loads and aileron effectiveness. Elevator and stabilizer pull-ups..

1951 August 10 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 152 - . Crew: Crossfield. Payload: XS-1 # 2 flight 71. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Crossfield. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. Summary: NACA flight 51. Wing loads and aileron effectiveness. Elevator and stabilizer pull-ups, clean stalls..

1951 August 15 - . Launch Site: Edwards.
  • D-558 reaches record altitude. - . Crew: Bridgeman. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Bridgeman. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: D-558-2. Summary: William Bridgeman flew the D-558-II Skyrocket to 79,494 feet, highest altitude attained by a human being to date..

1951 August 22 - .
  • X-1D Flight 2 - . Crew: Everest. Payload: X-1D flight 2. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Everest. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: X-1D. Summary: AF flight 1. Launch aborted, but X-1D suffered low-order explosion during pressurization for fuel jettison. Plane jettisoned from B-50. X-1D exploded on impact with desert. Everest managed to get into B-50 bomb bay before drop..

1951 August 27 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 153 - . Crew: Walker, Joseph. Payload: XS-1 # 2 flight 72. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Walker, Joseph. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. Summary: NACA flight 52. Pilot familiarization. Reached mach 1.16 at 13420 m during four-cylinder run..

1951 September 5 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 154 - . Crew: Crossfield. Payload: XS-1 # 2 flight 73. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Crossfield. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. Summary: NACA flight 53. Fuselage pressure distribution survey. Number 1 cylinder failed to fire. Stabilizer pull-ups at mach 1.07..

1951 October 23 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 155 - . Crew: Walker, Joseph. Payload: XS-1 # 2 flight 74. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Walker, Joseph. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. Summary: NACA flight 54. Engine cut out after two ignition attempts; propellants jettisoned and flight completed as glide flight. Plane subsequently grounded because of possibility of fatigue failure of nitrogen spheres..

1951 November 9 - . Launch Site: Edwards.
  • XS-1 No. 3 destroyed in ground explosion. - . Crew: Cannon. Payload: XS-1 # 3 flight 1. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Cannon. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. Summary: Planned captive flight with B-50 for propellant jettison test. XS-1 (No. 3) rocket research airplane and its B-29 "mother" airplane were destroyed on the ground by postflight explosion and fire. Pilot Cannon was injured..

1953 February 14 - .
  • X-1A Flight 2 - . Crew: Ziegler. Payload: X-1A flight 2. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Ziegler. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: X-1A. Summary: Bell flight 2. Planned as powered flight, but completed as glide flight following propellant-system difficulties..

1953 February 14 - .
  • X-1A Flight 1 - . Crew: Ziegler. Payload: X-1A flight 1. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Ziegler. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: X-1A. Summary: Bell flight 1. Pilot familiarization. Fuel jettison test. Glide flight only..

1953 February 21 - .
  • X-1A Flight 3 - . Crew: Ziegler. Payload: X-1A flight 3. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Ziegler. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: X-1A. Summary: Bell flight 3. First powered flight. False fire warning..

1953 March 26 - .
  • X-1A Flight 4 - . Crew: Ziegler. Payload: X-1A flight 4. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Ziegler. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: X-1A. Summary: Bell flight 4. Plane demonstrated successful 4-cylinder engine operation..

1953 April 10 - .
  • X-1A Flight 5 - . Crew: Ziegler. Payload: X-1A flight 5. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Ziegler. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: X-1A. Summary: Bell flight 5. Pilot noted low-frequency elevator buzz at mach 0.93, did not proceed above this speed, pending buzz investigation..

1953 April 25 - .
  • X-1A Flight 6 - . Crew: Ziegler. Payload: X-1A flight 6. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Ziegler. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: X-1A. Summary: Bell flight 6. Buzz again noted at mach 0.93. Turbopump overspeeding caused pilot to terminate power and jettison remaining fuel..

1953 May 12 - .
  • X-2 explodes in air - . Crew: Ziegler. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Ziegler. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: X-2 . During a Bell captive-carry flight test over Lake Ontario, X-2 number 46-675 suddenly exploded, killing Bell test pilot Jean Ziegler and observer Frank Wolko. The EB-50A mothership managed to land, although damaged. Only after several other mysterious X-plane losses was the cause found to be a rocket engine gasket made of Ulmer leather, which decomposed and became explosively unstable after sustained exposure to liquid oxygen.

1953 August 21 - . Launch Site: Edwards.
  • D-558 record altitude. - . Nation: USA. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: D-558-2. Summary: Flying Douglas D-558-II (No. 2) Skyrocket research aircraft which had been launched from a B-29 Superfortress at an altitude of 34,000 feet, Lt. Col. Marion E. Carl, USMC, attained an altitude of 83,235 feet at Edwards AFB, Calif..

1953 November 21 - .
  • X-1A Flight 7 - . Crew: Yeager. Payload: X-1A flight 7. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Yeager. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: X-1A. Summary: AF flight 1. Reached mach 1.15. Familiarization purposes..

1953 December 2 - .
  • X-1A Flight 8 - . Crew: Yeager. Payload: X-1A flight 8. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Yeager. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: X-1A. Summary: AF flight 2. Mach 1.5..

1953 December 8 - .
  • X-1A Flight 9 - . Crew: Yeager. Payload: X-1A flight 9. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Yeager. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: X-1A. Summary: AF flight 3. First high-mach flight attempt by X-1A. Mach 1.9 attained at 18300 m during slight climb..

1953 December 12 - .
  • X-1A Flight 10 - . Crew: Yeager. Payload: X-1A flight 10. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Yeager. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: X-1A. Summary: AF flight 4. Plane attained mach 2.44, but met violent instability above mach 2.3. Tumbled 15250 m, wound up in subsonic inverted spin. Yeager recovered to upright spin, then normal flight at 7625 m..

1954 March 21 - .
  • X-1A Flight 11 - . Crew: Murray. Payload: X-1A flight 11. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Murray. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: X-1A. Summary: AF flight 5. Date estimated..

1954 April 4 - .
  • X-1A Flight 12 - . Crew: Murray. Payload: X-1A flight 12. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Murray. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: X-1A. Summary: AF flight 6. Date estimated..

1954 April 11 - .
  • X-1A Flight 13 - . Crew: Murray. Payload: X-1A flight 13. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Murray. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: X-1A. Summary: AF flight 7. Date estimated..

1954 April 25 - .
  • X-1A Flight 14 - . Crew: Murray. Payload: X-1A flight 14. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Murray. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: X-1A. Summary: AF flight 8. Date estimated..

1954 May 14 - .
  • X-1A Flight 15 - . Crew: Murray. Payload: X-1A flight 15. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Murray. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: X-1A. Summary: AF flight 9. Date estimated..

1954 May 28 - .
  • X-1A Flight 16 - . Crew: Murray. Payload: X-1A flight 16. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Murray. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: X-1A. Summary: AF flight 10. X-1A attained 26564 m, un-official world altitude record for manned aircraft..

1954 June 4 - .
  • X-1A Flight 17 - . Crew: Murray. Payload: X-1A flight 17. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Murray. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: X-1A. Summary: AF flight 11. X-1A reached 27374 m. Encountered same instability Yeager had, but at mach 1.97. Murray recovered after tumbling 6100 m down to 20130 m..

1954 June 18 - .
  • X-1A Flight 18 - . Crew: Murray. Payload: X-1A flight 18. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Murray. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: X-1A. Summary: AF flight 12. Date estimated..

1954 July 2 - .
  • X-1A Flight 19 - . Crew: Murray. Payload: X-1A flight 19. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Murray. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: X-1A. Summary: AF flight 13. Date estimated..

1954 July 9 - . LV Family: X-15. Launch Vehicle: X-15A.
  • X-15 project begun. - . Nation: USA. Program: X-15. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: X-15A. NACA met with USAF and Navy BuAer representatives to propose the X-15 as an extension of the cooperative rocket research aircraft program. The NACA proposal was accepted as a joint effort and a memorandum of understanding was signed on December 23 naming NACA as technical director of the project, with advice from a joint Research Airplane Committee.

1954 July 16 - .
  • X-1A Flight 20 - . Crew: Murray. Payload: X-1A flight 20. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Murray. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: X-1A. Summary: AF flight 14. Date estimated..

1954 July 30 - .
  • X-1A Flight 21 - . Crew: Murray. Payload: X-1A flight 21. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Murray. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: X-1A. Summary: AF flight 15. Date estimated..

1954 August 5 - .
  • X-2 Flight 1 - . Crew: Everest. Payload: X-2 # 1 flight 1. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Everest. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: X-2 . Summary: First glide flight of the second X-2, number 46-674, after delivery to Edwards AFB a month earlier. Damaged on landing..

1954 August 8 - .
  • X-1A Flight 22 - . Crew: Murray. Payload: X-1A flight 22. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Murray. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: X-1A. Summary: AF flight 16. Date estimated..

1954 August 19 - .
  • X-1A Flight 23 - . Crew: Murray. Payload: X-1A flight 23. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Murray. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: X-1A. Summary: AF flight 17. Date estimated..

1954 August 26 - .
  • X-1A Flight 24 - . Crew: Murray. Payload: X-1A flight 24. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Murray. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: X-1A. Summary: AF flight 18. Murray attained 27584 m. Air Force then turned X-1A over to NACA..

1954 August 29 - .
  • X-1B Flight 1 - . Crew: McKay. Payload: X-1B flight 12. Nation: USA. Related Persons: McKay. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: X-1B. Summary: NACA flight 2. Cabin-pressure regulator malfunction causes inner canopy to crack; only low-speed, low-altitude maneuvers made..

1954 September 24 - .
  • X-1B Flight 2 - . Crew: Ridley. Payload: X-1B flight 1. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Ridley. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: X-1B. Summary: AF flight 1. Glide flight, because of turbopump over-speeding..

1954 October 6 - .
  • X-1B Flight 3 - . Crew: Ridley. Payload: X-1B flight 2. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Ridley. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: X-1B. Summary: AF flight 2. Glide flight, aborted power flight because of evidence of high lox-tank pressure..

1954 October 8 - .
  • X-1B Flight 4 - . Crew: Murray. Payload: X-1B flight 3. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Murray. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: X-1B. Summary: AF flight 3. First powered flight..

1954 October 13 - .
  • X-1B Flight 5 - . Crew: Stephens. Payload: X-1B flight 4. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Stephens. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: X-1B. Summary: AF flight 4..

1954 October 19 - .
  • X-1B Flight 6 - . Crew: Childs. Payload: X-1B flight 5. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Childs. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: X-1B. Summary: AF flight 5..

1954 October 26 - .
  • X-1B Flight 7 - . Crew: Hanes. Payload: X-1B flight 6. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Hanes. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: X-1B. Summary: AF flight 6..

1954 November 4 - .
  • X-1B Flight 8 - . Crew: Harer. Payload: X-1B flight 7. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Harer. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: X-1B. Summary: AF flight 7..

1954 November 26 - .
  • X-1B Flight 9 - . Crew: Holtoner. Payload: X-1B flight 8. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Holtoner. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: X-1B. Summary: AF flight 8..

1954 November 30 - .
  • X-1B Flight 10 - . Crew: Everest. Payload: X-1B flight 9. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Everest. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: X-1B. Summary: AF flight 9..

1954 December 2 - .
  • X-1B Flight 11 - . Crew: Everest. Payload: X-1B flight 10. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Everest. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: X-1B. Summary: AF flight 10. Mach 2.3 at 19825 m..

1955 March 8 - .
  • X-2 Flight 2 - . Crew: Everest. Payload: X-2 # 1 flight 2. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Everest. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: X-2 . Summary: Second glide flight. Propellant system check. Minor damage on landing..

1955 April 6 - .
  • X-2 Flight 3 - . Crew: Everest. Payload: X-2 # 1 flight 3. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Everest. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: X-2 . Summary: Third glide flight. Damaged on landing. Following flight, plane returned to Bell plant for extensive modifications to landing gear system to prevent further landing accidents and for installation of its rocket engine..

1955 July 20 - .
  • X-1A Flight 25 - . Crew: Walker, Joseph. Payload: X-1A flight 25. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Walker, Joseph. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: X-1A. Summary: NACA flight 1. Familiarization. Walker attained mach 1.45 at 13725 m. Noted severe aileron buzz at mach 0.90 to 0.92..

1955 August 8 - .
  • X-1A Flight 26 - . Crew: Walker, Joseph. Payload: X-1A flight 26. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Walker, Joseph. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: X-1A. Summary: Planned at NACA flight 2. Shortly before launch from B-29, X-1A suffered low-order explosion, later traced to detonation of Ulmer leather gaskets. Walker exited into B-29 bomb bay..

1955 October 25 - .
  • X-2 Flight 4 - . Crew: Everest. Payload: X-2 # 1 flight 4. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Everest. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: X-2 . Summary: Aborted powered flight attempt; became 4th glide flight..

1955 November 18 - .
  • X-2 Flight 5 - . Crew: Everest. Payload: X-2 # 1 flight 5. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Everest. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: X-2 . Summary: First powered flight. Mach 0.992 at 10,675 m. Slight fire damage from engine bay fire..

1955 December 3 - .
  • X-1E Flight 1 - . Payload: X-1E flight 1. Nation: USA. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: X-1E. Summary: Captive flight..

1955 December 12 - .
  • X-1E Flight 2 - . Crew: Walker, Joseph. Payload: X-1E flight 2. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Walker, Joseph. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: X-1E. Summary: NACA flight 1. Glide flight for pilot check-out and low speed evaluation..

1955 December 15 - .
  • X-1E Flight 3 - . Crew: Walker, Joseph. Payload: X-1E flight 3. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Walker, Joseph. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: X-1E. Summary: NACA flight 2. First powered flight. Engine ran at excessive pressure, 4 overspeeds of turbopump and 2 automatic shutdowns. Power terminated by pilot..

1956 February 1 - .
  • USAF RFP - Manned Ballistic Rocket Research System - . Nation: USA. Program: Mercury. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space station. Summary: USAF issues request for industry proposals for Project 7969 Manned Ballistic Rocket Research System. Two year study period..

1956 March 24 - .
  • X-2 Flight 6 - . Crew: Everest. Payload: X-2 # 1 flight 6. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Everest. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: X-2 . Summary: Second powered flight, mach 0.91..

1956 April 3 - .
  • X-1E Flight 4 - . Crew: Walker, Joseph. Payload: X-1E flight 4. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Walker, Joseph. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: X-1E. Summary: NACA flight 3. Mach 0.85 at 9150 m. Damping characteristics good; number 1 cylinder failed to fire..

1956 April 25 - .
  • X-2 Flight 7 - . Crew: Everest. Payload: X-2 # 1 flight 7. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Everest. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: X-2 . Summary: 3d powered flight, mach 1.4 at 15250 m..

1956 April 30 - .
  • X-1E Flight 5 - . Crew: Walker, Joseph. Payload: X-1E flight 5. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Walker, Joseph. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: X-1E. Summary: NACA flight 4. Turbopump did not start; no engine operation..

1956 May 1 - .
  • X-2 Flight 8 - . Crew: Everest. Payload: X-2 # 1 flight 8. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Everest. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: X-2 . Summary: Fourth powered flight, mach 1.683 at 16,378 m..

1956 May 11 - .
  • X-1E Flight 6 - . Crew: Walker, Joseph. Payload: X-1E flight 6. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Walker, Joseph. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: X-1E. Summary: NACA flight 5. Wind-up turns to Clmas from mach 0.69 to 0.84; also control pulses..

1956 May 11 - .
  • X-2 Flight 9 - . Crew: Everest. Payload: X-2 # 1 flight 9. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Everest. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: X-2 . Summary: Fifth powered flight, mach 1.8 at 18,300 m..

1956 May 22 - .
  • X-2 Flight 10 - . Crew: Everest. Payload: X-2 # 1 flight 10. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Everest. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: X-2 . Summary: Sixth powered flight, mach 2.53 at 17.803 m..

1956 May 25 - .
  • X-2 Flight 11 - . Crew: Kincheloe. Payload: X-2 # 1 flight 11. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Kincheloe. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: X-2 . Summary: Seventh powered flight; pilot checkout, mach 1+..

1956 June - . LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8K72.
  • First studies by Korolev OKB of manned spacecraft - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Korolev; Feoktistov. Program: Vostok. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: Vostok. Summary: First studies by Korolev and Feoktistov of manned spacecraft. The first stage would be suborbital ballistic flights (like the US Mercury-Redstone flights) from Kapustin Yar using IRBM's. First flights not planned until 1964 - 1967..

1956 June 7 - .
  • X-1E Flight 7 - . Crew: Walker, Joseph. Payload: X-1E flight 7. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Walker, Joseph. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: X-1E. Summary: NACA flight 6. Mach 1.55 at 13725 m. Longitudinal and lateral trim changes in transonic region found annoying to pilot..

1956 June 18 - .
  • X-1E Flight 8 - . Crew: Walker, Joseph. Payload: X-1E flight 8. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Walker, Joseph. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: X-1E. Summary: NACA flight 7. Mach 1.74 at 18300 m. Damaged on landing..

1956 July 12 - .
  • X-2 Flight 12 - . Crew: Everest. Payload: X-2 # 1 flight 12. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Everest. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: X-2 . Summary: Eighth powered flight, premature engine shutdown..

1956 July 23 - .
  • X-2 Flight 13 - . Crew: Everest. Payload: X-2 # 1 flight 13. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Everest. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: X-2 . Summary: Ninth powered flight, Lt. Col. Frank K. Everest (USAF) flew the Bell X-2 rocket-powered research plane at a record speed of Mach 2.87, ust over 1,900 mph, at 20,802 m..

1956 July 26 - .
  • X-1E Flight 9 - . Crew: Walker, Joseph. Payload: X-1E flight 9. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Walker, Joseph. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: X-1E. Summary: NACA flight 8. Subsonic because cylinders 3 and 4 world not fire..

1956 August 3 - .
  • X-2 Flight 14 - . Crew: Kincheloe. Payload: X-2 # 1 flight 14. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Kincheloe. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: X-2 . Summary: 10th powered flight, mach 2.5+, 26764 m..

1956 August 8 - .
  • X-2 Flight 15 - . Crew: Kincheloe. Payload: X-2 # 1 flight 15. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Kincheloe. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: X-2 . Summary: 11th powered flight, premature engine shutdown..

1956 August 14 - .
  • X-1B Flight 12 - . Crew: McKay. Payload: X-1B flight 11. Nation: USA. Related Persons: McKay. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: X-1B. Summary: NACA flight 1. Pilot check; nose landing gear failed on landing, minor damage..

1956 August 31 - .
  • X-1E Flight 10 - . Crew: Walker, Joseph. Payload: X-1E flight 10. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Walker, Joseph. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: X-1E. Summary: NACA flight 9. Mach 2.0 at 18300 m. Sideslips, pulses, rolls..

1956 September 7 - .
  • X-1B Flight 13 - . Crew: McKay. Payload: X-1B flight 13. Nation: USA. Related Persons: McKay. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: X-1B. Summary: NACA flight 3. Speed run to 17080 m and mach 1.8. Limited heating data gathered..

1956 September 7 - .
  • X-2 Flight 16 - . Crew: Kincheloe. Payload: X-2 # 1 flight 16. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Kincheloe. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: X-2 . Summary: 12th powered flight. Capt. Iven C. Kincheloe (USAF) set new unofficial altitude record for manned flight at Edwards AFB, Calif., piloting a Bell X-2 rocket-powered aircraft to a height of 38,491 m, top speed Mach 1.7..

1956 September 14 - .
  • X-1E Flight 11 - . Crew: Walker, Joseph. Payload: X-1E flight 11. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Walker, Joseph. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: X-1E. Summary: NACA flight 10. Mach 2.1 at 18910 m. Stabilizer, rudder, and aileron pulses..

1956 September 18 - .
  • X-1B Flight 14 - . Crew: McKay. Payload: X-1B flight 14. Nation: USA. Related Persons: McKay. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: X-1B. Summary: NACA flight 4. Glide flight, due to erratic engine start..

1956 September 20 - .
  • X-1E Flight 12 - . Crew: Walker, Joseph. Payload: X-1E flight 12. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Walker, Joseph. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: X-1E. Summary: NACA flight 11. Brief engine power only; flight aborted, unspecified engine malfunction..

1956 September 27 - .
  • X-2 reaches Mach 3. - . Nation: USA. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: X-2. After having been launched from a B-50 bomber over the Mojave Desert in California, Capt. Milburn G. Apt (USAF), flying an X-2 rocket-powered plane on its 13th powered flight, set a record speed of 2,094 mph, or Mach 3.196. In the course of the flight the aircraft crashed and the pilot was killed.

1956 September 27 - .
  • X-2 Flight 17 - . Crew: Apt, Milburn. Payload: X-2 # 1 flight 17. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Apt, Milburn. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: X-2 . After having been launched from a B-50 bomber over the Mojave Desert in California, Capt. Milburn G. Apt (USAF), flying an X-2 rocket-powered plane on its 13th powered flight, set a record speed of 3,377 kph, or Mach 3.196 at 19,977 m. Subsequent loss of control from inertial coupling led to the destruction of the aircraft and the death of the pilot.

1956 September 28 - .
  • X-1B Flight 15 - . Crew: McKay. Payload: X-1B flight 15. Nation: USA. Related Persons: McKay. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: X-1B. Summary: NACA flight 5. Three-chamber engine run to 18300 m to obtain heating data..

1956 October 1 - .
  • X-15 follow-on work begun. - . Nation: USA. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Dynasoar. Summary: NACA scientists initiated examination of the need for a follow-on manned-rocket research vehicle to the X-15, following ARDC inquiries concerning a boost-glide vehicle..

1956 October 3 - .
  • X-1E Flight 13 - . Crew: Walker, Joseph. Payload: X-1E flight 13. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Walker, Joseph. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: X-1E. Summary: NACA flight 12. Only 60-sec rocket operation; intermittent pump operation. Flight aborted, turbopump and engine replaced..

1956 November 20 - .
  • X-1E Flight 14 - . Crew: Walker, Joseph. Payload: X-1E flight 14. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Walker, Joseph. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: X-1E. Summary: NACA flight 13. No engine operation, ignition failure due to lack of manifold pressure..

1957 January 3 - .
  • X-1B Flight 16 - . Crew: McKay. Payload: X-1B flight 16. Nation: USA. Related Persons: McKay. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: X-1B. Summary: NACA flight 6. Mach 1.94 aerodynamic heating investigation (end of heating program)..

1957 February 14 - .
  • X-15 follow-on studied. - . Nation: USA. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Dynasoar. NACA established "Round Three" Steering Committee to study feasiblity of a hypersonic boost-glide research airplane. "Round Three" was considered as the third major flight research program which started with the X-series of rocket-propelled supersonic research airplanes, and which considered the X-15 research airplane as the second major program. The boost-glide program eventually became known as DynaSoar.

1957 April 23 - . LV Family: X-15. Launch Vehicle: X-15A.
  • X-15 first public details announced. - . Nation: USA. Program: X-15. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: X-15A. Summary: Details of X-15 rocket research airplane were publicly revealed for the first time..

1957 April 25 - .
  • X-1E Flight 15 - . Crew: Walker, Joseph. Payload: X-1E flight 15. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Walker, Joseph. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: X-1E. Summary: NACA flight 14. Mach 1.71 at 20435 m. Aileron and rudder pulses..

1957 May 15 - .
  • X-1E Flight 16 - . Crew: Walker, Joseph. Payload: X-1E flight 16. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Walker, Joseph. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: X-1E. Summary: NACA flight 15. Mach 2.0 at 22,265 m. Aileron pulses and rolls, sideslips, and wind-up turns. Plane severely damaged upon landing..

1957 May 22 - .
  • X-1B Flight 17 - . Crew: McKay. Payload: X-1B flight 17. Nation: USA. Related Persons: McKay. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: X-1B. Summary: NACA flight 7. Control pulses at mach 1.45 at 18300 m. Flight for instrumentation check..

1957 June 7 - .
  • X-1B Flight 18 - . Crew: McKay. Payload: X-1B flight 18. Nation: USA. Related Persons: McKay. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: X-1B. Summary: NACA flight 8. Supersonic maneuvers to mach 1.5 at 18300 m to determine the dynamic and static stability and control characteristics..

1957 June 24 - .
  • X-1B Flight 19 - . Crew: McKay. Payload: X-1B flight 19. Nation: USA. Related Persons: McKay. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: X-1B. Summary: NACA flight 9. Supersonic maneuvers to mach 1.5 at 18300 m to determine the dynamic and static stability and control characteristics..

1957 June 30 - .
  • First serious manned winged spacecraft design - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Myasishchev. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: VKA Myasishchev 1957. Summary: Myasishchev OKB-23 sketches first serious manned winged spacecraft design..

1957 July 11 - .
  • X-1B Flight 20 - . Crew: McKay. Payload: X-1B flight 20. Nation: USA. Related Persons: McKay. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: X-1B. Summary: NACA flight 10. Aborted after launch, indication of open landing-gear door. Propellants jettisoned, completed as a glide flight..

1957 July 19 - .
  • X-1B Flight 21 - . Crew: McKay. Payload: X-1B flight 21. Nation: USA. Related Persons: McKay. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: X-1B. Summary: NACA flight 11. Mach 1.65 at 18,300 m. Control pulses, sideslips, and 2 g wind-up turn..

1957 July 29 - .
  • X-1B Flight 22 - . Crew: McKay. Payload: X-1B flight 22. Nation: USA. Related Persons: McKay. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: X-1B. Summary: NACA flight 12. Enlarged wing tips installed to simulate wing tips to be used with reaction controls. Mach 1.55 at 18,300 m..

1957 August 8 - .
  • X-1B Flight 23 - . Crew: McKay. Payload: X-1B flight 23. Nation: USA. Related Persons: McKay. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: X-1B. Summary: NACA flight 13. Stability and control investigation. Mach 1.5 at 18300 m, accelerated maneuvers, control pulses, and pull-ups..

1957 August 15 - .
  • X-1B Flight 24 - . Crew: Armstrong. Payload: X-1B flight 24. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Armstrong. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: X-1B. Summary: NACA flight 14. Pilot check. Nose landing gear failed on landing, minor damage..

1957 September 19 - .
  • X-1E Flight 17 - . Crew: Walker, Joseph. Payload: X-1E flight 17. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Walker, Joseph. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: X-1E. Summary: NACA flight 16. Planned mach number not attained, loss of power during pushover from climb..

1957 October 8 - .
  • X-1E Flight 18 - . Crew: Walker, Joseph. Payload: X-1E flight 18. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Walker, Joseph. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: X-1E. Summary: NACA flight 17. Mach 2.24..

1957 October 14 - .
  • Dynasoar selected as X-15 follow-on. - . Nation: USA. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Dynasoar. Summary: USAF and NACA reviewed preliminary studies dating from 1954 on a boost-glide research vehicle to follow the X-15; all studies were combined into a single plan which was accepted by the Air Force and later designated as Dyna-Soar..

1957 November 27 - .
  • X-1B Flight 25 - . Crew: Armstrong. Payload: X-1B flight 25. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Armstrong. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: X-1B. Summary: NACA flight 15. First reaction-control flight..

1958 During the Year - . LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8K72.
  • Work begun on Vostok spacecraft and third stage - . Nation: USSR. Program: Vostok. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: Vostok.

1958 January 15 - .
  • Eleven proposals for Project 7969 initial manned spacecraft - . Nation: USA. Program: Mercury. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: Mercury. Summary: The Air Force received 11 unsolicited industry proposals for Project 7969, and technical evaluation was started. Observers from NACA participated..

1958 January 16 - .
  • X-1B Flight 26 - . Crew: Armstrong. Payload: X-1B flight 26. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Armstrong. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: X-1B. Summary: NACA flight 16. Low-altitude, low-mach reaction-control investigation..

1958 January 23 - .
  • X-1B Flight 27 - . Crew: Armstrong. Payload: X-1B flight 27. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Armstrong. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: X-1B. Summary: NACA flight 17. Reaction-control investigation. Mach 1.5 at 16775 m. Last NACA flight..

1958 May 1 - .
  • Korolev OKB cancels suborbital manned flights - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Korolev; Ustinov. Program: Vostok. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: Vostok. Decision to move directly to early manned flights in orbit. Korolev, after a review with engineers, determines that planned three stage versions of the R-7 ICBM could launch a manned orbital spacecraft. Korolev advocates pursuit of manned spaceflight at the expense of the military's Zenit reconnsat program, putting him in opposition to Ustinov.

1958 May 14 - .
  • X-1E Flight 19 - . Crew: Walker, Joseph. Payload: X-1E flight 19. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Walker, Joseph. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: X-1E. Summary: NACA flight 18. First flight with ventral fins; longitudinal and lateral stability and control maneuvers. Engine airstart made at 21,350 m..

1958 May 20 - .
  • Dynasoar NACA-USAF MOU. - . Nation: USA. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Dynasoar. Summary: NACA-USAF Memorandum of Understanding signed, "Principles for Participation of NACA in Development and Testing of the Air Force System 464L Hypersonic Boost Glide Vehicle (Dyna-Soar I).".

1958 June 1 - .
  • Start of construction of manned spacecraft - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Korolev; Myasishchev; Tsybin. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Vostok. Competing manned projects. Korolev OKB-1 proposed Vostok ballistic capsule as quickest way to put a man in space while meeting Zenit project's reconnsat requirements. Under project VKA-23 (Vodushno Kosmicheskiye Apparat) Myasishchev OKB-23 proposed two designs, a faceted craft with a single tail, and a dual tail contoured version. Tsybin OKB-256 proposed seven man winged craft with variable wing dihedral. Contracts awarded to all three OKB's to proceed with construction of protoypes. R-7 booster to be used for suborbital launches.

1958 June 10 - .
  • X-1E Flight 20 - . Crew: Walker, Joseph. Payload: X-1E flight 20. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Walker, Joseph. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: X-1E. Summary: NACA flight 19. Flight aborted after only 1 cylinder of engine fired. Plane damaged on landing..

1958 June 16 - . LV Family: Titan. Launch Vehicle: Titan.
  • Dynasoar Phase I contracts announced. - . Nation: USA. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Dynasoar. Phase I contracts for the Dyna-Soar boost-glide orbital spacecraft are awarded by the USAF to two teams of contractors: one headed by Boeing (Aerojet, General Electric, Ramo-Wooldridge, North American, and Chance Vought), and one headed by Martin (Bell, American Machine & Foundry, Bendix, Goodyear, and Minneapolis-Honeywell). Under the $ 9 million one-year contracts each team was to refine its design, leading to a competitive down-select.

1958 July 1 - .
  • Korolev letter to Politburo - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Korolev. Program: Vostok. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: Vostok. Summary: First explanation to leadership of advantages of manned spaceflight..

1958 September 10 - .
  • X-1E Flight 21 - . Crew: Walker, Joseph. Payload: X-1E flight 21. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Walker, Joseph. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: X-1E. Summary: NACA flight 20. Stability and control investigation with ventral fins..

1958 September 17 - .
  • X-1E Flight 22 - . Crew: Walker, Joseph. Payload: X-1E flight 22. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Walker, Joseph. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: X-1E. Summary: NACA flight 21. Stability and control with ventral fins and a new stabilizer bell crank permitting greater stabilizer travel..

1958 September 19 - .
  • X-1E Flight 23 - . Crew: McKay. Payload: X-1E flight 23. Nation: USA. Related Persons: McKay. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: X-1E. Summary: NACA flight 22. Checkout flight for John McKay..

1958 September 30 - .
  • X-1E Flight 24 - . Crew: McKay. Payload: X-1E flight 24. Nation: USA. Related Persons: McKay. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: X-1E. Summary: NACA flight 23. Check of low-speed stability and control..

1958 October 1 - .
  • NASA created - . Nation: USA. Program: Mercury. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space station. NASA was activated in accordance with the terms of Public Law 85-568, and the nonmilitary space projects which had been conducted by the Advanced Research Projects Agency were transferred to the jurisdiction of the NASA. Concurrently, NACA, after a 43-year tenure, was inactivated, and its facilities and personnel became a part of NASA.

1958 October 7 - .
  • Project Mercury organized. - . Nation: USA. Program: Mercury. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: Mercury. NASA formally organized Project Mercury to: (1) place manned space capsule in orbital flight around the earth; (2) investigate man's reactions to and capabilities in this environment; and (3) recover capsule and pilot safely. A NASA Space Task Group organized at Langley Research Center drew up specifications for the Mercury capsule, based on studies by the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics during the preceding 12 months, and on discussions with the Air Force which had been conducting related studies.

1958 October 15 - . LV Family: X-15. Launch Vehicle: X-15A.
  • X-15 rollout. - . Nation: USA. Program: X-15. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: X-15A. Summary: First of a series of three X-15 experimental rocket-powered manned research aircraft was rolled out at the Los Angeles plant of North American Aviation, Inc., in the joint USAF-USN-NASA program..

1958 October 16 - .
  • X-1E Flight 25 - . Crew: McKay. Payload: X-1E flight 25. Nation: USA. Related Persons: McKay. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: X-1E. Summary: NACA flight 24. First flight with elevated chamber pressure; cut short because overcast obscured pilot's view of lakebed..

1958 October 28 - .
  • X-1E Flight 26 - . Crew: McKay. Payload: X-1E flight 26. Nation: USA. Related Persons: McKay. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: X-1E. Summary: NACA flight 25. Elevated chamber pressure; good stability and control data gathered..

1958 November 6 - .
  • X-1E Flight 27 - . Crew: McKay. Payload: X-1E flight 27. Nation: USA. Related Persons: McKay. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: X-1E. Summary: NACA flight 26. Elevated chamber pressure; low-altitude and low-mach investigation of U-Deta fuel. Last NASA flight..

1958 November 26 - .
  • Project Mercury named. - . Nation: USA. Program: Mercury. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: Mercury. Summary: Project Mercury, U.S. manned-satellite program, was officially named by NASA..

1958 December 15 - . LV Family: Saturn I. Launch Vehicle: Saturn I.
  • ABMA Briefing to NASA - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: von Braun. Program: Apollo. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space station. Summary: Von Braun briefs NASA on plans for booster development at Huntsville with objective of manned lunar landing. Initally proposed using 15 Juno V (Saturn I) boosters to assemble 200,000 kg payload in earth orbit for direct landing on moon..

1959 January 12 - .
  • McDonnell awarded contract for Mercury project - . Nation: USA. Program: Mercury. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: Mercury. Summary: 12 capsules to be built. Other leading contender was Grumman. Original schedule was for manned flights from January - August 1960..

1959 February 15 - . LV Family: Atlas; Nova; Saturn I.
  • NASA Booster Development Plan for 60's - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space station. Summary: NASA issues plan for development in next decade of Vega (later cancelled as too similar to Agena), Centaur, Saturn, and Nova launch vehicles. Juno V renamed Saturn I..

1959 March 1 - .
  • OKB-1 preliminary work on circumlunar spacecraft - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Feoktistov. Program: Lunar L1. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space station. Spacecraft: Sever. The first design sketched out was known as Sever (North). The reentry capsule had the same configuration as the ultimate Soyuz design but was 50% larger. By summer 1959 Feoktistov had reduced the size to that of the later Soyuz, while retaining the three-man crew size.

1959 April 2 - .
  • Seven astronauts selected for Mercury project. - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Cooper; Grissom; Slayton; Carpenter; Shepard; Schirra; Glenn. Program: Mercury. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: Mercury. Seven astronauts were selected for Project Mercury after a series of the most rigorous physical and mental tests ever given to U.S. test pilots. Chosen from a field of 110 candidates, the finalists were all qualified test pilots: Capts. Leroy G. Cooper, Jr., Virgil I. Grissom, and Donald K. Slayton, (USAF); Lt. Malcolm S. Carpenter, Lt. Comdr. Alan B. Shepard, Jr., and Lt. Comdr. Watler M. Schirra, Jr. (USN); and Lt. Col. John H. Glenn (USMC).

1959 April 27 - .
  • Mercury search and rescue procedures developed. - . Nation: USA. Program: Mercury. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: Mercury. Summary: Meeting of DOD working group on Project Mercury search and recovery operations was held at Patrick Air Force Base, with major emphasis placed on the first two ballistic Atlas shots, and command relationships..

1959 November 9 - . LV Family: Titan. Launch Vehicle: Titan 1.
  • Contractor selection for Dynasoar and Titan I announced. - . Nation: USA. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Dynasoar. Boeing and Martin selected by USAF to develop Dynasoar and Titan I launch vehicle. The compromise project reformulation a week earlier led to this announcement by the Secretary of the Air Force. Boeing was the winner of the DynaSoar design competition on 9 November 1959 - but for the glider and total system only. Martin was selected as an associate contractor for booster development. Dynasoar received the designation WS-620A on 17 November 1959

1959 December 4 - . Launch Site: Wallops Island.
  • Mercury Little Joe 2 (LJ-2) - . Nation: USA. Program: Mercury. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: Mercury. LJ-2 was launched from Wallops Island to determine the motions of the spacecraft escape tower combination during a high-altitude abort, entry dynamics without a control system, physiological effects of acceleration on a small primate, operation of the drogue parachute, and effectiveness of the recovery operation. Telemetry was set up to record some 80 bits of information on the flight. The abort sequence was initiated by timers after 59 seconds of elapsed flight time at an altitude of about 96,000 feet and a speed of Mach 5.5. Escape motor firing occurred as planned and the spacecraft was whisked away at a speed of about Mach 6 to an apogee of 53.03 statute miles. All other sequences operated as planned, and spacecraft recovery was effected in about 2 hours from lift-off. The primate passenger, 'Sam,' an American-born rhesus monkey, withstood the trip and the recovery in good condition. All objectives of the mission were met.

1959 December 9 - . LV Family: Nova. Launch Vehicle: Saturn C-2.
  • Goett Committee - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space station. Summary: Committee formed to recommend post-Mercury space program. After four meetings, and studying earth-orbit assembly using Saturn II or direct ascent using Nova, tended to back development of Nova..

1960 February 15 - . LV Family: Saturn V. Launch Vehicle: Saturn V.
  • Lunar Program Based on Saturn Systems - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: von Braun. Program: Apollo. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space station. Spacecraft: Apollo Lunar Landing. Summary: Study issued by Huntsville of lunar landing alternatives using Saturn systems. Huntsville transferred from Army to NASA. Vought study on modular approach to lunar landing. Internally NASA decides on lunar landing as next objective after Mercury..

1960 March 1 - .
  • 20 Cosmonaut candidates report for Vostok training - . Nation: USSR. Program: Vostok. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: Vostok.

1960 April 12 - .
  • First production Mercury capsule delivered. - . Nation: USA. Program: Mercury. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: Mercury. Summary: First production model of McDonnell-built Mercury capsule was delivered to NASA..

1960 April 25 - .
  • USAF authorizes FSD of Dynasoar - . Nation: USA. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Dynasoar.

1960 April 27 - .
  • Dynasoar passes first design review. - . Nation: USA. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Dynasoar. Summary: Completion of technical review of Dyna-Soar program announced by the Air Force..

1960 May 9 - . Launch Site: Wallops Island.
  • Beach Abort 1 - . Nation: USA. Program: Mercury. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: Mercury. First production model of Project Mercury spacecraft was successfully launched from NASA Wallops Station to test escape, landing, and recovery systems. Known as the "beach abort" shot, the Mercury capsule reached 775 m before parachute landing and pickup by Marine helicopter returned it to Wallops' hangar 17 minutes after launch.

1960 May 15 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8K72. LV Configuration: Vostok 8K72 L1-11.
  • Korabl-Sputnik 1 - . Payload: Vostok 1KP. Mass: 2,500 kg (5,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Program: Vostok. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: Vostok. Duration: 1,979.00 days. Decay Date: 1962-09-05 . USAF Sat Cat: 34 . COSPAR: 1960-Epsilon-1. Apogee: 514 km (319 mi). Perigee: 284 km (176 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 92.50 min. The Soviet Union launched a Vostok 1KP prototype manned spacecraft (without heat shield; not recoverable) into near-earth orbit. Called Sputnik IV by the Western press. On May 19, at 15:52 Moscow time, the spacecraft was commanded to retrofire. However the guidance system had oriented the spacecraft incorrectly and the TDU engine instead put the spacecraft into a higher orbit. Soviet scientists said that conditions in the cabin, which had separated from the remainder of the spacecraft, were normal.
    Officially: Development and checking of the main systems of the space ship satellite, which ensure its safe flight and control in flight, return to Earth and conditions needed for a man in flight.

1960 July 28 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8K72. LV Configuration: Vostok 8K72 L1-10. FAILURE: At ignition one of the combustion chambers in strap on Block B or G burned through. The strap on separated from the core at 17 seconds into the flight and the launch vehicle exploded at 28.5 seconds.. Failed Stage: 0.
  • Korabl-Sputnik - . Payload: Vostok 1K s/n 1. Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Program: Vostok. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: Vostok. Decay Date: 1960-07-23 . COSPAR: F600728A. Summary: First attempted flight of the Vostok 1K manned spacecraft prototype. Dogs Chaika and Lisichka perished in the explosion of the rocket..

1960 August 19 - . 08:44 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8K72. LV Configuration: Vostok 8K72 L1-12.
  • Korabl-Sputnik 2 - . Payload: Vostok 1K s/n 2. Mass: 1,440 kg (3,170 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Program: Vostok. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: Vostok. Duration: 1.09 days. Decay Date: 1960-08-20 . USAF Sat Cat: 55 . COSPAR: 1960-Lambda-1. Apogee: 340 km (210 mi). Perigee: 281 km (174 mi). Inclination: 64.6000 deg. Period: 90.70 min. The Soviet Union launched its second unmanned test of the Vostok spacecraft, the Korabl Sputnik II, or Sputnik V. The spacecraft carried two dogs, Strelka and Belka, in addition to a gray rabbit, rats, mice, flies, plants, fungi, microscopic water plants, and seeds. Electrodes attached to the dogs and linked with the spacecraft communications system, which included a television camera, enabled Soviet scientists to check the animals' hearts, blood pressure, breathing, and actions during the trip. After the spacecraft reentered and landed safely the next day, the animals and biological specimens were reported to be in good condition.
    Officially: Development of systems ensuring man's life functions and safety in flight and his return to Earth.

1960 October 1 - .
  • Ongoing winged manned spacecraft project cancelled - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Myasishchev; Tsybin. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: VKA-23 Design 1. Summary: In reduction of military-industrical complex, Myasishchev and Tsybin design bureaus are closed and work stopped on the three prototype winged manned spacecraft already built..

1960 November 1 - .
  • Chelomei R winged manned spacecraft project starts - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Chelomei; Myasishchev; Tsybin. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Raketoplan; SAINT; SAINT II. Immediately after cancellation of similar projects at Myasishchev and Tsybin bureaus, Chelomei's new bureau is assigned to build equivalent of US Dynasoar / Saint II. Winged manned spacecraft for interception, inspection, and destruction of US satellites up to 290 km altitude. Two man crew, 24 hour mission duration, large aft drag brakes.

1960 December 1 - . 07:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8K72. LV Configuration: Vostok 8K72 L1-13.
  • Korabl-Sputnik 3 - . Payload: Vostok 1K s/n 3. Mass: 4,563 kg (10,059 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Program: Vostok. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: Vostok. Duration: 0.99 days. Decay Date: 1960-12-02 . USAF Sat Cat: 65 . COSPAR: 1960-Rho-1. Apogee: 269 km (167 mi). Perigee: 123 km (76 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 88.40 min. The Soviet Union launched its third spaceship satellite, Korabl Sputnik III, or Sputnik VI. The spacecraft, similar to those launched on May 15 and August 19, carried the dogs Pcheka and Mushka in addition to other animals, insects, and plants. Deorbited December 2, 1960 7:15 GMT. Burned up on reentry due to steep entry angle (retrofire engine did not shut off on schedule and burned to fuel depletion).
    Officially: Medical and biological research under space flight conditions.
    Officially: Medical and biological research under space flight conditions.

1960 December 22 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8K72K. LV Configuration: Vostok 8K72K L1-13A. FAILURE: The third stage engine RO-7 failed just after ignition, 425 seconds in to flight.. Failed Stage: 3.
  • Korabl-Sputnik - . Payload: Vostok 1K s/n 4. Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Program: Vostok. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: Vostok. Decay Date: 1960-12-20 . COSPAR: F601222A. Unable to reach orbital velocity, the Vostok prototype separated while the third stage was still firing. While the ejection seat failed to operate, the capsule did make a hard landing in severe winter conditons in Siberia. It was recovered after some time, and the dogs Kometa and Shutka were alive. As a result of this flight the ejection seat was developed with a heat shield designed to protect the pilot in the event of a launch vehicle failure up to shut down of the first stage. Additional Details: here....

1960 December 26 - . LV Family: Titan. Launch Vehicle: Titan 3C.
  • First segmented solid motor test. - . Nation: USA. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Dynasoar. Summary: Successful firing of a solid-propellant rocket motor using "building block" method was announced by NASA..

1961 January 13 - . LV Family: Titan. Launch Vehicle: Titan 2.
  • USAF changes Dynasoar launch vehicle to Titan II - . Nation: USA. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Dynasoar.

1961 February 13 - . LV Family: Titan. Launch Vehicle: Titan 2.
  • Beginning of Gemini - . Nation: USA. Program: Gemini. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: Gemini. Summary: First formal NASA/McDonnell discussions on Mercury Mark II (Gemini)..

1961 March 9 - . 06:29 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8K72K. LV Configuration: Vostok 8K72K E103-14.
  • Korabl-Sputnik 4 - . Payload: Vostok 3KA s/n 1. Mass: 4,700 kg (10,300 lb). Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Mozzhorin; Yazdovskiy. Agency: RVSN. Program: Vostok. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Vostok 1. Spacecraft: Vostok. Duration: 0.0700 days. Decay Date: 1961-03-09 . USAF Sat Cat: 91 . COSPAR: 1961-Theta-1. Apogee: 239 km (148 mi). Perigee: 173 km (107 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 88.60 min. Carried dog Chernushka, mannequin Ivan Ivanovich, and other biological specimens. Ivanovich was ejected from the capsule and recovered by parachute, and Chernsuhka was successfully recovered with the capsule on March 9, 1961 8:10 GMT.
    Officially: Development of the design of the space ship satellite and of the systems on board, which ensure necessary conditions for man's flight. Additional Details: here....

1961 March 25 - . 05:54 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8K72K. LV Configuration: Vostok 8K72K E103-15.
  • Korabl-Sputnik 5 - . Payload: Vostok 3KA s/n 2. Mass: 4,695 kg (10,350 lb). Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Keldysh; Goreglyad; Karpov; Kamanin; Yazdovskiy; Gagarin; Nelyubov; Popovich; Titov; Bykovsky; Nikolayev; Korolev; Kirillov; Voskresenskiy. Agency: RVSN. Program: Vostok. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Vostok 1. Spacecraft: Vostok. Duration: 0.0600 days. Decay Date: 1961-03-25 . USAF Sat Cat: 95 . COSPAR: 1961-Iota-1. Apogee: 175 km (108 mi). Perigee: 175 km (108 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 88.00 min. Carried dog Zvezdochka and mannequin Ivan Ivanovich. Ivanovich was again ejected from the capsule and recovered by parachute, and Zvezdochka was successfully recovered with the capsule on March 25, 1961 7:40 GMT.
    Officially: Development of the design of the space ship satellite and of the systems on board, designed to ensure man's life functions during flight in outer space and return to Earth. Additional Details: here....

1961 March 28 - .
  • USAF/NASA Dynasoar review. - . Nation: USA. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Dynasoar. Summary: USAF Dyna-Soar System Project Office personnel visited NASA headquarters for review of technical and management programs..

1961 April 12 - . 06:07 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8K72K. LV Configuration: Vostok 8K72K E103-16.
  • Vostok 1 - . Call Sign: Kedr (Cedar ). Crew: Gagarin. Backup Crew: Titov; Nelyubov. Payload: Vostok 3KA s/n 3. Mass: 4,725 kg (10,416 lb). Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Korolev; Keldysh; Rudnev; Karpov; Moskalenko; Gagarin; Titov; Nelyubov. Agency: RVSN. Program: Vostok. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Vostok 1. Spacecraft: Vostok. Duration: 0.0750 days. Decay Date: 1961-04-12 . USAF Sat Cat: 103 . COSPAR: 1961-Mu-1. Apogee: 315 km (195 mi). Perigee: 169 km (105 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 89.30 min. First manned spaceflight, one orbit of the earth. Three press releases were prepared, one for success, two for failures. It was only known ten minutes after burnout, 25 minutes after launch, if a stable orbit had been achieved.

    The payload included life-support equipment and radio and television to relay information on the condition of the pilot. The flight was automated; Gagarin's controls were locked to prevent him from taking control of the ship. The combination to unlock the controls was available in a sealed envelope in case it became necessary to take control in an emergency. After retrofire, the service module remained attached to the Sharik reentry sphere by a wire bundle. The joined craft went through wild gyrations at the beginning of re-entry, before the wires burned through. The Sharik, as it was designed to do, then naturally reached aerodynamic equilibrium with the heat shield positioned correctly.

    Gagarin ejected after re-entry and descended under his own parachute, as was planned. However for many years the Soviet Union denied this, because the flight would not have been recognized for various FAI world records unless the pilot had accompanied his craft to a landing. Recovered April 12, 1961 8:05 GMT. Landed Southwest of Engels Smelovka, Saratov. Additional Details: here....


1961 April 25 - . 16:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC14. LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas D. LV Configuration: Atlas D 100D. FAILURE: Destroyed by range safety.. Failed Stage: G.
  • Mercury MA-3 - . Payload: Mercury SC8. Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: Mercury. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: Mercury. Decay Date: 1961-04-25 . COSPAR: F610425A. Mercury-Atlas 3 (MA-3) was launched from Cape Canaveral in an attempt to orbit the spacecraft with a 'mechanical astronaut' aboard. After lift-off, the launch vehicle failed to roll to a 70 degree heading and to pitch over into the proper trajectory. The abort-sensing system activated the escape rockets prior to the launch vehicle's destruction by the range safety officer after approximately 40 seconds of flight that had attained an altitude of 16,400 feet. The spacecraft then coasted up to 24,000 feet, deployed its parachutes, and landed in the Atlantic Ocean 2,000 yards north of the launch pad. The spacecraft was recovered and was found to have incurred only superficial damage; it was then shipped to McDonnell for refitting.

1961 April 28 - . LV Family: Saturn I. Launch Vehicle: Saturn I.
  • Dynasoar launch by Saturn I studied. - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: von Braun. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Dynasoar. Summary: Final NASA report on the study proposed for Saturn for use as Dyna-Soar booster was presented to the Air Force..

1961 May 5 - . 14:34 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC5. LV Family: Redstone. Launch Vehicle: Redstone MRLV. LV Configuration: Redstone MRLV-7.
  • Mercury MR-3 - . Call Sign: Freedom 7. Crew: Shepard. Backup Crew: Grissom. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Shepard; Grissom. Agency: NASA. Program: Mercury. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Mercury MR-3. Spacecraft: Mercury. Apogee: 187 km (116 mi). Alan Shepard first American in space, less than a month after Gagarin and only on a 15 minute suborbital flight. Only manned flight with original Mercury capsule design (tiny round porthole and periscope a la Vostok). If NASA had not listened to Von Braun, Shepard would have flown on the MR-BD flight of 24 March, beating Gagarin by three weeks and becoming the first man in space (though not in orbit). Shepard's capsule reached an altitude of 115.696 miles, range of 302 miles,and speed of 5,100 miles per hour. He demonstrated control of a vehicle during weightlessness and high G stresses. Recovery operations were perfect; there was no damage to the spacecraft; and Astronaut Shepard was in excellent condition.

1961 May 26 - .
  • Freedom 7 displayed at Paris Air Show. - . Nation: USA. Program: Mercury. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: Mercury. Summary: Freedom 7, Mercury spacecraft in which Alan B. Shepard, Jr., made his space flight on May 5, was a major drawing card at the Paris International Air Show. Details of the spacecraft and of Shepard's flight were related to about 650,000 visitors..

1961 June 1 - . LV Family: N1. Launch Vehicle: N1.
  • Moon program go-ahead in response to U.S. start - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Chelomei; Korolev; Yangel. Program: Lunar L1. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: Soyuz A; Soyuz B; Soyuz V; LK-1. Chelomei is informally asked by Khruschev to begin design of a booster and spacecraft for a manned circumlunar mission (UR-500 Proton and LK-1). There is no authorization for a lunar landing program, although Korolev, Yangel, and Chelomei all begin booster designs.

1961 June 13 - .
  • Freedom 7 exhibited in Rome. - . Nation: USA. Program: Mercury. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: Mercury. Summary: Freedom 7 Mercury capsule displayed to approximately 750,000 visitors at the Rassegna International Electronic and Nuclear Fair at Rome, Italy..

1961 June 19 - . LV Family: X-15. Launch Vehicle: X-15A.
  • X-15 awards. - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Crossfield; Walker; White, Robert. Program: X-15. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: X-15A. Summary: Harmon International Aviator's Trophy for 1961 announced as going to three winners for the first time-X-15 rocket research airplane pilots: A. Scott Crossfield, of North American; Joseph A. Walker, of NASA, and Maj. Robert A. White, U.S. Air Force..

1961 June 22 - . LV Family: Nova; Saturn C-3. Launch Vehicle: Saturn C-2.
  • First decision on Apollo launch vehicles - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Webb. Program: Apollo. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space station. Spacecraft: Apollo Lunar Landing. Meeting with Webb/Dryden, work on Saturn C-2 stopped; preliminary design of C-3 and continuing studies of larger vehicles for landing missions requested. STG push for 4 x 6.6 m diameter solid cluster first stage rejected for safety and ground handling reasons.

1961 July 19 - . LV Family: Redstone. Launch Vehicle: Redstone MRLV.
  • Mercury MR-4 launch scrubbed. - . Nation: USA. Program: Mercury. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Mercury MR-4. Spacecraft: Mercury. Summary: Mercury-Redstone (MR-4) with manned Liberty Bell 7 capsule canceled within minutes of launch because of adverse weather..

1961 July 21 - . 12:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC5. LV Family: Redstone. Launch Vehicle: Redstone MRLV. LV Configuration: Redstone MRLV-8.
  • Mercury MR-4 - . Call Sign: Liberty Bell 7. Crew: Grissom. Backup Crew: Glenn. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Grissom; Glenn. Agency: NASA. Program: Mercury. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Mercury MR-4. Spacecraft: Mercury. Apogee: 189 km (117 mi). The Mercury capsule, Liberty Bell 7, manned by Astronaut Virgil I. Grissom, boosted by a Redstone rocket, reached a peak altitude of 190.3 km and a speed of 8,335 km per hour. After a flight of 15 minutes and 37 seconds, the landing was made 487 km downrange from the launch site. The hatch blew while still in water, and the capsule sank; Grissom saved, though his suit was filling up with water through open oxygen inlet lines.

    This was the second and final manned suborbital Mercury Redstone flight, and the first flight with trapezoidal window. Further suborbital flights (each astronaut was to make one as a training exercise) were cancelled. An attempt to recover the capsule in very deep water in 1994 not successful. It was finally raised in the summer of 1999.


1961 August 1 - .
  • McDonnell proposal for Gemini - . Nation: USA. Program: Gemini. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: Gemini. Summary: Baseline 10 earth orbit flights; also proposed for docking with Centaur and circumlunar flights by March 1965. NASA not interested - threat to Apollo..

1961 August 5 - . LV Family: Titan. Launch Vehicle: Titan 3C.
  • Solid motor segment test. - . Nation: USA. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Dynasoar. Segmented solid-propellent rocket engine fired by United Technology Corp. at Sunnyvale, generating over 200,000 pounds of thrust in 80-second firing. Developed under NASA contract, center section of engine contained over 55,000 pounds of propellant, the largest single piece yet manufactured in the United States.

1961 August 6 - . 06:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8K72K. LV Configuration: Vostok 8K72K E103-17.
  • Vostok 2 - . Call Sign: Oryel (Eagle ). Crew: Titov. Backup Crew: Nikolayev; Nelyubov. Payload: Vostok 3KA s/n 4. Mass: 4,730 kg (10,420 lb). Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Titov; Nikolayev; Nelyubov. Agency: RVSN. Program: Vostok. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Vostok 2. Spacecraft: Vostok. Duration: 1.00 days. Decay Date: 1961-08-07 . USAF Sat Cat: 168 . COSPAR: 1961-Tau-1. Apogee: 221 km (137 mi). Perigee: 172 km (106 mi). Inclination: 64.8000 deg. Period: 88.40 min. Second manned orbital flight. The Soviet Union successfully launched Vostok II into orbit with Gherman S. Titov as pilot. The spacecraft carried life-support equipment, radio and television for monitoring the condition of the cosmonaut, tape recorder, telemetry system, biological experiments, and automatic and manual control equipment. Flight objectives: Investigation of the effects on the human organism of a prolonged flight in orbit and subsequent return to the surface of the Earth; investigation of man's ability to work during a prolonged period of weightlessness. Titov took manual control of spacecraft but suffered from space sickness. He was equipped with a professional quality Konvas movie camera, with which ten minutes of film of the earth were taken through the porthole. Both television and film images were taken of the interior of the spacecraft. Like Gagarin, Titov experienced problems with separation of the service module after retrofire. Titov was never to fly again, after being assigned to the Spiral spaceplane, which turned out to be a dead-end project. A biography of him by Martin Caidin ('I Am Eagle') made him somewhat more accessible than Gagarin to the West.

1961 August 18 - . LV Family: Redstone. Launch Vehicle: Redstone MRLV.
  • Further Mercury suborbital flights cancelled. - . Nation: USA. Program: Mercury. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Mercury MR-5. Spacecraft: Mercury. Summary: NASA announced that analysis of Project Mercury suborbital data indicated that all objectives of that phase of the program had been achieved, and that no further Mercury-Redstone flights were planned..

1961 August 31 - . LV Family: Saturn C-3. Launch Vehicle: Saturn C-3.
  • Chamberlain proposes lunar landing by Gemini - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: Gemini. Summary: Landing by Gemini using 4,000 kg wet/680 kg empty lander and Saturn C-3 booster. Landing by January 1966..

1961 September 7 - . LV Family: Saturn C-3; Saturn V.
  • Selection of Saturn first stage assembly plant - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space station. NASA announced that the government-owned Michoud Ordnance Plant near New Orleans, La., would be the site for fabrication and assembly of the Saturn C-3 first stage as well as larger vehicles. Finalists were two government-owned plants in St. Louis and New Orleans. The height of the factory roof at Michoud meant that an 8 x F-1 engined vehicle could not be built; 4 or 5 engines would have to be the maximum.

1961 September 13 - . 14:04 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC14. LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas D. LV Configuration: Atlas D 88D.
  • Mercury MA-4 - . Payload: Mercury SC8A. Mass: 1,200 kg (2,600 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: Mercury. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: Mercury. Decay Date: 1961-09-13 . USAF Sat Cat: 183 . COSPAR: 1961-A-Alpha-1. Apogee: 248 km (154 mi). Perigee: 156 km (96 mi). Inclination: 32.8000 deg. Period: 88.40 min. Mercury-Atlas 4 (MA-4) was launched from Cape Canaveral with special vibration and noise instrumentation and a mechanical crewman simulator aboard in addition to the normal spacecraft equipment. This was the first Mercury spacecraft to attain an earth orbit. The orbital apogee was 123 nautical miles and the perigee was 86 nautical miles. After one orbit, the spacecraft's orbital timing device triggered the retrograde rockets, and the spacecraft splashed in the Atlantic Ocean 161 miles east of Bermuda. Recovery was made by the USS Decatur. During the flight, only three slight deviations were noted - a small leak in the oxygen system; loss of voice contact over Australia; and the failure of an inverter in the environmental control system. Overall, the flight was highly successful: the Atlas booster performed well and demonstrated that it was ready for the manned flight, the spacecraft systems operated well, and the Mercury global tracking network and telemetry operated in an excellent manner and was ready to support manned orbital flight.

1961 September 29 - .
  • Dynasoar contracts issued. - . Nation: USA. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Dynasoar. USAF awarded three contracts for speeding development of the Dyna-Soar, a manned orbital space glider. Receiving contracts were Boeing Co. for development of the glider and related systems, Radio Corp. of America for communications and tracking devices, and Minneapolis-Honeywell Regulator Co. for the guidance system.

1961 October 23 - .
  • Freedom 7 deposited in Smithsonian. - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Webb. Program: Mercury. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: Mercury. The Freedom 7 Mercury capsule in which Alan B. Shepard, Jr., made the first suborbital space flight, was presented to the National Air Museum of the Smithsonian Institution. In his presentation, NASA Administrator Webb said: "To Americans seeking answers, proof that man can survive in the hostile realm of space is not enough. A solid and meaningful foundation for public support and the basis for our Apollo man-in-space effort is that U.S. astronauts are going into space to do useful work in the cause of all their fellow men."

1961 October 27 - .
  • Dynasoar accelerated. - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: McNamara. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Dynasoar. Secretary of Defense McNamara announced that progress of the Administration's accelerated defense buildup made unnecessary the use of additional defense funds appropriate by the Congress above the amount requested by the administration. The Congress had voted $514.5 million for additional long-range bombers; $180 million additional for the B-70; and $85.8 million additional for Dyna-Soar.

1961 November 12 - . LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas D.
  • Mercury 5 launch postponed - . Nation: USA. Program: Mercury. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: Mercury. Summary: Mercury-Atlas 5, scheduled for launch no earlier than November 14, ran into technical difficulties, postponing launch for several days..

1961 November 16 - . LV Family: Saturn V. Launch Vehicle: Saturn V.
  • Second decision on launch vehicles - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: von Braun; McNamara; Webb. Program: Apollo. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space station. Golovin Committe studies launch vehicles through summer, but found the issue to be completely entertwined with mode (earth-orbit, lunar-orbit, lunar-surface rendezvous or direct flight. Two factions: large solids for direct flight; all-chemical with 4 or 5 F-1's in first stage for rendezvous options. In the end Webb and McNamara ordered development of C-4 and as a backup, in case of failure of F-1 in development, build of 6.1 m+ solid rocket motors by USAF.

1961 November 29 - . 15:07 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC14. LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas D. LV Configuration: Atlas D 93D.
  • Mercury MA-5 - . Payload: Mercury SC9. Mass: 1,300 kg (2,800 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: Mercury. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: Mercury. Decay Date: 1961-11-29 . USAF Sat Cat: 208 . COSPAR: 1961-A-Iota-1. Apogee: 237 km (147 mi). Perigee: 158 km (98 mi). Inclination: 32.6000 deg. Period: 88.30 min. Mercury-Atlas 5 (MA-5), the second and final orbital qualification of the spacecraft prior to manned flight was launched from Cape Canaveral with Enos, a 37.5 pound chimpanzee, aboard. Scheduled for three orbits, the spacecraft was returned to earth after two orbits due to the failure of a roll reaction jet and to the overheating of an inverter in the electrical system. Both of these difficulties could have been corrected had an astronaut been aboard. The spacecraft was recovered 255 miles southeast of Bermuda by the USS Stormes. During the flight, the chimpanzee performed psychomotor duties and upon recovery was found to be in excellent physical condition. The flight was termed highly successful and the Mercury spacecraft well qualified to support manned orbital flight.

1961 December 7 - .
  • Mercury manned orbital flight postponed. - . Nation: USA. Program: Mercury. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: Mercury. NASA postponed its projected manned orbital flight from December 1961 until early in 1962 because of minor problems with the cooling system and positioning devices in the Mercury capsule, Dr. Hugh Dryden, Deputy Administrator of NASA, said in a Baltimore interview. "You like to have a man go with everything just as near perfect as possible. This business is risky. You can't avoid this, but you can take all the precautions you know about."

1961 December 9 - . LV Family: Titan. Launch Vehicle: Titan 3C.
  • First test of UTC 1205 rocket motors. - . Nation: USA. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Dynasoar. Summary: Solid-propellent rocket motor generating nearly 500,000 pounds of thrust was fired in a static test of 80-second duration by United Technology Corp. at Sunnyvale, Calif., under USAF contract..

1961 December 13 - .
  • Webb indicates Mercury flight plans. - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Webb. Program: Mercury. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: Mercury. NASA Administrator James E. Webb said in a speech in Cleveland that the United States would follow its first manned orbital flight in January 1962 with similar manned orbital flights every 60 days. These would gather data on effects of weightlessness, needed to determine the pacing of the two-man flight program later on. Mr. Webb also forecast the launching of 200 sounding rockets, 20 scientific satellites, and 2 deep-space probes in 1962.

1961 December 15 - .
  • McDonnell given letter contract for Gemini - . Nation: USA. Program: Gemini. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: Gemini. Summary: McDonnell given letter contract for development of Gemini..

1961 December 26 - . LV Family: Titan. Launch Vehicle: Titan 2.
  • Dynasoar suborbital tests deleted from program. - . Nation: USA. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Dynasoar. Development time schedule for Dyna-Soar was reduced when DOD authorized the USAF to move directly from B-52 drop tests to unmanned and then manned orbital flights. This eliminated the previous interim stage of suborbital flights to be powered by the Titan II. This required renegotiation of the development contract held by the Martin Co. and negotiating of a new contract for a larger booster.

1961 December 28 - . LV Family: Titan. Launch Vehicle: Titan 3C.
  • USAF announces Titan III for Dynasoar - . Nation: USA. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Dynasoar. Summary: With continued weight growth USAF announces Titan III to be developed for Dynasoar orbital missions..

1961 December 28 - . LV Family: Titan. Launch Vehicle: Titan 2.
  • Titan 2 first ground test. - . Nation: USA. Program: Gemini. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: Gemini. Titan II, an advanced ICBM and the booster designated for NASA's two-man orbital flights, was successfully captive-fired for the first time at the Martin Co.'s Denver facilities. The test not only tested the flight vehicle but the checkout and launch equipment intended for operational use.

1962 During the Year - . LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511.
  • Vostok-Zh studies - . Nation: USSR. Program: Lunar L1. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: Vostok-Zh. Vostok-Zh studies conducted for multiple dockings of rocket blocks and payloads in orbit for circumlunar missions, using Vostok rocket. Vostok-Zh spacecraft used to for manual dockings only. Manned reentry vehicle from circumlunar distance is Sever/Soyuz design. Korolev's reaction to Chelomei's exclusive assignment by Khrushchev to circumlunar mission.

1962 February 20 - . 14:47 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC14. LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas D. LV Configuration: Atlas D 109D.
  • Mercury MA-6 - . Call Sign: Friendship 7. Crew: Glenn. Backup Crew: Carpenter. Payload: Mercury SC13. Mass: 1,355 kg (2,987 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Glenn; Carpenter. Agency: NASA. Program: Mercury. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Mercury MA-6. Spacecraft: Mercury. Duration: 0.21 days. Decay Date: 1962-02-20 . USAF Sat Cat: 240 . COSPAR: 1962-Gamma-1. Apogee: 265 km (164 mi). Perigee: 159 km (98 mi). Inclination: 32.5000 deg. Period: 88.60 min. First US manned orbital mission. John Glenn finally puts America in orbit. False landing bag deploy light led to reentry being started with retropack left in place on heat shield. It turned out that indicator light was false and a spectacular reentry ensued, with glowing chunks of the retropack whizzing by the window. After four hours and 43 minutes the spacecraft reentered the atmosphere and landed at 2:43 pm EST in the planned recovery area NE of the Island of Puerto Rico. All flight objectives were achieved. Glenn was reported to be in excellent condition. Beause of failure of one of the automatic systems, the astronaut took over manual control of the spacecraft during part of the flight. With this flight, the basic objectives of Project Mercury had been achieved.

1962 April 12 - . LV Family: N1. Launch Vehicle: N1.
  • First Soviet announcement of manned lunar goals - . Nation: USSR. Program: Lunar L1. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: Soyuz A; Soyuz B; Soyuz V. Summary: First Soviet public announcement of manned lunar goals..

1962 May 24 - . 12:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC14. LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas D. LV Configuration: Atlas D 107D.
  • Mercury MA-7 - . Call Sign: Aurora 7. Crew: Carpenter. Backup Crew: Schirra. Payload: Mercury SC18. Mass: 1,349 kg (2,974 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Carpenter; Schirra. Agency: NASA. Program: Mercury. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Mercury MA-7. Spacecraft: Mercury. Duration: 0.21 days. Decay Date: 1962-05-24 . USAF Sat Cat: 295 . COSPAR: 1962-Tau-1. Apogee: 260 km (160 mi). Perigee: 154 km (95 mi). Inclination: 32.5000 deg. Period: 88.50 min. Scott Carpenter in Aurora 7 is enthralled by his environment but uses too much orientation fuel. Yaw error and late retrofire caused the landing impact point to be over 300 km beyond the intended area and beyond radio range of the recovery forces. Landing occurred 4 hours and 56 minutes after liftoff. Astronaut Carpenter was later picked up safely by a helicopter after a long wait in the ocean and fears for his safety. NASA was not impressed and Carpenter left the agency soon thereafter to become an aquanaut.

1962 July 11 - . LV Family: Nova; Saturn I; Saturn V.
  • Selection of LOR as Apollo Mission Mode - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space station. Spacecraft: Apollo Lunar Landing. Following a long controversy NASA selected Lunar Orbit Rendezvous (LOR) as the fastest, cheapest, and safest mode to accomplish the Apollo mission. LOR solved the engineering problem of how to land. The EOR or Direct Landing approaches required the Apollo crew to be on their backs during the landing and having to use television or mirrors to see the lunar surface. A lunar crasher stage approach had finally emerged as lesser of evils but raised other issues. LOR allowed a purpose-built lander with a logical helicopter-like crew station layout. Studies indicated LOR would allow landing 6-8 months earlier and cost $9.2 billion vs $ 10.6 billion for EOR or direct. Direct flight by this time would not involve Nova, but a scaled-down two-man spacecraft that could be launched by the Saturn C-5. Additional Details: here....

1962 August 11 - . 08:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8K72K.
  • Vostok 3 - . Call Sign: Sokol (Falcon ). Crew: Nikolayev. Backup Crew: Bykovsky; Volynov. Payload: Vostok 3KA s/n 5. Mass: 4,722 kg (10,410 lb). Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Nikolayev; Bykovsky; Popovich; Gagarin; Smirnov; Barmin; Kirillov; Khrushchev; Kozlov, Frol; Ustinov; Volynov. Agency: RVSN. Program: Vostok. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Vostok 3. Spacecraft: Vostok. Duration: 3.93 days. Decay Date: 1962-08-15 . USAF Sat Cat: 363 . COSPAR: 1962-A-Mu-1. Apogee: 218 km (135 mi). Perigee: 166 km (103 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 88.30 min. Joint flight with Vostok 4. The first such flight, where Vostok capsules were launched one day apart, coming within a few kilometers of each other at the orbital insertion of the second spacecraft. The flight was supposed to occur in March, but following various delays, one of the two Vostok pads was damaged in the explosion of the booster of the third Zenit-2 reconnsat in May. Repairs were not completed until August. Vostok 3 studied man's ability to function under conditions of weightlessness; conducted scientific observations; furthered improvement of space ship systems, communications, guidance and landing. Immediately at orbital insertion of Vostok 4, the spacecraft were less than 5 km apart. Popovich made radio contact with Cosmonaut Nikolayev. Nikolayev reported shortly thereafter that he had sighted Vostok 4. Since the Vostok had no maneuvering capability, they could not rendezvous or dock, and quickly drifted apart. The launches did allow Korolev to offer something new and different, and gave the launch and ground control crews practice in launching and handling more than one manned spacecraft at a time. The cosmonaut took colour motion pictures of the earth and the cabin interior. Additional Details: here....

1962 August 12 - . 08:02 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8K72K.
  • Vostok 4 - . Call Sign: Berkut (Golden Eagle ). Crew: Popovich. Backup Crew: Komarov; Volynov. Payload: Vostok 3KA s/n 6. Mass: 4,728 kg (10,423 lb). Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Nikolayev; Popovich; Komarov; Volynov. Agency: RVSN. Program: Vostok. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Vostok 4. Spacecraft: Vostok. Duration: 2.96 days. Decay Date: 1962-08-15 . USAF Sat Cat: 365 . COSPAR: 1962-A-Nu-1. Apogee: 211 km (131 mi). Perigee: 159 km (98 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 88.20 min. Joint flight with Vostok 3. Acquisition of experimental data on the possibility of establishing a direct link between two space ships; coordination of astronauts' operations; study of the effects of identical spaceflight conditions on the human organism. The launch of Popovich proceeds exactly on schedule, the spacecraft launching with 0.5 seconds of the planned time, entering orbit just a few kilometers away from Nikolayev in Vostok 3. Popovich had problems with his life support system, resulting in the cabin temperature dropping to 10 degrees Centigrade and the humidity to 35%. The cosmonaut still managed to conduct experiments, including taking colour motion pictures of the terminator between night and day and the cabin interior.

    Despite the conditions, Popovich felt able to go for the full four days scheduled. But before the mission, Popovich had been briefed to tell ground control that he was 'observing thunderstorms' if he felt the motion sickness that had plagued Titov and needed to return on the next opportunity. Unfortunately he actually did report seeing thunderstorms over the Gulf of Mexico, and ground control took this as a request for an early return. He was ordered down a day early, landing within a few mintutes of Nikolayev. Only on the ground was it discovered that he was willing to go the full duration, and that ground control had thought he had given the code.


1962 September 19 - .
  • USAF announces six pilots selected for Dynasoar - . Nation: USA. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Dynasoar.

1962 October 3 - . 12:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC14. LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas D. LV Configuration: Atlas D 113D.
  • Mercury MA-8 - . Call Sign: Sigma 7. Crew: Schirra. Backup Crew: Cooper. Payload: Mercury SC16. Mass: 1,374 kg (3,029 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Schirra; Cooper. Agency: NASA. Program: Mercury. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Mercury MA-8. Spacecraft: Mercury. Duration: 0.38 days. Decay Date: 1962-10-03 . USAF Sat Cat: 433 . COSPAR: 1962-B-Delta-1. Apogee: 285 km (177 mi). Perigee: 153 km (95 mi). Inclination: 32.5000 deg. Period: 88.80 min. The Sigma 7 spacecraft with Astronaut Walter M. Schirra, Jr., as pilot was launched into orbit by a Mercury-Atlas vehicle from Atlantic Missile Range. In the most successful American manned space flight to date, Schirra traveled nearly six orbits, returning to earth at a predetermined point in the Pacific Ocean 9 hours, 13 minutes after liftoff. Within 40 minutes after landing, he and his spacecraft were safely aboard the aircraft carrier U.S.S. Kearsarge. Schirra attempted and achieved a nearly perfect mission by sticking rigorously to mission plan.

1962 November 1 - . LV Family: N1. Launch Vehicle: N1.
  • Chelomei takes over Lavochkin and Myasishchev OKBs - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Chelomei; Khrushchev; Lavochkin; Myasishchev. Program: Lunar L1. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-L1. Summary: At Khrushchev's decision Chelomei takes over Lavochkin's OKB-301 and Myasishchev's OKB-23. Lavochkin had built objects 205, 207, 400 (SA-1,2,5); Chelomei UR-96 ABM-1..

1963 February 1 - . LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511.
  • Soyuz 'leaves drafting boards' - . Nation: USSR. Program: Lunar L1. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: Soyuz A. Summary: Soyuz 'leaves drafting boards'..

1963 March 7 - . LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511.
  • Korolev approves draft plan for 'Soyuz Complex' - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Chelomei; Korolev. Program: Lunar L1. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: Soyuz A; Soyuz 7K-OK; Soyuz B; Soyuz V. Final design approval for Soyuz A spacecraft for earth orbit and circumlunar flight using orbital rendezvous, docking, and refuelling technques. Except for change of orbital module from cylindrical to spherical design, and changes to rendezvous radar tower arrangement, this design was essentially identical to the Soyuz 7K-OK that flew three years later. Additional Details: here....

1963 May 15 - . 13:04 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC14. LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas D. LV Configuration: Atlas D 130D.
  • Mercury MA-9 - . Call Sign: Faith 7. Crew: Cooper. Backup Crew: Shepard. Payload: Mercury SC20. Mass: 1,376 kg (3,033 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Cooper; Shepard. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: Mercury. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Mercury MA-9. Spacecraft: Mercury. Duration: 1.43 days. Decay Date: 1963-05-16 . USAF Sat Cat: 576 . COSPAR: 1963-015A. Apogee: 265 km (164 mi). Perigee: 163 km (101 mi). Inclination: 32.5000 deg. Period: 88.70 min. Summary: Final Mercury mission, Faith 7, was piloted by Astronaut L. Gordon Cooper, Jr..

1963 June 14 - . 11:58 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8K72K.
  • Vostok 5 - . Call Sign: Yastreb (Hawk ). Crew: Bykovsky. Backup Crew: Volynov; Leonov. Payload: Vostok 3KA s/n 7. Mass: 4,720 kg (10,400 lb). Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Bykovsky; Volynov; Leonov. Agency: Korolev. Program: Vostok. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Vostok 5. Spacecraft: Vostok. Duration: 4.96 days. Decay Date: 1963-06-19 . USAF Sat Cat: 591 . COSPAR: 1963-020A. Apogee: 131 km (81 mi). Perigee: 130 km (80 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 87.10 min. Joint flight with Vostok 6. The Soviet Union launched Vostok 5, piloted by Lt. Col. Valery F. Bykovsky. Two days later Lt. Valentina V. Tereshkova, the first spacewoman, followed in Vostok 6. On its first orbit, Vostok 6 came within about five km of Vostok 5, the closest distance achieved during the flight, and established radio contact. Both cosmonauts landed safely on June 19. The space spectacular featured television coverage of Bykovsky that was viewed in the West as well as in Russia. Unlike earlier missions, only a black and white film camera was carried. Photometric measurements of the earth's horizon were made.

    Mission objectives were officially: further study of the effect of various space-flight factors in the human organism; extensive medico-biological experiments under conditions of prolonged flight; further elaboration and improvement of spaceship systems.

    Vostok 5 was originally planned to go for a record eight days. The launch was delayed repeatedly due to high solar activity and technical problems. Finally the spacecraft ended up in a lower than planned orbit. Combined with increased atmospheric activity due to solar levels, Vostok 5 quickly decayed temperatures in the service module reached very high levels.

    Bykovsky also experienced an unspecified problem with his waste management system (a spill?) which made conditions in the cabin 'very uncomfortable'. He was finally ordered to return after only five days in space.

    To top it all off, once again the Vostok service module failed to separate cleanly from the reentry sphere. Wild gyrations ensued until the heat of reentry burned through the non-separating retraining strap.


1963 June 16 - . 09:29 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8K72K.
  • Vostok 6 - . Call Sign: Chayka (Seagull ). Crew: Tereshkova. Backup Crew: Solovyova; Ponomaryova. Payload: Vostok 3KA s/n 8. Mass: 4,713 kg (10,390 lb). Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Korolev; Tereshkova; Solovyova; Ponomaryova. Agency: Korolev. Program: Vostok. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Vostok 6. Spacecraft: Vostok. Duration: 2.95 days. Decay Date: 1963-06-19 . USAF Sat Cat: 595 . COSPAR: 1963-023A. Apogee: 166 km (103 mi). Perigee: 165 km (102 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 87.80 min. Joint flight with Vostok 5. First woman in space, and the only Russian woman to go into space until Svetlana Savitskaya 19 years later. On its first orbit, Vostok 6 came within about five km of Vostok 5, the closest distance achieved during the flight, and established radio contact. Flight objectives included: Comparative analysis of the effect of various space-flight factors on the male and female organisms; medico-biological research; further elaboration and improvement of spaceship systems under conditions of joint flight. It was Korolev's idea just after Gagarin's flight to put a woman into space as yet another novelty. Khrushchev made the final crew selection. Korolev was unhappy with Tereshkova's performance in orbit and she was not permitted to take manual control of the spacecraft as had been planned.

1963 October 4 - . LV Family: N1. Launch Vehicle: N1.
  • Gagarin identified as head of lunar cosmonauts - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Gagarin; Tereshkova. Program: Lunar L1. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Summary: Tereshkova announces in Havana that Gagarin head of lunar cosmonaut team..

1964 Duing the year - . LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz.
  • Development of Soyuz-R and Soyuz-P begun. - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Kozlov. Program: Almaz. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: Soyuz R; Soyuz P; Soyuz PPK; Soyuz 7K-TK. KB Kozlov began active development of the military applied versions of the Soyuz. A new version of the R-7 launch vehicle, the 11A514, was put into development to support launch of the Soyuz-P, now designated the 7K-PPK (pilotiruemovo korablya-perekhvatchika, manned interceptor spacecraft). The Soyuz-R would include the small orbital station 11F71 with photo-reconnaissance and ELINT equipment. To dock with the 11F71 station Kuibishev developed the transport spacecraft 11F72 7K-TK. This version of the Soyuz was equipped with rendezvous, docking, and transition equipment, including an airlock, that allowed the two cosmonauts to enter the station without using EVA. The launch vehicle for the 7K-TK would be the 11A511, known today as the Soyuz.

1964 April 8 - . 16:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC19. LV Family: Titan. Launch Vehicle: Titan II GLV. LV Configuration: Titan II GLV GT-1 / 62-12556.
  • Gemini 1 - . Payload: Gemini SC1. Mass: 3,187 kg (7,026 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: Gemini. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: Gemini. Decay Date: 1964-04-12 . USAF Sat Cat: 782 . COSPAR: 1964-018A. Apogee: 299 km (185 mi). Perigee: 154 km (95 mi). Inclination: 32.6000 deg. Period: 89.00 min. The first Gemini mission, Gemini-Titan I, was launched from Complex 19 at Cape Kennedy at 11:00 a.m., e.s.t. This was an unmanned flight, using the first production Gemini spacecraft and a modified Titan II Gemini launch vehicle (GLV). The mission's primary purpose was to verify the structural integrity of the GLV and spacecraft, as well as to demonstrate the GLV's ability to place the spacecraft into a prescribed earth orbit. Mission plans did not include separation of the spacecraft from the second stage of the vehicle, and both were inserted into orbit as a unit six minutes after launch. The planned mission encompassed only the first three orbits and ended about four hours and 50 minutes after liftoff. No recovery was planned for this mission, but Goddard continued to track the spacecraft until it reentered the atmosphere on the 64th orbital pass over the southern Atlantic Ocean (April 12) and disintegrated. The flight qualified the GLV and its systems and the structure of the spacecraft.

1964 October 6 - . 07:12 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57. LV Configuration: Voskhod 11A57 R15000-02.
  • Cosmos 47 - . Payload: Voskhod 3KV s/n 2. Mass: 5,320 kg (11,720 lb). Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Rudenko; Kirillov; Tyulin; Korolev. Agency: Korolev. Program: Voskhod. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Voskhod 1. Spacecraft: Voskhod. Duration: 1.01 days. Decay Date: 1964-10-07 . USAF Sat Cat: 891 . COSPAR: 1964-062A. Apogee: 383 km (237 mi). Perigee: 174 km (108 mi). Inclination: 64.6000 deg. Period: 90.10 min. Unmanned test of Voskhod spacecraft. At 07:00 the State Commission meets at Area 2. All Chief Designers, Commanders, and Section report that all is ready for flight. The commission gives the order to proceed with the launch. Weather at the pad is 7 balls, 8-10 m/s wind with gusts to 15 m/s, temperature 9 to 12 deg C. Weather in the recovery zones is reported as winds up to 15 m/s. Weather in the recovery zone is not clear, but that is not considered an impediment, and in fact Kamanin would like to see how the landing system functions in bad conditions. Kamanin visits the pad at T-30 seconds; at T-20 seconds, the veranda at IP-1 has over 50 viewers of the launch, including 15 cosmonaut candidates and the 7 Voskhod cosmonauts. Kamanin is relegated to the IP-1 veranda this time, with Rudenko, Kirillov, and Tyulin the bunker adjacent to the pad. Korolev stays with the booster until T-5 minutes, then enters the bunker. The booster ignites precisely at 10:00; the strap-ons burn out and are jettisoned at T+120 seconds; the core burns out and the final stage ignites at T+290 seconds; and at T+523 seconds spacecraft 3KV number 2 is placed in orbit as the final stage shuts down. The spacecraft separates and all systems look normal.

    Recovered October 7, 1964 7:28 GMT. Officially: Investigation of the upper atmosphere and outer space.


1964 October 12 - . 07:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57. LV Configuration: Voskhod 11A57 R15000-04.
  • Voskhod 1 - . Call Sign: Rubin (Ruby ). Crew: Feoktistov; Komarov; Yegorov. Backup Crew: Katys; Lazarev; Volynov. Payload: Voskhod 3KV s/n 3. Mass: 5,320 kg (11,720 lb). Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Korolev; Rudenko; Tyulin; Gagarin; Feoktistov; Komarov; Yegorov; Katys; Lazarev; Volynov. Agency: Korolev. Program: Voskhod. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Voskhod 1. Spacecraft: Voskhod. Duration: 1.01 days. Decay Date: 1964-10-13 . USAF Sat Cat: 904 . COSPAR: 1964-065A. Apogee: 336 km (208 mi). Perigee: 178 km (110 mi). Inclination: 64.7000 deg. Period: 89.60 min. The U.S.S.R. launched the world's first multi-manned spacecraft, Voskhod I, the first to carry a scientist and a physician into space. The crew were Col. Vladimir Komarov, pilot; Konstantin Feoktistov, scientist; and Boris Yegorov, physician. Potentially dangerous modification of Vostok to upstage American Gemini flights; no spacesuits, ejection seats, or escape tower. One concession was backup solid retrorocket package mounted on nose of spacecraft. Seats mounted perpendicular to Vostok ejection seat position, so crew had to crane their necks to read instruments, still mounted in their original orientation. Tested the new multi-seat space ship; investigated the in-flight work potential and co-operation of a group of cosmonauts consisting of specialists in different branches of science and technology; conducted scientific physico-technical and medico-biological research. The mission featured television pictures of the crew from space.

    Coming before the two-man Gemini flights, Voskhod 1 had a significant worldwide impact. In the United States, the "space race" was again running under the green flag. NASA Administrator James E. Webb, commenting on the spectacular, called it a "significant space accomplishment." It was, he said, "a clear indication that the Russians are continuing a large space program for the achievement of national power and prestige." Additional Details: here....


1965 February 22 - . 07:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57. LV Configuration: Voskhod 11A57 R15000-03.
  • Cosmos 57 - . Payload: Voskhod 3KD s/n 1. Mass: 5,682 kg (12,526 lb). Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Korolev. Agency: Korolev. Program: Voskhod. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Voskhod 2. Spacecraft: Voskhod. Duration: 0.22 days. Decay Date: 1965-02-22 . USAF Sat Cat: 1093 . COSPAR: 1965-012A. Apogee: 708 km (439 mi). Perigee: 159 km (98 mi). Inclination: 64.8000 deg. Period: 93.20 min. Unsuccessful mission. Voskhod 2 test. Immediately after orbital insertion airlock and spacesuit inflated normally. Then two ground control stations sent commands to the spacecraft simultaneously. The combined signals accidentally set off the retrofire sequence, which some time later triggered the self destruct mechanism (designed to prevent the spacecraft from falling into enemy hands).
    Officially: Investigation of the upper atmosphere and outer space. Additional Details: here....

1965 March 1 - .
  • Soyuz 7K-PPK cancelled. - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Chelomei. Program: Almaz. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: Soyuz PPK. Summary: Based on successful test flights of Chelomei's unmanned interceptor-sputnik prototypes (Polyot 1 and 2), the Soyuz 7K-PPK manned interceptor version is cancelled..

1965 March 2 - .
  • Babakin takes over Lavochkin OKB - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Chelomei; Korolev; Babakin. Program: Lunar L3. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space station. Spacecraft: Luna E-6; Luna Ye-8. Former Lavochkin bureau, part of Chelomei, regained status of a separate design bureau with former Korolev deputy GN Babakin as its head. By the end of 1965 all materials on the E-6, Ye-8, and planetary probes were passed by Korolev to the Lavochkin Bureau, who took over responsibility for all future lunar and planetary unmanned probes.

1965 March 18 - . 07:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57. LV Configuration: Voskhod 11A57 R15000-05.
  • Voskhod 2 - . Call Sign: Almaz (Diamond ). Crew: Belyayev; Leonov. Backup Crew: Gorbatko; Khrunov; Zaikin. Payload: Voskhod 3KD s/n 4. Mass: 5,682 kg (12,526 lb). Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Tyulin; Rudenko; Korolev; Gagarin; Belyayev; Leonov; Gorbatko; Khrunov; Zaikin. Agency: MOM. Program: Voskhod. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Voskhod 2. Spacecraft: Voskhod. Duration: 1.08 days. Decay Date: 1965-03-19 . USAF Sat Cat: 1274 . COSPAR: 1965-022A. Apogee: 475 km (295 mi). Perigee: 167 km (103 mi). Inclination: 64.8000 deg. Period: 90.90 min. First spacewalk, with a two man crew of Colonel Pavel Belyayev and Lt. Colonel Aleksey Leonov. During Voskhod 2's second orbit, Leonov stepped from the vehicle and performed mankind's first "walk in space." After 10 min of extravehicular activity, he returned safely to the spacecraft through an inflatable airlock.

    This mission was originally named 'Vykhod ('Exit/Advance'). It almost ended in disaster when Leonov was unable to reenter the airlock due to stiffness of the inflated spacesuit. He had to bleed air from the suit in order to get into the airlock. After Leonov finally managed to get back into the spacecraft cabin, the primary hatch would not seal completely. The environmental control system compensated by flooding the cabin with oxygen, creating a serious fire hazard in a craft only qualified for sea level nitrogen-oxygen gas mixes (Cosmonaut Bondarenko had burned to death in a ground accident in such circumstances, preceding the Apollo 204 disaster by many years). Additional Details: here....


1965 March 18 - . 08:34 GMT - .
  • EVA Voskhod 2-1 - . Crew: Leonov. EVA Type: Extra-Vehicular Activity. EVA Duration: 0.0160 days. Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Leonov. Program: Voskhod. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Voskhod 2. Spacecraft: Voskhod. Summary: First walk in space..

1965 March 23 - . 14:24 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC19. LV Family: Titan. Launch Vehicle: Titan II GLV. LV Configuration: Titan II GLV GT-3 / 62-12558.
  • Gemini 3 - . Call Sign: Molly Brown (from Broadway play 'The Unsinkable..'. Crew: Grissom; Young. Backup Crew: Schirra; Stafford. Payload: Gemini SC3. Mass: 3,225 kg (7,109 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Grissom; Young; Schirra; Stafford. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: Gemini. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Gemini 3. Spacecraft: Gemini. Duration: 0.20 days. Decay Date: 1965-03-23 . USAF Sat Cat: 1301 . COSPAR: 1965-024A. Apogee: 240 km (140 mi). Perigee: 160 km (90 mi). Inclination: 33.0000 deg. Period: 88.40 min. First manned test flight of Gemini. Virgil I. Grissom and John W. Young entered an elliptical orbit about the earth. After three orbits, the pair manually landed their spacecraft in the Atlantic Ocean, thus performing the first controlled reentry. Unfortunately, they landed much farther from the landing zone than anticipated, about 97 km (60 miles) from the aircraft carrier U.S.S. Intrepid. But otherwise the mission was highly successful. Gemini III, America's first two-manned space mission, also was the first manned vehicle that was maneuverable. Grissom used the vehicle's maneuvering rockets to effect orbital and plane changes. Grissom wanted to name the spacecraft 'Molly Brown' (as in the Unsinkable, a Debbie Reynolds/Howard Keel screen musical). NASA was not amused and stopped allowing the astronauts to name their spacecraft (until forced to when having two spacecraft aloft at once during the Apollo missions). The flight by Young was the first of an astronaut outside of the original seven. Young, who created a media flap by taking a corned beef sandwich aboard as a prank, would go on to fly to the moon on Apollo and the Space Shuttle on its first flight sixteen years later.

1965 June 1 - .
  • Beginning of Project Spiral - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Chelomei; Korolev. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: MiG 105-11. With the cancellation of Chelomei's desultory R spaceplane development, the job is handed to 'the profis' - the fighter design bureaus of MiG and Sukhoi. Both would use an air breathing first stage (the XB-70 clone T-4 in Sukhoi's case, a huge new Tupolev hypersonic aircraft 'to be developed' in MiG's case). Second stage would be a conventional expendable rocket stage which would carry the relatively small Spiral spaceplane into orbit. Korolev had been doing some 'back door' work with MiG in competition to Chelomei's R project for some time (Began with 1962 Mikoyan study '50-50': Hypersonic first stage to Mach 5.5; rocket stage with one man), and immediately proposed tests from atop R-7 rockets as early as 1967. At the time all this was begun Dyna Soar was still an active US program.

1965 June 3 - . 15:16 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC19. LV Family: Titan. Launch Vehicle: Titan II GLV. LV Configuration: Titan II GLV GT-4 / 62-12559.
  • Gemini 4 - . Call Sign: American Eagle / Little Eva. Crew: McDivitt; White. Backup Crew: Borman; Lovell. Payload: Gemini SC4. Mass: 3,574 kg (7,879 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: McDivitt; White; Borman; Lovell. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: Gemini. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Gemini 4. Spacecraft: Gemini. Duration: 4.08 days. Decay Date: 1965-06-07 . USAF Sat Cat: 1390 . COSPAR: 1965-043A. Apogee: 281 km (174 mi). Perigee: 162 km (100 mi). Inclination: 32.5000 deg. Period: 88.80 min. The second manned and first long-duration mission in the Gemini program. Major objectives of the four-day mission were demonstrating and evaluating the performance of spacecraft systems in a long-duration flight and evaluating effects on the crew of prolonged exposure to the space environment. Secondary objectives included demonstrating extravehicular activity (EVA) in space, conducting stationkeeping and rendezvous maneuvers with the second stage of the launch vehicle, performing significant in-plane and out-of-plane maneuvers, demonstrating the ability of the orbit attitude and maneuver system (OAMS) to back up the retrorockets, and executing 11 experiments. The stationkeeping exercise was terminated at the end of the first revolution because most of the OAMS propellant allocated for the exercise had been used; further efforts would jeopardize primary mission objectives and could mean the cancellation of several secondary objectives. No rendezvous was attempted. The only other major problem to mar the mission was the inadvertent alteration of the computer memory during the 48th revolution in an attempt to correct an apparent malfunction. This made the planned computer-controlled reentry impossible and required an open-loop ballistic reentry. All other mission objectives were met. The flight crew began preparing for EVA immediately after terminating the stationkeeping exercise. Although preparations went smoothly, McDivitt decided to delay EVA for one revolution, both because of the high level of activity required and because deletion of the rendezvous attempt reduced the tightness of the schedule. Ground control approved the decision. The spacecraft hatch was opened at 4 hours 18 minutes into the flight and White exited 12 minutes later, using a hand-held maneuvering gun. White reentered the spacecraft 20 minutes after leaving it. The hatch was closed at 4 hours 54 minutes ground elapsed time. Drifting flight was maintained for the next two and one-half days to conserve propellant. The spacecraft landed in the Atlantic Ocean about 725 km east of Cape Kennedy - some 65 km from its nominal landing point. The crew boarded a helicopter 34 minutes after landing and was transported to the prime recovery ship, the aircraft carrier Wasp. Spacecraft recovery was completed at 2:28 p.m., a little more than 100 hours after Gemini 4 had been launched. Gemini 4 was the first mission to be controlled from the mission control center in Houston.

    The space walk was hurriedly included after the Russian first in Voskhod 2. White seemed to have a lot more fun than Leonov and McDivitt took the pictures that came to symbolize man in space. With this flight the US finally started to match Russian flight durations.


1965 June 3 - . 19:46 GMT - .
  • EVA Gemini 4-1 - . Crew: White. EVA Type: Extra-Vehicular Activity. EVA Duration: 0.0250 days. Nation: USA. Related Persons: White. Program: Gemini. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Gemini 4. Spacecraft: Gemini. Summary: First American walk in space; tested spacesuit and ability to manoeuvre..

1965 August 15 - . LV Family: Saturn V. Launch Vehicle: Saturn V.
  • First ground test firing of S-IVB stage - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space station.

1965 August 21 - . 14:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC19. LV Family: Titan. Launch Vehicle: Titan II GLV. LV Configuration: Titan II GLV GT-5 / 62-12560.
  • Gemini 5 - . Call Sign: Gemini 5. Crew: Conrad; Cooper. Backup Crew: Armstrong; See. Payload: Gemini SC5/Rendezvous Evaluation Pod. Mass: 3,605 kg (7,947 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Conrad; Cooper; Armstrong; See. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: Gemini. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Gemini 5. Spacecraft: Gemini; Gemini Radar; Gemini REP. Duration: 7.96 days. Decay Date: 1965-08-29 . USAF Sat Cat: 1516 . COSPAR: 1965-068A. Apogee: 395 km (245 mi). Perigee: 304 km (188 mi). Inclination: 32.6000 deg. Period: 91.50 min. Major objectives of the eight-day mission were evaluating the performance of the rendezvous guidance and navigation system, using a rendezvous evaluation pod (REP), and evaluating the effects of prolonged exposure to the space environment on the flight crew. Secondary objectives included demonstrating controlled reentry guidance, evaluating fuel cell performance, demonstrating all phases of guidance and control system operation needed for a rendezvous mission, evaluating the capability of either pilot to maneuver the spacecraft in orbit to rendezvous, evaluating the performance of rendezvous radar, and executing 17 experiments. The mission proceeded without incident through the first two orbits and the ejection of the REP. About 36 minutes after beginning evaluation of the rendezvous guidance and navigation system, the crew noted that the pressure in the oxygen supply tank of the fuel cell system was falling. Pressure dropped from 850 pounds per square inch absolute (psia) at 26 minutes into the flight until it stabilized at 70 psia at 4 hours 22 minutes, and gradually increased through the remainder of the mission. The spacecraft was powered down and the REP exercise was abandoned. By the seventh revolution, experts on the ground had analyzed the problem and a powering-up procedure was started. During the remainder of the mission the flight plan was continuously scheduled in real time. Four rendezvous radar tests were conducted during the mission, the first in revolution 14 on the second day; the spacecraft rendezvous radar successfully tracked a transponder on the ground at Cape Kennedy. During the third day, a simulated Agena rendezvous was conducted at full electrical load. The simulation comprised four maneuvers - apogee adjust, phase adjust, plane change, and coelliptical maneuver - using the orbit attitude and maneuver system (OAMS). Main activities through the fourth day of the mission concerned operations and experiments. During the fifth day, OAMS operation became sluggish and thruster No. 7 inoperative. Thruster No. 8 went out the next day, and the rest of the system was gradually becoming more erratic. Limited experimental and operational activities continued through the remainder of the mission. Retrofire was initiated in the 121st revolution during the eighth day of the mission, one revolution early because of threatening weather in the planned recovery area. Reentry and landing were satisfactory, but the landing point was 145 km short, the result of incorrect navigation coordinates transmitted to the spacecraft computer from the ground network. Landing occurred August 29, 190 hours 55 minutes after the mission had begun. The astronauts arrived on board the prime recovery ship, the aircraft carrier Lake Champlain, at 9:25. The spacecraft was recovered at 11:51 a.m.

    With this flight, the US finally took the manned spaceflight endurance record from Russia, while demonstrating that the crew could survive in zero gravity for the length of time required for a lunar mission. However the mission was incredibly boring, the spacecraft just drifting to conserve fuel most of the time, and was 'just about the hardest thing I've ever done' according to a hyperactive Pete Conrad. An accident with freeze dried shrimp resulted in the cabin being filled with little pink subsatellites.


1965 August 25 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. LV Family: Titan. Launch Vehicle: Titan 3M.
  • MOL to be launched from Canaveral and Vandenberg - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Johnson, Lyndon. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space station. Spacecraft: MOL. Summary: DoD revealed that newly-authorized Manned Orbiting Laboratory (MOL) program (announced by President Lyndon Johnson the same day) would be launched from both the Air Force Eastern and Western Test Ranges..

1965 October 25 - . 15:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC14. LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas Agena D SLV-3. LV Configuration: SLV-3 Agena D 5301 / Agena D 5002. FAILURE: Exploded 6 minutes after takeoff. Failure.. Failed Stage: 2.
  • Gemini 6 Agena Target - . Payload: TDA-2. Mass: 3,261 kg (7,189 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: Gemini. Class: Manned. Type: Manned logistics spacecraft. Flight: Gemini 6; Gemini 7. Spacecraft: Gemini Agena Target Vehicle. Decay Date: 1965-10-25 . COSPAR: F651025A. Summary: The Agena target vehicle failed to reach orbit. Gemini 6, awaiting launch, was cancelled. In the ashes of this setback, the idea of launching Gemini 6 to rendezvous with Gemini 7 was born..

1965 December 4 - . 19:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC19. LV Family: Titan. Launch Vehicle: Titan II GLV. LV Configuration: Titan II GLV GT-7 / 62-12562.
  • Gemini 7 - . Call Sign: Gemini 7. Crew: Borman; Lovell. Backup Crew: Collins; White. Payload: Gemini SC7. Mass: 3,663 kg (8,075 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Borman; Lovell; Collins; White. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: Gemini. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Gemini 6; Gemini 7. Spacecraft: Gemini. Duration: 13.77 days. Decay Date: 1965-12-18 . USAF Sat Cat: 1812 . COSPAR: 1965-100A. Apogee: 318 km (197 mi). Perigee: 217 km (134 mi). Inclination: 28.9000 deg. Period: 89.90 min. Primary objectives of the mission were demonstrating manned orbital flight for approximately 14 days and evaluating the physiological effects of a long-duration flight on the crew. Among the secondary objectives were providing a rendezvous target for the Gemini VI-A spacecraft, stationkeeping with the second stage of the launch vehicle and with spacecraft No. 6, conducting 20 experiments, using lightweight pressure suits, and evaluating the spacecraft reentry guidance capability. All objectives were successfully achieved with the exception of two experiments lost because of equipment failure. Shortly after separation from the launch vehicle, the crew maneuvered the spacecraft to within 60 feet of the second stage and stationkept for about 15 minutes. The exercise was terminated by a separation maneuver, and the spacecraft was powered down in preparation for the 14-day mission. The crew performed five maneuvers during the course of the mission to increase orbital lifetime and place the spacecraft in proper orbit for rendezvous with spacecraft No. 6. Rendezvous was successfully accomplished during the 11th day in orbit, with spacecraft No. 7 serving as a passive target for spacecraft No. 6. About 45 hours into the mission, Lovell removed his pressure suit. He again donned his suit at 148 hours, while Borman removed his. Some 20 hours later Lovell again removed his suit, and both crewmen flew the remainder of the mission without suits, except for the rendezvous and reentry phases. With three exceptions, the spacecraft and its systems performed nominally throughout the entire mission. The delayed-time telemetry playback tape recorder malfunctioned about 201hours after liftoff, resulting in the loss of all delayed-time telemetry data for the remainder of the mission. Two fuel cell stacks showed excessive degradation late in the flight and were taken off the line; the remaining four stacks furnished adequate electrical power until reentry. Two attitude thrusters performed poorly after 283 hours in the mission. Retrofire occurred exactly on time, and reentry and landing were nominal. The spacecraft missed the planned landing point by only 10.3 km miles, touching down on December 18. The crew arrived at the prime recovery ship, the aircraft carrier Wasp, half an hour later. The spacecraft was recovered half an hour after the crew.

    Far surpassing the Gemini 5 flight, Gemini 7 set a manned spaceflight endurance record that would endure for years. The incredibly boring mission, was made more uncomfortable by the extensive biosensors. This was somewhat offset by the soft spacesuits (used only once) and permission to spend most of the time in long johns. The monotony was broken just near the end by the rendezvous with Gemini 6.


1965 December 15 - . 13:37 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC19. LV Family: Titan. Launch Vehicle: Titan II GLV. LV Configuration: Titan II GLV GT-6 / 62-12561.
  • Gemini 6 - . Call Sign: Gemini 6. Crew: Schirra; Stafford. Backup Crew: Grissom; Young. Payload: Gemini SC6. Mass: 3,546 kg (7,817 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Schirra; Stafford; Grissom; Young. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: Gemini. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Gemini 6; Gemini 7. Spacecraft: Gemini; Gemini Radar. Duration: 1.08 days. Decay Date: 1965-12-16 . USAF Sat Cat: 1839 . COSPAR: 1965-104A. Apogee: 271 km (168 mi). Perigee: 258 km (160 mi). Inclination: 28.9000 deg. Period: 89.60 min. The primary objective of the mission, crewed by command pilot Astronaut Walter M. Schirra, Jr., and pilot Astronaut Thomas P. Stafford, was to rendezvous with spacecraft No. 7. Among the secondary objectives were stationkeeping with spacecraft No. 7, evaluating spacecraft reentry guidance capability, testing the visibility of spacecraft No. 7 as a rendezvous target, and conducting three experiments. After the launch vehicle inserted the spacecraft into an 87 by 140 nautical mile orbit, the crew prepared for the maneuvers necessary to achieve rendezvous. Four maneuvers preceded the first radar contact between the two spacecraft. The first maneuver, a height adjustment, came an hour and a half after insertion, at first perigee; a phase adjustment at second apogee, a plane change, and another height adjustment at second perigee followed. The onboard radar was turned on 3 hours into the mission. The first radar lock-on indicated 246 miles between the two spacecraft. The coelliptic maneuver was performed at third apogee, 3 hours 47 minutes after launch. The terminal phase initiation maneuver was performed an hour and a half later. Two midcourse corrections preceded final braking maneuvers at 5 hours 50 minutes into the flight. Rendezvous was technically accomplished and stationkeeping began some 6 minutes later when the two spacecraft were about 120 feet apart and their relative motion had stopped. Stationkeeping maneuvers continued for three and a half orbits at distances from 1 to 300 feet. Spacecraft No. 6 then initiated a separation maneuver and withdrew to a range of about 30 miles. The only major malfunction in spacecraft No. 6 during the mission was the failure of the delayed-time telemetry tape recorder at 20 hours 55 minutes ground elapsed time, which resulted in the loss of all delayed-time telemetry data for the remainder of the mission, some 4 hours and 20 minutes. The flight ended with a nominal reentry and landing in the West Atlantic, just 10 km from the planned landing point, on December 16. The crew remained in the spacecraft, which was recovered an hour later by the prime recovery ship, the aircraft carrier Wasp.

    Gemini 6 was to have been the first flight involving docking with an Agena target/propulsion stage. However the Agena blew up on the way to orbit, and the spacecraft was replaced by Gemini 7 in the launch order.

    For lack of a target, NASA decided to have Gemini 6 rendezvous with Gemini 7. This would require a quick one week turnaround of the pad after launch, no problem with Russian equipment but a big accomplishment for the Americans. The first launch attempt was aborted; the Titan II ignited for a moment, then shut down and settled back down on its launch attachments. Schirra waited it out, did not pull the abort handles that would send the man catapulting out of the capsule on their notoriously unreliable ejection seats. The booster was safed; Schirra had saved the mission and the launch three days later went perfectly. The flight went on to achieve the first manned space rendezvous controlled entirely by the self-contained, on-board guidance, control, and navigation system. This system provided the crew of Gemini 6 with attitude, thrusting, and time information needed for them to control the spacecraft during the rendezvous. Under Schirra's typically precise command, the operation was so successful that the rendezvous was complete with fuel consumption only 5% above the planned value to reach 16 m separation from Gemini 7.


1966 February 22 - . 20:09 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57. LV Configuration: Voskhod 11A57 R15000-06.
  • Cosmos 110 - . Payload: Voskhod 3KV s/n 5. Mass: 5,700 kg (12,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Volynov; Shonin; Beregovoi; Shatalov. Agency: MOM. Program: Voskhod. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Voskhod 3. Spacecraft: Voskhod. Duration: 20.69 days. Decay Date: 1966-03-16 . USAF Sat Cat: 2070 . COSPAR: 1966-015A. Apogee: 887 km (551 mi). Perigee: 181 km (112 mi). Inclination: 51.8000 deg. Period: 95.30 min. Successfully recovered March 15, 1966 13:00 GMT. Precursor mission for Voskhod 3 hardware. Two dogs carried into lower Van Allen radiation belts.
    Officially: Biological research.

    Voskhod s/n 5 launched at 23:10 Moscow time, with two dogs, Veterka and Ygolka, aboard. This will be a 25-day mission. Kamanin is disgusted, he had proposed this as a 25-day mission by a single cosmonaut, but Korolev had constantly held with the 'dog variant'. Preparations for Voskhod-3 are proceeding well. The prime and back-up crews have completed their training and will take their examinations on 28 February. Parallel trials of the oxygen regeneration system at IMBP and OKB-124 both went well (IMBP, 12 days so far, temperature 16-24 deg C, 70% humidity; OKB-124, 10 days so far, temperature 18-16 deg C, 65% humidity).


1966 March 12 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. LV Family: Titan. Launch Vehicle: Titan 3C.
  • Start of construction (site preparation) for SLC-6 - . Nation: USA. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space station. Spacecraft: MOL. Summary: Start of construction (site preparation) for Space Launch Complex 6 facilities at former Sudden Ranch property..

1966 March 16 - . 15:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC14. LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas Agena D SLV-3. LV Configuration: SLV-3 Agena D 5302 / Agena D 5003.
  • Gemini 8 Agena Target - . Payload: TDA 3/Agena D 5003 GATV. Mass: 3,175 kg (6,999 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: Gemini. Class: Manned. Type: Manned logistics spacecraft. Flight: Gemini 8. Spacecraft: Gemini Agena Target Vehicle. Decay Date: 1967-09-15 . USAF Sat Cat: 2104 . COSPAR: 1966-019A. Apogee: 299 km (185 mi). Perigee: 285 km (177 mi). Inclination: 28.9000 deg. Period: 90.40 min. Summary: Target vehicle for Gemini 8..

1966 March 16 - . 16:41 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC19. LV Family: Titan. Launch Vehicle: Titan II GLV. LV Configuration: Titan II GLV GT-8 / 62-12563.
  • Gemini 8 - . Call Sign: Gemini 8. Crew: Armstrong; Scott. Backup Crew: Conrad; Gordon. Payload: Gemini SC8. Mass: 3,788 kg (8,351 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Armstrong; Scott; Conrad; Gordon. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: Gemini. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Gemini 8. Spacecraft: Gemini. Duration: 0.45 days. Decay Date: 1966-03-17 . USAF Sat Cat: 2105 . COSPAR: 1966-020A. Apogee: 264 km (164 mi). Perigee: 160 km (90 mi). Inclination: 28.9000 deg. Period: 88.80 min. The Atlas-Agena target vehicle for the Gemini VIII mission was successfully launched from KSC Launch Complex 14 at 10 a.m. EST March 16. The Gemini VIII spacecraft followed from Launch Complex 19 at 11:41 a.m., with command pilot Neil A. Armstrong and pilot David R. Scott aboard. The spacecraft and its target vehicle rendezvoused and docked, with docking confirmed 6 hours 33 minutes after the spacecraft was launched. This first successful docking with an Agena target vehicle was followed by a major space emergency. About 27 minutes later the spacecraft-Agena combination encountered unexpected roll and yaw motion. A stuck thruster on Gemini put the docked assembly into a wild high speed gyration. Near structural limits and blackout, Armstrong undocked, figuring the problem was in the Agena, which only made it worse. The problem arose again and when the yaw and roll rates became too high the crew shut the main Gemini reaction control system down and activated and used both rings of the reentry control system to reduce the spacecraft rates to zero. This used 75% of that system's fuel. Although the crew wanted to press on with the mission and Scott's planned space walk, ground control ordered an emergency splashdown in the western Pacific during the seventh revolution. The spacecraft landed at 10:23 p.m. EST March 16 and Armstrong and Scott were picked up by the destroyer U.S.S. Mason at 1:37 a.m. EST March 17. Although the flight was cut short by the incident, one of the primary objectives - rendezvous and docking (the first rendezvous of two spacecraft in orbital flight) - was accomplished.

    Primary objectives of the scheduled three-day mission were to rendezvous and dock with the Gemini Agena target vehicle (GATV) and to conduct extravehicular activities. Secondary objectives included rendezvous and docking during the fourth revolution, performing docked maneuvers using the GATV primary propulsion system, executing 10 experiments, conducting docking practice, performing a rerendezvous, evaluating the auxiliary tape memory unit, demonstrating controlled reentry, and parking the GATV in a 220-nautical mile circular orbit. The GATV was inserted into a nominal 161-nautical mile circular orbit, the spacecraft into a nominal 86 by 147-nautical mile elliptical orbit. During the six hours following insertion, the spacecraft completed nine maneuvers to rendezvous with the GATV. Rendezvous phase ended at 5 hours 58 minutes ground elapsed time, with the spacecraft 150 feet from the GATV and no relative motion between the two vehicles. Stationkeeping maneuvers preceded docking, which was accomplished at 6 hours 33 minutes ground elapsed time. A major problem developed 27 minutes after docking, when a spacecraft orbit attitude and maneuver system (OAMS) thruster malfunctioned. The crew undocked from the GATV and managed to bring the spacecraft under control by deactivating the OAMS and using the reentry control system (RCS) to reduce the spacecraft's rapid rotation. Premature use of the RCS, however, required the mission to be terminated early. The retrofire sequence was initiated in the seventh revolution, followed by nominal reentry and landing in a secondary recovery area in the western Pacific Ocean. The spacecraft touched down less than 10 km from the planned landing point. The recovery ship, the destroyer Leonard Mason, picked up both crew and spacecraft some three hours later. Early termination of the mission precluded achieving all mission objectives, but one primary objective - rendezvous and docking - was accomplished. Several secondary objectives were also achieved: rendezvous and docking during the fourth revolution, evaluating the auxiliary tape memory unit, demonstrating controlled reentry, and parking the GATV. Two experiments were partially performed.


1966 April 10 - . LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K. LV Configuration: Proton 8K82K.
  • Cosmonaut training for lunar flights announced - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Leonov. Program: Lunar L1. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-L1. Summary: Leonov announces that cosmonauts are in training for lunar missions..

1966 May 17 - . 15:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC14. LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas Agena D SLV-3. LV Configuration: SLV-3 Agena D 5303 / Agena D 5004. FAILURE: Control system failure.. Failed Stage: G.
1966 June 1 - . 15:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC14. LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas SLV-3. LV Configuration: Atlas SLV-3 5304.
  • Gemini 9 ATDA - . Payload: TDA 4. Mass: 794 kg (1,750 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: Gemini. Class: Manned. Type: Manned logistics spacecraft. Flight: Gemini 9. Spacecraft: Atlas Target Docking Adapter. Decay Date: 1966-06-11 . USAF Sat Cat: 2186 . COSPAR: 1966-046A. Apogee: 296 km (183 mi). Perigee: 292 km (181 mi). Inclination: 28.8000 deg. Period: 90.40 min. The ATDA achieved a near-circular orbit (apogee 161.5, perigee 158.5 nautical miles). One hour and 40 minutes later, the scheduled launch of Gemini IX-A was postponed by a ground equipment failure which prevented the transfer of updating information from Cape Kennedy mission control center to the spacecraft computer. The mission was recycled for launch on June 3, following a prepared 48-hour recycle plan. Anomalous telemetry indicated some sort of problem with the target, but it was not until Gemini IX rendezvoused with it in orbit that it was seen that fairing separation had failed.

1966 June 3 - . 13:39 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC19. LV Family: Titan. Launch Vehicle: Titan II GLV. LV Configuration: Titan II GLV GT-9 / 62-12564.
  • Gemini 9 - . Call Sign: Gemini 9. Crew: Cernan; Stafford. Backup Crew: Aldrin; Lovell. Payload: Gemini SC9. Mass: 3,668 kg (8,086 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Cernan; Stafford; Aldrin; Lovell. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: Gemini. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Gemini 9. Spacecraft: Gemini. Duration: 3.01 days. Decay Date: 1966-06-06 . USAF Sat Cat: 2191 . COSPAR: 1966-047A. Apogee: 272 km (169 mi). Perigee: 269 km (167 mi). Inclination: 28.8000 deg. Period: 89.90 min. At the first launch attempt, while the crew waited buttoned up in the spacecraft on the pad, their Agena docking target field blew up on the way to orbit. NASA decided to use an Atlas to launch an Agena docking collar only. This was called the Augmented Target Docking Adapter. Ths was successfully launched and the Gemini succeeded in rendezvousing with it. However, the ATDA shroud had not completely separated, thus making docking impossible. However three different types of rendezvous were tested with the ATDA. Cernan began his EVA, which was to include flight with a USAF MMU rocket pack but the Gemini suit could not handle heat load of the astronaut's exertions. Cernan's faceplate fogs up, forcing him to blindly grope back into the Gemini hatch after only two hours.

    Seventh manned and third rendezvous mission of the Gemini program. Major objectives of the mission were to rendezvous and dock with the augmented target docking adapter (ATDA) and to conduct extravehicular activities (EVA). These objectives were only partially met. After successfully achieving rendezvous during the third revolution - a secondary objective - the crew discovered that the ATDA shroud had failed to separate, precluding docking - a primary objective - as well as docking practice - another secondary objective. The crew was able, however, to achieve other secondary objectives: an equi-period rendezvous, using onboard optical techniques and completed at 6 hours 36 minutes ground elapsed time; and a rendezvous from above, simulating the rendezvous of an Apollo command module with a lunar module in a lower orbit (completed at 21 hours 42 minutes ground elapsed time). Final separation maneuver was performed at 22 hours 59 minutes after liftoff. EVA was postponed because of crew fatigue, and the second day was given over to experiments. The hatch was opened for EVA at 49 hours 23 minutes ground elapsed time. EVA was successful, but one secondary objective - evaluation of the astronaut maneuvering unit (AMU) - was not achieved because Cernan's visor began fogging. The extravehicular life support system apparently became overloaded with moisture when Cernan had to work harder than anticipated to prepare the AMU for donning. Cernan reentered the spacecraft, and the hatch was closed at 51 hours 28 minutes into the flight. The rest of the third day was spent on experiments.


1966 June 5 - . 15:02 GMT - .
  • EVA Gemini 9-1 - . Crew: Cernan. EVA Type: Extra-Vehicular Activity. EVA Duration: 0.0882 days. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Cernan. Program: Gemini. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Gemini 9. Spacecraft: Gemini. Summary: Attempted to test USAF Astronaut Manoeuvring Unit. Cancelled when Cernan's faceplate fogged over..

1966 July 2 - .
  • M2 Flight 1 - . Crew: Thompson. Payload: M2-F2 flight 1. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Thompson. Program: NASA Lifting Body. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: M2-F2. Summary: First flight M2-F2. Maximum Speed - 727 kph. Maximum Altitude - 13720 m. Flight Time - 217 sec..

1966 July 9 - .
  • M2 Flight 2 - . Crew: Thompson. Payload: M2-F2 flight 2. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Thompson. Program: NASA Lifting Body. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: M2-F2. Summary: Maximum Speed - 634 kph. Maximum Altitude - 13720 m. Flight Time - 245sec..

1966 July 10 - .
  • Komarov announces that USSR will beat US to moon - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Komarov. Program: Lunar L3. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space station. Summary: Komarov announces in Japan that USSR would beat the US to moonlanding by one year..

1966 July 18 - . 20:39 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC14. LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas Agena D SLV-3. LV Configuration: SLV-3 Agena D 5305 / Agena D 5005.
  • Gemini 10 Agena Target - . Payload: TDA 1A/Agena D 5005 GATV. Mass: 3,175 kg (6,999 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: Gemini. Class: Manned. Type: Manned logistics spacecraft. Flight: Gemini 10. Spacecraft: Gemini Agena Target Vehicle. Decay Date: 1966-12-29 . USAF Sat Cat: 2348 . COSPAR: 1966-065A. Apogee: 296 km (183 mi). Perigee: 290 km (180 mi). Inclination: 28.9000 deg. Period: 90.40 min. Summary: Space craft engaged in investigation of spaceflight techniques and technology (US Cat A). .

1966 July 18 - . 22:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC19. LV Family: Titan. Launch Vehicle: Titan II GLV. LV Configuration: Titan II GLV GT-10 / 62-12565.
  • Gemini 10 - . Call Sign: Gemini 10. Crew: Collins; Young. Backup Crew: Bean; Williams, Clifton. Payload: Gemini SC10. Mass: 3,763 kg (8,295 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Collins; Young; Bean; Williams, Clifton. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: Gemini. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Gemini 10. Spacecraft: Gemini. Duration: 2.95 days. Decay Date: 1966-07-21 . USAF Sat Cat: 2349 . COSPAR: 1966-066A. Apogee: 259 km (160 mi). Perigee: 160 km (90 mi). Inclination: 28.9000 deg. Period: 88.70 min. Exciting mission with successful docking with Agena, flight up to parking orbit where Gemini 8 Agena is stored. Collins space walks from Gemini to Agena to retrieve micrometeorite package left in space all those months. Loses grip first time, and tumbles head over heels at end of umbilical around Gemini. Package retrieved on second try.

    The Gemini X mission began with the launch of the Gemini Atlas-Agena target vehicle from complex 14. The Gemini Agena target vehicle (GATV) attained a near-circular, 162- by 157-nautical-mile orbit. Spacecraft No. 10 was inserted into a 145- by 86-nautical-mile elliptical orbit. Slant range between the two vehicles was very close to the nominal 1000 miles. Major objective of the mission was achieved during the fourth revolution when the spacecraft rendezvoused with the GATV at 5 hours 23 minutes ground elapsed time and docked with it about 30 minutes later. More spacecraft propellant was used to achieve rendezvous than had been predicted, imposing constraints on the remainder of the mission and requiring the development of an alternate flight plan. As a result, several experiments were not completed, and another secondary objective - docking practice - was not attempted. To conserve fuel and permit remaining objectives to be met, the spacecraft remained docked with the GATV for about 39 hours. During this period, a bending mode test was conducted to determine the dynamics of the docked vehicles, standup extravehicular activties (EVA) were conducted, and several experiments were performed. The GATV primary and secondary propulsion systems were used for six maneuvers to put the docked spacecraft into position for rendezvous with the Gemini VIII GATV as a passive target. The spacecraft undocked at 44 hours 40 minutes ground elapsed time, separated from the GATV, and used its own thrusters to complete the second rendezvous some three hours later. At 48 hours and 42 minutes into the flight, a 39-minute period of umbilical EVA began, which included the retrieval of a micrometorite collection package from the Gemini VIII Agena. The hatch was opened a third time about an hour later to jettison extraneous equipment before reentry. After about three hours of stationkeeping, the spacecraft separated from the GATV. At 51 hours 39 minutes ground elapsed time, the crew performed a true anomaly-adjust maneuver to minimize reentry dispersions resulting from the retrofire maneuver.


1966 July 19 - . 21:44 GMT - .
  • EVA Gemini 10-1 - . Crew: Collins. EVA Type: Stand-Up External Vehicular Activity. EVA Duration: 0.0347 days. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Collins. Program: Gemini. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Gemini 10. Spacecraft: Gemini. Summary: Photographed earth and stars..

1966 July 20 - .
  • EVA Gemini 10-3 - . Crew: Collins. EVA Type: Internal Vehicular Activity. EVA Duration: 0.0007 days. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Collins. Program: Gemini. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Gemini 10. Spacecraft: Gemini. Summary: Threw excess equipment out of spacecraft..

1966 July 20 - . 23:01 GMT - .
  • EVA Gemini 10-2 - . Crew: Collins. EVA Type: Extra-Vehicular Activity. EVA Duration: 0.0271 days. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Collins. Program: Gemini. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Gemini 10. Spacecraft: Gemini. Summary: Retrieved micrometeoroid collector from Agena..

1966 August 12 - .
  • M2 Flight 3 - . Crew: Thompson. Payload: M2-F2 flight 3. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Thompson. Program: NASA Lifting Body. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: M2-F2. Summary: Maximum Speed - 656 kph. Maximum Altitude - 13720 m. Flight Time - 278 sec..

1966 August 24 - .
  • M2 Flight 4 - . Crew: Thompson. Payload: M2-F2 flight 4. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Thompson. Program: NASA Lifting Body. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: M2-F2. Summary: Maximum Speed - 718 kph. Maximum Altitude - 13720 m. Flight Time - 241 sec..

1966 September 2 - . LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K. LV Configuration: Proton 8K82K.
1966 September 2 - .
  • M2 Flight 5 - . Crew: Thompson. Payload: M2-F2 flight 5. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Thompson. Program: NASA Lifting Body. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: M2-F2. Summary: Maximum Speed - 750 kph. Maximum Altitude - 13720 m. Flight Time - 226sec..

1966 September 12 - . 13:05 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC14. LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas Agena D SLV-3. LV Configuration: SLV-3 Agena D 5306 / Agena D 5006.
  • Gemini 11 Agena Target - . Payload: TDA 6/Agena D 5006 GATV. Mass: 3,175 kg (6,999 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: Gemini. Class: Manned. Type: Manned logistics spacecraft. Flight: Gemini 11. Spacecraft: Gemini Agena Target Vehicle. Decay Date: 1966-12-30 . USAF Sat Cat: 2414 . COSPAR: 1966-080A. Apogee: 298 km (185 mi). Perigee: 298 km (185 mi). Inclination: 28.8000 deg. Period: 90.40 min. Summary: Docking target for Gemini 11..

1966 September 12 - . 14:42 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC19. LV Family: Titan. Launch Vehicle: Titan II GLV. LV Configuration: Titan II GLV GT-11 / 62-12566.
  • Gemini 11 - . Call Sign: Gemini 11. Crew: Conrad; Gordon. Backup Crew: Anders; Armstrong. Payload: Gemini SC11. Mass: 3,798 kg (8,373 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Conrad; Gordon; Anders; Armstrong. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: Gemini. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Gemini 11. Spacecraft: Gemini. Duration: 2.97 days. Decay Date: 1966-09-15 . USAF Sat Cat: 2415 . COSPAR: 1966-081A. Apogee: 280 km (170 mi). Perigee: 161 km (100 mi). Inclination: 28.8000 deg. Period: 88.80 min. More highjinks with Conrad. First orbit docking with Agena, followed by boost up to record 800 km orbit, providing first manned views of earth as sphere. Tether attached by Gordon to Agena in spacewalk and after a lot of effort tethered spacecraft put into slow rotation, creating first artificial microgravity.

    The primary objective of the Gemini XI mission was to rendezvous with the Gemini Agena target vehicle (GATV) during the first revolution and dock. Five maneuvers completed the spacecraft/GATV rendezvous at 1 hour 25 minutes ground elapsed time, and the two vehicles docked nine minutes later. Secondary objectives included docking practice, extravehicular activity (EVA), 11 experiments, docked maneuvers, a tethered vehicle test, demonstrating automatic reentry, and parking the GATV. All objectives were achieved except one experiment - evaluation of the minimum reaction power tool - which was not performed because umbilical EVA was terminated prematurely. Umbilical EVA began at 24 hours 2 minutes ground elapsed time and ended 33 minutes later. Gordon became fatigued while attaching the tether from the GATV to the spacecraft docking bar. An hour later the hatch was opened to jettison equipment no longer required. At 40 hours 30 minutes after liftoff, the GATV primary propulsion system (PPS) was fired to raise the apogee of the docked vehicles to 741 nautical miles for two revolutions. The PPS was fired again, 3 hours 23 minutes later, to reduce apogee to 164 nautical miles. The crew then prepared for standup EVA, which began at 47 hours 7 minutes into the flight and lasted 2 hours 8 minutes. The spacecraft was then undocked to begin the tether evaluation. At 50 hours 13 minutes ground elapsed time, the crew initiated rotation. Initial oscillations damped out and the combination became very stable after about 20 minutes; the rotational rate was then increased. Again, initial oscillations gradually damped out and the combination stabilized. At about 53 hours into the mission, the crew released the tether, separated from the GATV, and maneuvered the spacecraft to an identical orbit with the target vehicle. A fuel cell stack failed at 54 hours 31 minutes, but the remaining five stacks shared the load and operated satisfactorily. A rerendezvous was accomplished at 66 hours 40 minutes ground elapsed time, and the crew then prepared for reentry.


1966 September 13 - .
  • EVA Gemini 11-2 - . Crew: Gordon. EVA Type: Internal Vehicular Activity. EVA Duration: 0.0014 days. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Gordon. Program: Gemini. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Gemini 11. Spacecraft: Gemini. Summary: Threw excess equipment out of spacecraft..

1966 September 13 - . 14:44 GMT - .
  • EVA Gemini 11-1 - . Crew: Gordon. EVA Type: Extra-Vehicular Activity. EVA Duration: 0.0229 days. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Gordon. Program: Gemini. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Gemini 11. Spacecraft: Gemini. Summary: Retrieved micrometeoroid collector from Agena..

1966 September 14 - . 12:49 GMT - .
  • EVA Gemini 11-3 - . Crew: Gordon. EVA Type: Stand-Up External Vehicular Activity. EVA Duration: 0.0903 days. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Gordon. Program: Gemini. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Gemini 11. Spacecraft: Gemini. Summary: Photographed earth and stars..

1966 September 16 - .
  • M2 Flight 6 - . Crew: Peterson, Bruce. Payload: M2-F2 flight 6. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Peterson, Bruce. Program: NASA Lifting Body. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: M2-F2. Summary: 360 degree approach. Maximum Speed - 750 kph. Maximum Altitude - 13720 m. Flight Time - 210 sec..

1966 September 20 - .
  • M2 Flight 7 - . Crew: Sorlie. Payload: M2-F2 flight 7. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Sorlie. Program: NASA Lifting Body. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: M2-F2. Summary: Maximum Speed - 677 kph. Maximum Altitude - 13720 m. Flight Time - 211 sec..

1966 September 22 - .
1966 September 28 - .
  • M2 Flight 9 - . Crew: Sorlie. Payload: M2-F2 flight 9. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Sorlie. Program: NASA Lifting Body. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: M2-F2. Summary: Maximum Speed - 713 kph. Maximum Altitude - 13720 m. Flight Time - 233 sec..

1966 October 4 - . LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/D.
  • Dummy Proton/Block D mounted on pad. - . Nation: USSR. Program: Lunar L1. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-L1. A dummy 8K82K/Block D rocket was mounted at the launch site. The dummy was loaded with imitation propellants (kerosene as fuel and water/ethyl alcohol as oxidiser). The nitrogen tetroxide oxidiser had to be kept above -11 degrees C, and it was originally planned for a thermostatically-controlled electrical heating of the tank walls to achieve this. It was ultimately decided that the risk of explosion of such a system was too great, and the system was abandoned.

1966 October 5 - .
  • M2 Flight 10 - . Crew: Sorlie. Payload: M2-F2 flight 10. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Sorlie. Program: NASA Lifting Body. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: M2-F2. Summary: Maximum Speed - 713 kph. Maximum Altitude - 13720 m. Flight Time - 225 sec..

1966 October 12 - .
  • M2 Flight 11 - . Crew: Gentry. Payload: M2-F2 flight 11. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Gentry. Program: NASA Lifting Body. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: M2-F2. Summary: Maximum Speed - 692 kph. Maximum Altitude - 13720 m. Flight Time - 234 sec..

1966 October 26 - .
  • M2 Flight 12 - . Crew: Gentry. Payload: M2-F2 flight 12. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Gentry. Program: NASA Lifting Body. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: M2-F2. Summary: Maximum Speed - 702 kph. Maximum Altitude - 13720 m. Flight Time - 227 sec..

1966 November 3 - . 13:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC40. LV Family: Titan. Launch Vehicle: Titan 3C. LV Configuration: Titan IIIC 3C-9.
  • MOL Mockup - . Payload: MOL Mockup (Titan fuel tank). Mass: 9,680 kg (21,340 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space station. Spacecraft: MOL. COSPAR: 1966-099xx. This modified Titan 2 propellant tank represented the MOL station itself. It allowed study of the aerodynamic loads associated with launching the MOL into orbit and validated the very long length to diameter core represented by the MOL/Titan 3M configuration. It is possible certain prototype MOL equipment was flown as well.
  • Gemini B - . Payload: Gemini SC2. Mass: 1,800 kg (3,900 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: Gemini. COSPAR: 1966-099xx. During the ascent to orbit, the Gemini capsule atop the MOL Cannister was ejected and made a suborbital reentry and splashdown in the Atlantic Ocean. The spacecraft was the Gemini 2 reentry module, reused to test reentry with hatch cut into the heat shield. The capsule was successfully recovered and it was found that the reentry actually melted hatch shut, indicating that the design was valid for MOL.

1966 November 10 - . LV Family: N1. Launch Vehicle: N1.
  • Lunar coordination problems - . Nation: USSR. Program: Lunar L3. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-LOK. Summary: Kamanin diary complains of lunar coordination problems..

1966 November 11 - . 19:07 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC14. LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas Agena D SLV-3. LV Configuration: SLV-3 Agena D 5307 / Agena D 5001R.
  • Gemini 12 Agena Target - . Payload: TDA 7A/Agena D 5001R GATV. Mass: 3,175 kg (6,999 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: Gemini. Class: Manned. Type: Manned logistics spacecraft. Flight: Gemini 12. Spacecraft: Gemini Agena Target Vehicle. Decay Date: 1966-12-23 . USAF Sat Cat: 2565 . COSPAR: 1966-103A. Apogee: 310 km (190 mi). Perigee: 243 km (150 mi). Inclination: 28.8000 deg. Period: 89.90 min. Summary: Docking target for Gemini 12..

1966 November 11 - . 20:46 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC19. LV Family: Titan. Launch Vehicle: Titan II GLV. LV Configuration: Titan II GLV GT-12 / 62-12567.
  • Gemini 12 - . Call Sign: Gemini 12. Crew: Aldrin; Lovell. Backup Crew: Cernan; Cooper. Payload: Gemini SC12. Mass: 3,763 kg (8,295 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Aldrin; Lovell; Cernan; Cooper. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: Gemini. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Gemini 12. Spacecraft: Gemini; Gemini Radar. Duration: 3.94 days. Decay Date: 1966-11-15 . USAF Sat Cat: 2566 . COSPAR: 1966-104A. Apogee: 289 km (179 mi). Perigee: 250 km (150 mi). Inclination: 28.8000 deg. Period: 89.90 min. Two very serious astronauts get it all right to end the program. Docked and redocked with Agena, demonstrating various Apollo scenarios including manual rendezvous and docking without assistance from ground control. Aldrin finally demonstrates ability to accomplish EVA without overloading suit by use of suitable restraints and careful movement.

    Major objectives of the mission were to rendezvous and dock and to evaluate extravehicular activities (EVA). Among the secondary objectives were tethered vehicle evaluation, experiments, third revolution rendezvous and docking, automatic reentry demonstration, docked maneuvering for a high-apogee excursion, docking practice, systems tests, and Gemini Agena target vehicle (GATV) parking. The high-apogee excursion was not attempted because an anomaly was noted in the GATV primary propulsion system during insertion, and parking was not attempted because the GATV's attitude control gas was depleted. All other objectives were achieved. Nine spacecraft maneuvers effected rendezvous with the GATV. The onboard radar malfunctioned before the terminal phase initiate maneuver, but the crew used onboard backup procedures to calculate the maneuvers. Rendezvous was achieved at 3 hours 46 minutes ground elapsed time, docking 28 minutes later. Two phasing maneuvers, using the GATV secondary propulsion system, were accomplished, but the primary propulsion system was not used. The first of two periods of standup EVA began at 19 hours 29 minutes into the flight and lasted for 2 hours 29 minutes. During a more than two-hour umbilical EVA which began at 42 hours 48 minutes, Aldrin attached a 100-foot tether from the GATV to the spacecraft docking bar. He spent part of the period at the spacecraft adapter, evaluating various restraint systems and performing various basic tasks. The second standup EVA lasted 55 minutes, ending at 67 hours 1 minute ground elapsed time. The tether evaluation began at 47 hours 23 minutes after liftoff, with the crew undocking from the GATV. The tether tended to remain slack, although the crew believed that the two vehicles did slowly attain gravity-gradient stabilization. The crew jettisoned the docking bar and released the tether at 51 hours 51 minutes. Several spacecraft systems suffered problems during the flight. Two fuel cell stacks failed and had to be shut down, while two others experienced significant loss of power. At 39 hours 30 minutes ground elapsed time, the crew reported that little or no thrust was available from two orbit attitude and maneuver thrusters.


1966 November 12 - . 16:15 GMT - .
  • EVA Gemini 12-1 - . Crew: Aldrin. EVA Type: Stand-Up External Vehicular Activity. EVA Duration: 0.10 days. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Aldrin. Program: Gemini. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Gemini 12. Spacecraft: Gemini. Summary: Photographed earth and stars..

1966 November 13 - . 15:34 GMT - .
  • EVA Gemini 12-2 - . Crew: Aldrin. EVA Type: Extra-Vehicular Activity. EVA Duration: 0.0896 days. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Aldrin. Program: Gemini. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Gemini 12. Spacecraft: Gemini. Summary: Tested tools and techniques for extravehicular activity..

1966 November 14 - .
  • M2 Flight 13 - . Crew: Gentry. Payload: M2-F2 flight 13. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Gentry. Program: NASA Lifting Body. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: M2-F2. Summary: Maximum Speed - 642 kph. Maximum Altitude - 13720 m. Flight Time - 261 sec..

1966 November 14 - . 14:52 GMT - .
  • EVA Gemini 12-3 - . Crew: Aldrin. EVA Type: Stand-Up External Vehicular Activity. EVA Duration: 0.0382 days. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Aldrin. Program: Gemini. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Gemini 12. Spacecraft: Gemini. Summary: Photographed earth limb and stars in ultraviolet..

1966 November 16 - . LV Family: N1; UR-700.
  • Government go-ahead for N-1 use in lunar program - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Chelomei; Keldysh; Mishin. Program: Lunar L3. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-LOK; LK-700. Mishin's draft plan for the Soviet lunar landing was approved by an expert commission headed by Keldysh. The first N-1 launch was set for March 1968. At same meeting, Chelomei made a last ditch attempt to get his revised UR-700/LK-700 direct landing approach approved in its place. Although Chelomei had lined up the support of Glushko, and Mishin was in a weak position after Korolev's death, Keldysh managed to ensure that the N1-L3 continued. However continued design work on the LK-700, the UR-700 booster, and development of the RD-270 engine were authorised.

1966 November 21 - .
  • M2 Flight 14 - . Crew: Gentry. Payload: M2-F2 flight 14. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Gentry. Program: NASA Lifting Body. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: M2-F2. Summary: Maximum Speed - 716 kph. Maximum Altitude - 13720 m. Flight Time - 230 sec..

1966 November 21 - . LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/D.
  • First Proton/Soyuz L1 begins assembly. - . Nation: USSR. Program: Lunar L1. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-L1. The first flight rocket (serial number 22701) began assembly on 21 November 1966, with mechanical assembly completed by 29 November. Electrical connections and tests were completed by 4 December 1966. Due to New Year’s holidays work did not resume until 28 January 1967. By 28 February the fully assembled booster / spacecraft unit was completed in the MIK, including the 7K-L1P boilerplate spacecraft.

1966 November 28 - . 11:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511. LV Configuration: Soyuz 11A511 U15000-02.
  • Cosmos 133 - . Payload: Soyuz 7K-OK (A) s/n 2. Mass: 6,450 kg (14,210 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Soyuz. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-OK. Duration: 1.97 days. Decay Date: 1966-11-30 . USAF Sat Cat: 2601 . COSPAR: 1966-107A. Apogee: 219 km (136 mi). Perigee: 173 km (107 mi). Inclination: 51.8000 deg. Period: 88.40 min. First test flight of Soyuz 7K-OK earth orbit spacecraft. A planned 'all up' test, with a second Soyuz to be launched the following day and automatically dock with Kosmos 133. This was to be followed by a manned link-up in December 1966. However Kosmos 133's attitude control system malfunctioned, resulting in rapid consumption of orientation fuel, leaving it spinning at 2 rpm. After heroic efforts by ground control and five attempts at retrofire over two days, the craft was finally brought down for a landing on its 33rd revolution. However due to the inaccuracy of the reentry burn, it was determined that the capsule would land in China. The APO self destruct system detected the course deviation and the destruct charge of several dozen kilogrammes of explosive was thought to have destroyed the ship on November 30, 1966 at 10:21 GMT. But stories persisted over the years of the Chinese having a Soyuz capsule in their possession....

1966 December 14 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511. LV Configuration: Soyuz 11A511 U15000-01. FAILURE: Erroneous firing of launch escape tower ignited launch vehicle on the pad.. Failed Stage: P.
  • Soyuz 7K-OK s/n 2 - . Payload: Soyuz 7K-OK (A) s/n 1. Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Program: Soyuz. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-OK. COSPAR: F661214A. Second attempted flight of Soyuz 7K-OK (the spacecraft planned for the linkup with Ksomos 133). An analogue to Mercury Redstone's 'day we launched the tower' but with more disastorous consequences. The core stage ignited, but the strap-ons did not. A booster shutdown was commanded. The service towers were brought back around the booster, and ground crew began work to defuel the launch vehicle. At 27 minutes after the original launch attempt, the Soyuz launch escape system, having received the signal that liftoff had occurred, detected that the booster was not on course (either because a tower arm nudged the booster or because the earth's rotation as detected by the gyros had moved the spacecraft out of limits relative to its original inertial position). The launch escape system ignited, pulling the Soyuz away from the booster, igniting the third stage fuel tanks, leading to an explosion that severely damaged the pad and killed at least one person (the Soviet Rocket Forces major supervising the launch team) and injured many others.

1966 December 22 - .
  • HL-10 Flight 1 - . Crew: Peterson, Bruce. Payload: HL-10 flight 1. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Peterson, Bruce. Program: NASA Lifting Body. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: HL-10. Summary: First flight HL-10. Maximum Speed - 735 kph. Maximum Altitude - 13720 m. Flight Time - 187 sec..

1966 December 28 - .
  • Soyuz-VI to fly by end of 1967. - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Kozlov. Program: Almaz. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: Soyuz VI. Summary: Resolution 'On approval of work on the 7K-VI Zvezda and course of work on Almaz' no. 305 ordered Kozlov's filial 3 of OKB-1 to undertake first flight of the manned military research spacecraft 7K-VI - 11F73 Zvezda by the end of 1967..

1966 December 31 - . LV Family: N1. Launch Vehicle: N1.
1967 January - . LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K. LV Configuration: Proton 8K82K.
  • First L-1 Zond spacecraft mated to Proton - . Payload: Soyuz 7K-L1P #1. Nation: USSR. Program: Lunar L1. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-L1. Summary: Fit tests at Tyuratam. Not launched (Interavia SD)..

1967 February 1 - . LV Family: N1. Launch Vehicle: N1.
  • Government approves landing on moon by end 1968 - . Nation: USSR. Program: Lunar L3. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-LOK. Soviet government approves plan to land cosmonaut on moon by end 1968. N-1 test plan approved, envisioning third quarter 1967 as beginning of flight hardware construction. Fall-back project would be manned circumlunar mission. First manned L1 mission imagined as early as June 1967. First N1 launch by March 1968.

1967 February 7 - . 03:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511. LV Configuration: Soyuz 11A511 U15000-03.
  • Cosmos 140 - . Payload: Soyuz 7K-OK (P) s/n 3. Mass: 6,450 kg (14,210 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Soyuz. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-OK. Duration: 1.98 days. Decay Date: 1967-02-09 . USAF Sat Cat: 2667 . COSPAR: 1967-009A. Apogee: 216 km (134 mi). Perigee: 169 km (105 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.30 min. After the self-destruction of the first Soyuz 7K-OK on re-entry, and the loss of the second one on the pad fire in December, the state commission ruled that the third 7K-OK model would be flown unpiloted on a solo mission. If this was successful then the fourth and fifth Soyuz would be flown on a manned docking mission. Once in orbit Cosmos 140 experienced attitude control problems due to a faulty star sensor resulting in excessive fuel consumption. The spacecraft couldn't keep the required orientation towards the sun to keep the solar panels illuminated, and the batteries discharged. Despite all of these problems the spacecraft remained controllable. An attempted manoeuvre on the 22nd revolution still showed problems with the control system. It malfunctioned yet again during retrofire, leading to a steeper than planned uncontrolled ballistic re-entry. The re-entry capsule itself had depressurised on separation from the service module due to a fault in the base of the capsule. A 300 mm hole burned through in the heat shield during re-entry. Although such events would have been lethal to any human occupants, the capsule's recovery systems operated and the capsule crashed through the ice of the frozen Aral Sea, 3 km from shore and 500 kilometres short of the intended landing zone. The spacecraft finally sank in 10 meters of water and had to be retrieved by divers. Still, the mission was deemed 'good enough' for the next mission to be a manned two-craft docking and crew transfer space spectacular. Mishin and Kamanin felt that a human crew could have sorted out the problems. They were also under intense pressure to achieve a manned circumlunar flight before the 50th Anniversary of the Soviet Revolution in October.

1967 March 10 - . 11:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/23. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/D. LV Configuration: UR-500K/Blok D N10722701.
  • Cosmos 146 - . Payload: Soyuz 7K-L1P s/n 2P. Mass: 5,017 kg (11,060 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Lunar L1. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-L1. Duration: 7.90 days. Decay Date: 1967-03-18 . USAF Sat Cat: 2705 . COSPAR: 1967-021A. Apogee: 312 km (193 mi). Perigee: 178 km (110 mi). Inclination: 51.5000 deg. Period: 89.30 min. Protoype Soyuz 7K-L1P launched by Proton into planned highly elliptical earth orbit. The first flight four-stage Proton rocket began assembly on 21 November 1966, with mechanical assembly completed by 29 November. Electrical connections and tests were completed by 4 December 1966. Due to New Year’s holidays work did not resume until 28 January 1967. By 28 February the fully assembled booster / spacecraft unit was completed in the MIK, including the 7K-L1P boilerplate spacecraft. The launch tower was added on 2 March 1967 and the system was declared ready for launch. A serious potential problem during preparations was the discovery that fuel gases could lead to pump cavitation at the turbine exits. Tests on the ground showed that the problem was not the fuel itself, but in the monitoring equipment. The launch vehicle and Block D stage functioned correctly and put the spacecraft into a translunar trajectory. The spacecraft was not aimed at the moon, did not have a heat shield for reentry, and no recovery was planned or attempted. A successful launch that created false confidence just before the string of failures that would follow.

1967 March 15 - . LV Family: N1. Launch Vehicle: N1.
  • CIA reports on Soviet space developments - . Nation: USSR. Program: Lunar L3. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-LOK. Summary: CIA reports accurately development of N-1, Almaz, Proton, etc.... even states 100,000 kg large space station in development for launch by N-1 by 1969. CIA does not expect lunar landing until early 1970's..

1967 April 8 - . 09:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/23. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/D. LV Configuration: Proton-K/D 228-01. FAILURE: Block D ullage rocket failure; no restart.. Failed Stage: 4.
  • Cosmos 154 - . Payload: Soyuz 7K-L1P s/n 3P. Mass: 5,020 kg (11,060 lb). Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Chelomei; Mishin; Tsybin. Agency: RVSN. Program: Lunar L1; Soyuz. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-L1. Duration: 1.98 days. Decay Date: 1967-04-10 . USAF Sat Cat: 2745 . COSPAR: 1967-032A. Apogee: 203 km (126 mi). Perigee: 187 km (116 mi). Inclination: 51.5000 deg. Period: 88.30 min. Protoype Soyuz 7K-L1 manned circumlunar spacecraft. There are high winds for the L1 launch, 15-17 m/s. The official limit is 20 m/s, but Chelomei wants to scrub the launch if winds go over 15 m/s. Nevertheless the launch proceeds in 17-18 m/s winds and the L1 reached earth orbit. However the Block D translunar injection stage failed to fire (ullage rockets, which had to fire to settle propellants in tanks before main engine fired, were jettisoned prematurely). The failure is blamed on Mishin and has Tsybin seething in anger. Mishin is disorganised and has made many mistakes. Spacecraft burned up two days later when orbit decayed. Later in the day comes the news the RTS has to be replaced on one of the Soyuz 1/2 spacecraft. This will have a 3 to 4 day schedule impact, and push the launch back to 15-20 April. The crews arrive the same day for the upcoming Soyuz launch.

1967 April 23 - . 00:35 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511. LV Configuration: Soyuz 11A511 U15000-04.
  • Soyuz 1 - . Call Sign: Rubin (Ruby ). Crew: Komarov. Backup Crew: Gagarin. Payload: Soyuz 7K-OK s/n 4. Mass: 6,450 kg (14,210 lb). Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Komarov; Gagarin. Agency: MOM. Program: Soyuz. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz 1; Soyuz 2A. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-OK. Duration: 1.12 days. Decay Date: 1967-04-24 . USAF Sat Cat: 2759 . COSPAR: 1967-037A. Apogee: 223 km (138 mi). Perigee: 197 km (122 mi). Inclination: 50.8000 deg. Period: 88.70 min. Space disaster that put back Soviet lunar program 18 months. Soyuz 1 as active spacecraft was launched first. Soyuz 2, with a 3 man crew would launch the following day, with 2 cosmonauts spacewalking to Soyuz 1. However immediately after orbital insertion Komarov's problems started. One of the solar panels failed to deploy, staying wrapped around the service module. Although only receiving half of the planned solar power, an attempt was made to manoeuvre the spacecraft. This failed because of interference of the reaction control system exhaust with the ion flow sensors that were one of the Soyuz' main methods of orientation. Additional Details: here....

1967 May 2 - .
  • M2 Flight 15 - . Crew: Gentry. Payload: M2-F2 flight 15. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Gentry. Program: NASA Lifting Body. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: M2-F2. Summary: Maximum Speed - 661 kph. Maximum Altitude - 13720 m. Flight Time - 231 sec..

1967 May 10 - .
1967 June - .
  • Original planned date for first Spiral subsonic tests - . Nation: USSR. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: MiG 105-11. Summary: This would actually not occur until ten years later..

1967 August 27 - .
  • Tass announces water landing exercises - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Leonov. Program: Lunar L1. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space station. Summary: Tass announces water landing exercises; Leonov involved..

1967 September 27 - . 22:11 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/23. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/D. LV Configuration: Proton-K/D 229-01. FAILURE: First stage -1 RD-253 failed, resulting at T+67 sec in deviation from flight path.. Failed Stage: 1.
  • Soyuz 7K-L1 s/n 4L - . Payload: Soyuz 7K-L1 s/n 4L. Mass: 5,390 kg (11,880 lb). Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Mishin; Barmin. Agency: RVSN. Program: Lunar L1. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-L1. Decay Date: 1967-09-28 . COSPAR: F670927B. First attempted circumlunar flight. The UR-500K failed, crashing 50 to 60 km from the launch pad. The L1 radio beacon was detected 65 km north of the Baikonur aerodrome by an Il-14 search aircraft. An Mi-6 helicopter recovered the capsule and had it back to the cosmodrome by 13:30. Mishin's record: of seven launches of the Soyuz and L1, only one has been successful. Film of the launch shows that one engine of the first stage failed. Mishin still wants to launch the next L1 by 28 October. The other chief designers oppose the move. Barmin says at least five months are needed to diagnose the cause of the failures and makes fixes to ensure they don't happen again. Nevertheless the leadership sides with Mishin, and Barmin is ordered to prepare the left Proton pad for a launch within 30 to 40 days.

1967 October 27 - . 09:29 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511.
  • Cosmos 186 - . Payload: Soyuz 7K-OK (A) s/n 6. Mass: 6,530 kg (14,390 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Soyuz. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-OK. Duration: 3.95 days. Decay Date: 1967-10-31 . USAF Sat Cat: 3014 . COSPAR: 1967-105A. Apogee: 223 km (138 mi). Perigee: 179 km (111 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.60 min. Docked with Cosmos 188; first automated rendezvous and docking of two spacecraft. The dockings were timed to celebrate the 50th Anniversary of the October Revolution (in lieu of a succession of manned space feats that all had to be cancelled due to schedule delays). Achieved automatic rendezvous on second attempt. Capture achieved but hard docking and electric connections unsuccessful due to misallignment of spacecraft. Star tracker failed and had to make a high-G ballistic re-entry. Recovered October 31, 1967 08:20 GMT.

1967 October 30 - . 08:12 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511.
  • Cosmos 188 - . Payload: Soyuz 7K-OK (P) s/n 5. Mass: 6,530 kg (14,390 lb). Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Mishin; Mnatsakanian. Agency: MOM. Program: Soyuz. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-OK. Duration: 3.04 days. Decay Date: 1967-11-02 . USAF Sat Cat: 3020 . COSPAR: 1967-107A. Apogee: 247 km (153 mi). Perigee: 180 km (110 mi). Inclination: 51.7000 deg. Period: 88.70 min. Docking target craft for Cosmos 186, which achieved world's first automatic rendezvous on second attempt. Hard docking achieved but electric connections unsuccessful due to misallignment of spacecraft. Ion flow sensor failed and Cosmos 188 had to make a high-G uncontrolled re-entry. When it deviated too far off course, it was destroyed by the on-board self-destruct system,. However officially the Soviet Union reported that it landed succesfully on November 2, 1967 at 09:10 GMT, and that its mission was 'investigation of outer space, development of new systems and elements to be used in the construction of space devices'. Additional Details: here....

1967 November 22 - . 19:07 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/24. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/D. LV Configuration: Proton-K/D 230-01. FAILURE: Second stage - 1 x RD-0210 failure, shutoff of stage 4 seconds after ignition. Launcher crashed downrange.. Failed Stage: 2.
  • Soyuz 7K-L1 s/n 5L - . Payload: Soyuz 7K-L1 s/n 5L. Mass: 5,390 kg (11,880 lb). Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Glushko; Chelomei; Mishin; Leonov. Agency: RVSN. Program: Lunar L1. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-L1. Decay Date: 1967-11-21 . COSPAR: F671122A. The launch takes place at 00:07 local time (22:07 on 22 November Moscow time). Glushko, Chelomei, and Kamanin observe the launch from an observation point in -5 deg C weather. Three to four seconds after second stage ignition, the SAS pulls the spacecraft away from the booster. Telemetry shows that engine number 4 of stage 2 never ignited, and after 3.9 seconds the remaining three engines were shut dwon by the SBN (Booster Safety System) and the SAS abort tower fired. The capsule's radio beacon was detected and the spacecraft was found 80 km southwest of Dzhezkazgan, 285 km down range. The Proton problems are maddening. Over 100 rocket launches have used engines from this factory, with no previous failure. Of ten of the last launches under Mishin's direction (6 Soyuz and 4 L1) only two have went well - an 80% failure rate! Mishin is totally without luck. Kamanin and Leonov take an An-12 to see the L1 at its landing point. Leonov wants to see proof that the cosmonauts would be saved in any conditions. The capsule landed in -17 deg C and 12 m/s winds. The parachute pulled the capsule along the ground for 550 m, and the soft landing rockets fired somewhere above the 1.2 m design height. After safing of the APO self-destruct package, the capsule is lifted to an airfield by a Mi-4.

1968 March 1 - . LV Family: N1. Launch Vehicle: N1.
  • Originally planned N-1 first launch - . Nation: USSR. Program: Lunar L3. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-LOK. Summary: Slipped to May..

1968 March 2 - . 18:29 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/23. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/D. LV Configuration: Proton-K/D 231-01.
  • Zond 4 - . Payload: Soyuz 7K-L1 s/n 6L. Mass: 5,390 kg (11,880 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Lunar L1. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-L1 . Duration: 5.22 days. Decay Date: 1968-03-09 . USAF Sat Cat: 3134 . COSPAR: 1968-013A. Apogee: 400,000 km (240,000 mi). Perigee: 191 km (118 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 15,561.71 min. What at first seemed to be a success, very much needed by the L1 program, ended in failure. The Proton booster lifted off in 18 m/s winds, -3 deg C temperatures, and into very low clouds - it disappeared from view at only 150 m altitude. Aircraft at 9, 10, and 11 km altitude reported the cloud deck topped 8300 m, with 1.5 to 2.0 km visibility. The spacecraft was successfully launched into a 330,000 km apogee orbit 180 degrees away from the moon. On reentry, the guidance system failed, and the planned double skip maneuver to bring the descent module to a landing in the Soviet Union was not possible. Ustinov had ordered the self-destruct package to be armed and the capsule blew up 12 km above the Gulf of Guinea. Kamanin disagreed strongly with this decision; the spacecraft could have still been recovered in the secondary area by Soviet naval vessels after a 20 G reentry. The decsion was made to recover the spacecraft in the future whenever possible.
    Officially: Solar Orbit (Heliocentric). Study of remote regions of circumterrestrial space, development of new on-board systems and units of space stations.

1968 March 15 - .
  • HL-10 Flight 2 - . Crew: Gentry. Payload: HL-10 flight 2. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Gentry. Program: NASA Lifting Body. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: HL-10. Summary: Maximum Speed - 684 kph. Maximum Altitude - 13720 m. Flight Time - 243 sec..

1968 April 3 - .
  • HL-10 Flight 3 - . Crew: Gentry. Payload: HL-10 flight 3. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Gentry. Program: NASA Lifting Body. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: HL-10. Summary: Maximum Speed - 732 kph. Maximum Altitude - 13720 m. Flight Time - 242 sec..

1968 April 14 - . 10:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511.
  • Cosmos 212 - . Payload: Soyuz 7K-OK (A) s/n 8. Mass: 6,500 kg (14,300 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Soyuz. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-OK. Duration: 4.92 days. Decay Date: 1968-04-19 . USAF Sat Cat: 3183 . COSPAR: 1968-029A. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi). Perigee: 180 km (110 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.30 min. Summary: Cosmos 212 docked with Cosmos 213 in the first completely successful test of the Soyuz 7K-OK attitude control, automatic rendezvous and docking systems. Cosmos 212 was successfully recovered on April 19, 1968 at 08:10 GMT.. Additional Details: here....

1968 April 15 - . 09:34 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511.
  • Cosmos 213 - . Payload: Soyuz 7K-OK (P) s/n 7. Mass: 6,500 kg (14,300 lb). Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Beregovoi. Agency: MOM. Program: Soyuz. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-OK. Duration: 5.02 days. Decay Date: 1968-04-20 . USAF Sat Cat: 3193 . COSPAR: 1968-030A. Apogee: 254 km (157 mi). Perigee: 188 km (116 mi). Inclination: 51.7000 deg. Period: 88.90 min. Cosmos 213 was the target for Cosmos 212 in a successful test of Soyuz 7K-OK rendezvous and docking systems. The Cosmos 213 launch was the most accurate yet. The spacecraft was placed in orbit only 4 km from Cosmos 212, ready for a first-orbit docking. Both spacecraft were recovered, but Cosmos 213 was dragged by heavy wind across the steppes when the parachute lines didn't jettison at touchdown. This failure caused the upcoming Soyuz 2/3 manned docking mission to be scaled back.
    Officially: Investigation of outer space, development of new systems and elements to be used in the construction of space devices. Additional Details: here....

1968 April 22 - . 23:01 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/24. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/D. LV Configuration: Proton-K/D 232-01. FAILURE: Second stage shut-off prematurely due to short-circuit in Zond control system.. Failed Stage: 2.
  • Soyuz 7K-L1 s/n 7L - . Payload: Soyuz 7K-L1 s/n 7L. Mass: 5,390 kg (11,880 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Program: Lunar L1. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-L1. Decay Date: 1968-04-22 . COSPAR: F680422A. L1 launch attempt, lift-off at 02:00 local time. The spacecraft was to separate at 589 seconds into the flight. Instead at 260 seconds, a short circuit in the malfunction detection system incorrectly indicated a launch vehicle failure. This in turn triggered the SAS abort system. The SAS shut down the good stage and separated the spacecraft from the booster. The capsule landed safely 520 km downrange from the launch site. This was the third such abort, which if nothing else proved the reliability of the SAS - all of the spacecraft landed safely.

1968 April 25 - .
  • HL-10 Flight 4 - . Crew: Gentry. Payload: HL-10 flight 4. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Gentry. Program: NASA Lifting Body. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: HL-10. Summary: Maximum Speed - 739 kph. Maximum Altitude - 13720 m. Flight Time - 258 sec..

1968 May 3 - .
  • HL-10 Flight 5 - . Crew: Gentry. Payload: HL-10 flight 5. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Gentry. Program: NASA Lifting Body. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: HL-10. Summary: Maximum Speed - 732 kph. Maximum Altitude - 13720 m. Flight Time - 245 sec..

1968 May 16 - .
  • HL-10 Flight 6 - . Crew: Gentry. Payload: HL-10 flight 6. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Gentry. Program: NASA Lifting Body. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: HL-10. Summary: Maximum Speed - 719 kph. Maximum Altitude - 13720 m. Flight Time - 265 sec..

1968 May 28 - .
  • HL-10 Flight 7 - . Crew: Manke. Payload: HL-10 flight 7. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Manke. Program: NASA Lifting Body. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: HL-10. Summary: Maximum Speed - 698 kph. Maximum Altitude - 13720 m. Flight Time - 245 sec..

1968 June 11 - .
  • HL-10 Flight 8 - . Crew: Manke. Payload: HL-10 flight 8. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Manke. Program: NASA Lifting Body. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: HL-10. Summary: Maximum Speed - 697 kph. Maximum Altitude - 13720 m. Flight Time - 246 sec..

1968 June 21 - .
  • HL-10 Flight 9 - . Crew: Gentry. Payload: HL-10 flight 9. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Gentry. Program: NASA Lifting Body. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: HL-10. Summary: Maximum Speed - 681 kph. Maximum Altitude - 13720 m. Flight Time - 271 sec..

1968 June 26 - .
  • November manned circumlunar flight set - . Nation: USSR. Program: Lunar L1. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-L1. State commission sets November as date for manned circumlunar flight. The next L1 flight was set for July, with flights to continue at monthly intervals at each translunar launch window. 3 or 4 unmanned flights had to be successful before a manned flight would be attempted.

July 1968 - . LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K. LV Configuration: Proton 8K82K.
  • DIA/CIA warn of impending Zond circumlunar flight - . Nation: USSR. Program: Lunar L1. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-L1. The information led NASA to decide to send Apollo 8 on a risky lunar orbital mission at the end of December 1968. Interestingly enough the CIA warning to NASA came within days of the L1 State Commission's meeting and decision to press for a November circumlunar flight.

1968 July 21 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K. LV Configuration: Proton 8K82K.
  • Zond 7K-L1 s/n 8L - . Payload: Zond 7K-L1 s/n 8L. Mass: 5,140 kg (11,330 lb). Nation: USSR. Program: Lunar L1. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-L1. Decay Date: 1968-07-21 . Summary: Block D stage exploded on pad, killing three people. Booster and 7K-L1 spacecraft were still intact however..

1968 August 28 - . 10:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511.
  • Cosmos 238 - . Payload: Soyuz 7K-OK s/n 9. Mass: 6,520 kg (14,370 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Soyuz. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-OK. Duration: 3.96 days. Decay Date: 1968-09-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 3351 . COSPAR: 1968-072A. Apogee: 210 km (130 mi). Perigee: 203 km (126 mi). Inclination: 51.7000 deg. Period: 88.60 min. Summary: Recovered September 1, 1968 9:03 GMT. Final test of redesigned Soyuz 7K-OK spacecraft for Soyuz 3 manned mission..

1968 September 14 - . 21:42 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/23. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/D. LV Configuration: Proton-K/D 234-01.
  • Zond 5 - . Payload: Soyuz 7K-L1 s/n 9L. Mass: 5,390 kg (11,880 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Lunar L1. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-L1 . Duration: 5.76 days. Decay Date: 1968-09-21 . USAF Sat Cat: 3394 . COSPAR: 1968-076A. Apogee: 385,000 km (239,000 mi). Perigee: 200 km (120 mi). Inclination: 51.5000 deg. Period: 14,722.06 min. First successful circumlunar flight with recovery. Test flight of manned spacecraft; launched from an earth parking orbit to make a lunar flyby and return to earth. On September 18, 1968, the spacecraft flew around the moon at an altitude of 1950 km. High quality photographs of the earth were taken at a distance of 90,000 km. A biological payload of turtles, wine flies, meal worms, plants, seeds, bacteria, and other living matter was included in the flight. Before re-entry the gyroscopic platform went off line due to ground operator failure. However this time the self destruct command was not given. After a ballistic 20G re-entry the capsule splashed down in the Indian Ocean at 32:63 S, 65:55 E on September 21, 1968 16:08 GMT. Soviet naval vessels were 100 km from the landing location and recovered the spacecraft the next day, shipping it via Bombay back to Soviet Union. Additional Details: here....

1968 September 24 - .
  • HL-10 Flight 10 - . Crew: Gentry. Payload: HL-10 flight 10. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Gentry. Program: NASA Lifting Body. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: HL-10. Summary: XLR-11 engine installed. Maximum Speed - 722 kph. Maximum Altitude - 13720 m. Flight Time - 245 sec..

1968 October 3 - .
  • HL-10 Flight 11 - . Crew: Manke. Payload: HL-10 flight 11. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Manke. Program: NASA Lifting Body. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: HL-10. Summary: Maximum Speed - 758 kph. Maximum Altitude - 13720 m. Flight Time - 243 sec..

1968 October 23 - .
  • HL-10 Flight 12 - . Crew: Gentry. Payload: HL-10 flight 12. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Gentry. Program: NASA Lifting Body. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: HL-10. Summary: First powered flight. Premature shutdown. Maximum Speed - 722 kph. Maximum Altitude - 12100 m. Flight Time - 189 sec..

1968 October 25 - . 09:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511.
  • Soyuz 2 - . Payload: Soyuz 7K-OK s/n 11. Mass: 6,450 kg (14,210 lb). Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Beregovoi. Agency: MOM. Program: Soyuz. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz 3. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-OK. Duration: 2.95 days. Decay Date: 1968-10-28 . USAF Sat Cat: 3511 . COSPAR: 1968-093A. Apogee: 229 km (142 mi). Perigee: 191 km (118 mi). Inclination: 51.7000 deg. Period: 88.60 min. Unmanned docking target for Soyuz 3. Soyuz 2 launched on time at 12:00 local time, in 0 deg C temperatures and 5 m/s winds. Launch was on time 'as in Korolev's time', notes Kamanin. Docking with Soyuz 3 a failure. Recovered October 28, 1968 7:51 GMT, 5 km from its aim point. Maneuver Summary: 177km X 196km orbit to 184km X 230km orbit. Delta V: 12 m/s.
    Officially: Complex testing of spaceship systems in conditions of space flight.

1968 October 26 - . 08:34 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511.
  • Soyuz 3 - . Call Sign: Argon (Argon ). Crew: Beregovoi. Backup Crew: Shatalov; Volynov. Payload: Soyuz 7K-OK s/n 10. Mass: 6,575 kg (14,495 lb). Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Beregovoi; Shatalov; Volynov. Agency: MOM. Program: Soyuz. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz 3. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-OK. Duration: 3.95 days. Decay Date: 1968-10-30 . USAF Sat Cat: 3516 . COSPAR: 1968-094A. Apogee: 205 km (127 mi). Perigee: 183 km (113 mi). Inclination: 51.7000 deg. Period: 88.30 min. Second manned Soyuz flight. Rendezvoused with the unmanned Soyuz 2 but failed to dock. Complex testing of spaceship systems; development, in joint flight with space ship Soyuz 2 of processes of space ship manoeuvring and docking in artificial earth satellite orbit; development of elements of celestial navigation; conduct of research under space flight conditions. The failed docking was blamed on manual control of the Soyuz by Beregovoi, who repeatedly put the spacecraft in an orientation that nulled the automatic docking system. Beregovoi used nearly all of his orientation fuel in his first attempt to dock - of 80 kg allocated, only 8 to 10 kg was remaining. Additional Details: here....

1968 November 10 - . 19:11 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/23. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/D. LV Configuration: Proton-K/D 235-01.
  • Zond 6 - . Payload: Soyuz 7K-L1 s/n 12L. Mass: 5,375 kg (11,849 lb). Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Bushuyev. Agency: MOM. Program: Lunar L1. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-L1 . Duration: 5.79 days. Decay Date: 1968-11-17 . USAF Sat Cat: 3535 . COSPAR: 1968-101A. Apogee: 400,000 km (240,000 mi). Perigee: 200 km (120 mi). Inclination: 51.5000 deg. Period: 15,562.22 min. Test flight of manned circumlunar spacecraft. Successfully launched towards the moon with a scientific payload including cosmic-ray and micrometeoroid detectors, photography equipment, and a biological specimens. A midcourse correction on 12 November resulted in a loop around the moon at an altitude of 2,420 km on 14 November. Zond 6 took spectacular photos of the moon’s limb with the earth in the background. Photographs were also taken of the lunar near and far side with panchromatic film from distances of approximately 11,000 km and 3300 km. Each photo was 12.70 by 17.78 cm. Some of the views allowed for stereo pictures. On the return leg a gasket failed, leading to cabin depressurisation, which would have been fatal to a human crew. The 7K-L1 then made the first successful double skip trajectory, dipping into the earth's atmosphere over Antarctica, slowing from 11 km/sec to suborbital velocity, then skipping back out into space before making a final re-entry onto Soviet territory. The landing point was only 16 km from the pad from which it had been launched toward the moon. After the re-entry the main parachute ejected prematurely, ripping the main canopy, leading to the capsule being destroyed on impact with the ground. One negative was recovered from the camera container and a small victory obtained over the Americans. But the criteria for a manned flight had obviously not been met and Mishin's only hope to beet the Americans was a failure or delay in the Apollo 8 flight set for December. The next Zond test was set for January. Additional Details: here....

1968 November 13 - .
  • HL-10 Flight 13 - . Crew: Manke. Payload: HL-10 flight 13. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Manke. Program: NASA Lifting Body. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: HL-10. Summary: 2 chambers, 186-sec powered flight. Maximum Speed - 843 kph. Maximum Altitude - 13000 m. Flight Time - 385 sec..

1968 December 9 - .
  • HL-10 Flight 14 - . Crew: Gentry. Payload: HL-10 flight 14. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Gentry. Program: NASA Lifting Body. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: HL-10. Summary: 2 chambers. Maximum Speed - 872 kph. Maximum Altitude - 14450 m. Flight Time - 394 sec..

1969 January 14 - . 07:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511.
  • Soyuz 4 - . Call Sign: Amur (Amur - river). Crew: Shatalov. Backup Crew: Shonin. Payload: Soyuz 7K-OK (A) s/n 12. Mass: 6,625 kg (14,605 lb). Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Shatalov; Shonin. Agency: MOM. Program: Soyuz. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz 4; Soyuz 4/5. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-OK. Duration: 2.97 days. Decay Date: 1969-01-17 . USAF Sat Cat: 3654 . COSPAR: 1969-004A. Apogee: 224 km (139 mi). Perigee: 213 km (132 mi). Inclination: 51.7000 deg. Period: 88.80 min. Soyuz 4 is launched with Vladimir Shatalov aboard without further problems at 10:30. This time the rockets gyroscopes, the capsule communications, and the television camera all functioned perfectly. Volynov and his crew for Soyuz 5 watched the launch from Area 17. Later Soyuz 4 would dock with Soyuz 5, and following a transfer of two cosmonauts, return with Shatalov, Yevgeni Khrunov and Alexsei Yeliseyev from Soyuz 5. Official purpose: scientific, technical and medico-biological research, checking and testing of onboard systems and design elements of space craft, docking of piloted space craft and construction of an experimental space station, transfer of cosmonauts from one craft to another in orbit. This mission finally successfully completed the simulated lunar orbit docking and crew transfer mission attempted by Soyuz 1 in April 1967. In making the transfer Khrunov and Yeliseyev avoided the most spectacular survivable incident of the space age - the nose-first reentry of Soyuz 5, still attached to its service module.

1969 January 15 - . 07:04 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511.
  • Soyuz 5 - . Call Sign: Baikal (Baikal - lake in Siberia). Crew: Khrunov; Volynov; Yeliseyev. Backup Crew: Filipchenko; Gorbatko; Kubasov. Payload: Soyuz 7K-OK (P) s/n 13. Mass: 6,585 kg (14,517 lb). Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Khrunov; Volynov; Yeliseyev; Filipchenko; Gorbatko; Kubasov. Agency: MOM. Program: Soyuz. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz 5; Soyuz 4/5. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-OK. Duration: 3.04 days. Decay Date: 1969-01-18 . USAF Sat Cat: 3656 . COSPAR: 1969-005A. Apogee: 212 km (131 mi). Perigee: 196 km (121 mi). Inclination: 51.7000 deg. Period: 88.60 min. At 3 am an An-12 arrives from Moscow with ten newspapers, and letters for Shatalov, to be delivered by the Soyuz 5 crew to him as the first 'space mail'. At 05:15 the State Commission convened and approved launch at 10:04:30. The countdown proceeds normally; meanwhile communications sessions are held with Shatalov on Soyuz 4. The commission is taken by automobile convoy from Area 2, to Area 17, where the Soyuz 5 crew declares itself ready for flight. At T-25 minutes, with the crew already aboard the spacecraft, a piece of electrical equipment fails and needs to be replaced. Engineer-Captain Viktor Vasilyevich Alyeshin goes to the fuelled booster and replaces it. While doing this he notices that the access hatch has been secured with only three bolts, instead of the four required. Nevertheless the launch proceeds successfully. After Soyuz 5 is in orbit, it and Soyuz 4 begin their mutual series of manoeuvres for rendezvous and docking. Officially the flight conducted scientific, technical and medico-biological research, checking and testing of onboard systems and design elements of space craft, docking of piloted space craft and construction of an experimental space station, transfer of cosmonauts from one craft to another in orbit.

1969 January 16 - . 12:43 GMT - .
  • EVA Soyuz 4/5-1 - . Crew: Khrunov; Yeliseyev. EVA Type: Extra-Vehicular Activity. EVA Duration: 0.0257 days. Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Khrunov; Yeliseyev. Program: Soyuz. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz 4/5; Soyuz 4; Soyuz 5. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-OK. A day after the launch of Soyuz 5, Soyuz 4 docked with it. The Soyuz 4 active spacecraft was equipped with a long docking probe, designated 'Shtir'. The Soyuz 5 target spacecraft was equipped with the 'Konus' receptacle. The symbology lead Volynov to joke that he 'was being raped' when the hard docking was accomplished. Khrunov and Yeliseyev transferred to and returned in Soyuz 4, the feat they had hoped to accomplish in the cancelled Soyuz 2 flight almost two years earlier. The external crew transfer was also a test of the technique needed for the Soviet lunar landing.

1969 January 20 - . 04:14 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/23. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/D. LV Configuration: Proton-K/D 237-01. FAILURE: Second stage - One RD-0210 engine fails at T+510 sec, resulting in flight path deviation, automatic shutoff of launch vehicle.. Failed Stage: 2.
  • Soyuz 7K-L1 s/n 13L - . Payload: Soyuz 7K-L1 s/n 13L. Mass: 5,390 kg (11,880 lb). Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Smirnov; Ustinov; Mishin. Agency: RVSN. Program: Lunar L1. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-L1. Decay Date: 1969-01-19 . COSPAR: F690120A. Launch failure - but the abort system again functioned perfectly, taking the capsule to a safe landing (in Mongolia!). At 501 seconds into the flight one of the four engines of the second stage shut down, and remained shut down for 25 seconds. The ever-reliable SAS abort system detected the failure, and separated the capsule from the failed booster. Yet again a successful capsule recovery after a booster failure. Additional Details: here....

1969 February 21 - . 09:18 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC110R. LV Family: N1. Launch Vehicle: N1. LV Configuration: N-1 11A52 3L. FAILURE: First stage failure.. Failed Stage: 1.
  • N1 3L launch - . Payload: Soyuz 7K-L1S s/n 3. Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Kirillov; Dorofeyev; Afanasyev, Sergei; Mishin. Agency: RVSN. Program: Lunar L3. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-L1A. Decay Date: 1969-02-21 . COSPAR: F690221A. Apogee: 30 km (18 mi). N-1 serial number 3L was the first N-1 launched. The vehicle ran into trouble immediately at lift-off. A fire developed in the tail compartment. The engine monitoring system detected the fire, but then gave an incorrect signal, shutting down all engines at 68.7 seconds into the flight. British intelligence detected the launch attempt, but the CIA's technical means for some reason missed it and they denied for years that it had ever occurred. In retrospect the launch team at Baikonur pointed to a grave mistake - at the christening of the first N1, the champagne bottle broke against the crawler-transporter rather than the hull of the rocket. After the 3L failure everyone knew there was no chance at all of beating the Americans to the moon. Additional Details: here....

1969 March 3 - .
  • Soviet/Chinese troops clash on Ussuri River - . Nation: USSR. Program: Lunar L3. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space station. Summary: Military on full alert; Tyuratam preempted by military through June.

1969 April 17 - .
  • HL-10 Flight 15 - . Crew: Manke. Payload: HL-10 flight 15. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Manke. Program: NASA Lifting Body. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: HL-10. Summary: 3 chambers. Maximum Speed - 973 kph. Maximum Altitude - 16070 m. Flight Time - 400 sec..

1969 April 17 - .
  • X-24 Flight 1 - . Crew: Gentry. Payload: X-24A flight 1. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Gentry. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: X-24A. Summary: Glide. Maximum Speed - 763 kph. Maximum Altitude - 13720 m. Flight Time - 217 sec..

1969 April 25 - .
  • HL-10 Flight 16 - . Crew: Dana. Payload: HL-10 flight 16. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Dana. Program: NASA Lifting Body. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: HL-10. Summary: Glide. Maximum Speed - 743 kph. Maximum Altitude - 13720 m. Flight Time - 252 sec..

1969 May 8 - .
  • X-24 Flight 2 - . Crew: Gentry. Payload: X-24A flight 2. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Gentry. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: X-24A. Summary: Glide. Maximum Speed - 735 kph. Maximum Altitude - 13720 m. Flight Time - 253 sec..

1969 May 9 - .
  • HL-10 Flight 17 - . Crew: Manke. Payload: HL-10 flight 17. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Manke. Program: NASA Lifting Body. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: HL-10. Summary: 3 chambers, first supersonic. Maximum Speed - 1197 kph. Maximum Altitude - 16250 m. Flight Time - 410 sec..

1969 May 20 - .
  • HL-10 Flight 18 - . Crew: Dana. Payload: HL-10 flight 18. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Dana. Program: NASA Lifting Body. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: HL-10. Summary: Maximum Speed - 959 kph. Maximum Altitude - 14970 m. Flight Time - 414 sec..

1969 May 28 - .
  • HL-10 Flight 19 - . Crew: Manke. Payload: HL-10 flight 19. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Manke. Program: NASA Lifting Body. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: HL-10. Summary: 2 chambers. Maximum Speed - 1311 kph. Maximum Altitude - 18960 m. Flight Time - 398 sec..

1969 June 6 - .
  • HL-10 Flight 20 - . Crew: Hoag. Payload: HL-10 flight 20. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Hoag. Program: NASA Lifting Body. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: HL-10. Summary: Glide. Maximum Speed - 1483 kph. Maximum Altitude - 19540 m. Flight Time - 231 sec..

1969 June 10 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. LV Family: Titan. Launch Vehicle: Titan 3C.
  • MOL Program cancelled - . Nation: USA. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space station. Spacecraft: MOL. Department of Defense announced cancellation of the planned Manned Orbiting Laboratory (MOL) program from Space Launch Complex 6 at Vandenberg AFB. The cancellation was expected to save $ 1.5 billion of the projected total $ 3.0 billion program costs. The SLC-6 launch facility at Vandenberg, 90% complete, would be finished and mothballed. MOL reconnaisance systems useful on unmanned satellites would be completed for a total cost of $ 225 million. Ten thousand aerospace workers were laid off as a result of the cancellation.

1969 June 19 - .
  • HL-10 Flight 21 - . Crew: Manke. Payload: HL-10 flight 21. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Manke. Program: NASA Lifting Body. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: HL-10. Summary: 2 chambers. Maximum Speed - 1483 kph. Maximum Altitude - 19540 m. Flight Time - 378 sec..

1969 June 21 - .
  • Design issued for OIS military space station. - . Nation: USSR. Program: Almaz. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-S; Soyuz OB-VI. Summary: Draft project OIS 11F730, was issued by TsKBEM and filial 3 jointly. In the course of 1969 complete drawings were released for the OIS project including modules for the spacecraft 7K-S, 7K-S-I, and 7K-S-II..

1969 June 23 - .
  • HL-10 Flight 22 - . Crew: Dana. Payload: HL-10 flight 22. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Dana. Program: NASA Lifting Body. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: HL-10. Summary: 2 chambers. Maximum Speed - 1350 kph. Maximum Altitude - 19450 m. Flight Time - 373 sec..

1969 June 30 - .
  • Spiral project cancelled - . Nation: USSR. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: MiG 105-11. Summary: No competing US project any more, huge obstacles in getting Tu-144 SST to fly at Mach 2 sustained let alone Mach 4 sustained for Tupolev's Spiral first stage..

1969 July 3 - . 20:18 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC110R. LV Family: N1. Launch Vehicle: N1. LV Configuration: N-1 11A52 5L. FAILURE: First stage failure.. Failed Stage: 1.
  • N1 5L launch - . Payload: Soyuz 7K-L1S s/n 5 / Dummy LK. Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Program: Lunar L3. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Apollo 11. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-L1A. Decay Date: 1969-07-03 . COSPAR: F690703A. N-1 serial number 5L began to fail at 0.25 second after liftoff when the oxidizer pump of engine number 8 ingested a slag fragment and exploded. A fire ensued as the vehicle climbed past the top of the tower. Engines were shutdown until the acceleration dropped below 1 G; then the vehicle began to fall back to the pad at a 45 degree angle. The escape tower fired at the top of the brief trajectory, taking the L1S dummy descent module away from the pad. Upon impact of the base of the N1 with the pad, the vehicle exploded, destroying launch pad 110 east, which would take over 18 months to repair. This was the end of a slight Soviet hope of upstaging the US Apollo 11. Additional Details: here....

1969 August 6 - .
  • HL-10 Flight 23 - . Crew: Manke. Payload: HL-10 flight 23. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Manke. Program: NASA Lifting Body. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: HL-10. Summary: First 4-chambered flight. Maximum Speed - 1641 kph. Maximum Altitude - 23190 m. Flight Time - 372 sec..

1969 August 7 - . 23:48 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/23. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/D. LV Configuration: Proton-K/D 243-01.
  • Zond 7 - . Payload: Soyuz 7K-L1 s/n 11. Mass: 5,379 kg (11,858 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Lunar L1. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-L1 . Duration: 5.00 days. Decay Date: 1969-08-14 . USAF Sat Cat: 4062 . COSPAR: 1969-067A. Apogee: 400,000 km (240,000 mi). Perigee: 200 km (120 mi). Inclination: 51.5000 deg. Period: 15,562.22 min. Circumlunar flight; successfully recovered in USSR August 13, 1969. Only completely successful L1 flight that could have returned cosmonauts alive or uninjured to earth. Official mission was further studies of the moon and circumlunar space, to obtain colour photography of the earth and the moon from varying distances, and to flight test the spacecraft systems. Earth photos were obtained on August 9, 1969. On August 11, 1969, the spacecraft flew past the moon at a distance of 1984.6 km and conducted two picture taking sessions. Successfully accomplished double-dip re-entry and landed 50 km from aim point near Kustani in the USSR.

1969 August 21 - .
  • X-24 Flight 3 - . Crew: Gentry. Payload: X-24A flight 3. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Gentry. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: X-24A. Summary: Glide. Maximum Speed - 615 kph. Maximum Altitude - 12190 m. Flight Time - 270 sec..

1969 September 3 - .
  • HL-10 Flight 24 - . Crew: Dana. Payload: HL-10 flight 24. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Dana. Program: NASA Lifting Body. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: HL-10. Summary: 4 chambers. Maximum Speed - 1541 kph. Maximum Altitude - 23760 m. Flight Time - 414 sec..

1969 September 9 - .
  • X-24 Flight 4 - . Crew: Gentry. Payload: X-24A flight 4. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Gentry. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: X-24A. Summary: Glide. Maximum Speed - 647 kph. Maximum Altitude - 12190 m. Flight Time - 232 sec..

1969 September 18 - .
  • HL-10 Flight 25 - . Crew: Manke. Payload: HL-10 flight 25. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Manke. Program: NASA Lifting Body. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: HL-10. Summary: 4 chambers. Maximum Speed - 1340 kph. Maximum Altitude - 24140 m. Flight Time - 426 sec..

1969 September 24 - .
  • X-24 Flight 5 - . Crew: Gentry. Payload: X-24A flight 5. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Gentry. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: X-24A. Summary: Glide. Maximum Speed - 637 kph. Maximum Altitude - 12190 m. Flight Time - 257 sec..

1969 September 30 - .
  • HL-10 Flight 26 - . Crew: Hoag. Payload: HL-10 flight 26. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Hoag. Program: NASA Lifting Body. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: HL-10. Summary: 2 chambers. Maximum Speed - 780 kph. Maximum Altitude - 16380 m. Flight Time - 436 sec..

1969 October 11 - . 11:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511.
  • Soyuz 6 - . Call Sign: Antey (Antaeus - mythological giant). Crew: Kubasov; Shonin. Backup Crew: Shatalov; Yeliseyev. Payload: Soyuz 7K-OK s/n 14. Mass: 6,577 kg (14,499 lb). Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Kubasov; Shonin; Shatalov; Yeliseyev. Agency: MOM. Program: Soyuz. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz 6; Soyuz 7; Soyuz 8. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-OK. Duration: 4.95 days. Decay Date: 1969-10-16 . USAF Sat Cat: 4122 . COSPAR: 1969-085A. Apogee: 218 km (135 mi). Perigee: 212 km (131 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.80 min. Tested spacecraft systems and designs, manoeuvring of space craft with respect to each other in orbit, conducted scientific, technical and medico-biological experiments in group flight. Carried Vulkan welding furnace for vacuum welding experiments in depressurized orbital module. Was to have taken spectacular motion pictures of Soyuz 7 - Soyuz 8 docking but failure of rendezvous electronics in all three craft due to new helium pressurization integrity test prior to mission did not permit successful rendezvous and dockings. Additional Details: here....

1969 October 12 - . 10:44 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511.
  • Soyuz 7 - . Call Sign: Buran (Snowstorm ). Crew: Filipchenko; Gorbatko; Volkov. Backup Crew: Kolodin; Shatalov; Yeliseyev. Payload: Soyuz 7K-OK s/n 15. Mass: 6,570 kg (14,480 lb). Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Shonin; Kubasov; Mishin; Filipchenko; Gorbatko; Volkov; Kolodin; Shatalov; Yeliseyev. Agency: MOM. Program: Soyuz. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz 6; Soyuz 7; Soyuz 8. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-OK. Duration: 4.94 days. Decay Date: 1969-10-17 . USAF Sat Cat: 4124 . COSPAR: 1969-086A. Apogee: 223 km (138 mi). Perigee: 210 km (130 mi). Inclination: 51.7000 deg. Period: 88.80 min. Tested spacecraft systems and designs, manoeuvring of space craft with respect to each other in orbit, conducted scientific, technical and medico-biological experiments in group flight. Was to have docked with Soyuz 8 and transferred crew while Soyuz 6 took film from nearby. However failure of rendezvous electronics in all three craft due to a new helium pressurization integrity test prior to the mission did not permit successful rendezvous and dockings. Additional Details: here....

1969 October 13 - . 10:19 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511.
  • Soyuz 8 - . Call Sign: Granit (Granite ). Crew: Shatalov; Yeliseyev. Backup Crew: Nikolayev; Sevastyanov. Payload: Soyuz 7K-OK s/n 16. Mass: 6,646 kg (14,651 lb). Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Shatalov; Yeliseyev; Nikolayev; Sevastyanov. Agency: MOM. Program: Soyuz. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz 6; Soyuz 7; Soyuz 8. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-OK. Duration: 4.95 days. Decay Date: 1969-10-18 . USAF Sat Cat: 4126 . COSPAR: 1969-087A. Apogee: 227 km (141 mi). Perigee: 201 km (124 mi). Inclination: 51.7000 deg. Period: 88.70 min. Tested spacecraft systems and designs, manoeuvring of space craft with respect to each other in orbit, conducted scientific, technical and medico-biological experiments in group flight. Was to have docked with Soyuz 7 and transferred crew while Soyuz 6 took film from nearby. However failure of rendezvous electronics in all three craft due to a new helium pressurization integrity test prior to the mission did not permit successful rendezvous and dockings. Recovered October 18, 1969 10:19 GMT. Additional Details: here....

1969 October 22 - .
  • X-24 Flight 6 - . Crew: Manke. Payload: X-24A flight 6. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Manke. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: X-24A. Summary: Glide. Maximum Speed - 623 kph. Maximum Altitude - 12190 m. Flight Time - 238 sec..

1969 October 27 - .
  • HL-10 Flight 27 - . Crew: Dana. Payload: HL-10 flight 27. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Dana. Program: NASA Lifting Body. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: HL-10. Summary: Maximum Speed - 1675 kph. Maximum Altitude - 18470 m. Flight Time - 417 sec..

1969 November 3 - .
  • HL-10 Flight 28 - . Crew: Hoag. Payload: HL-10 flight 28. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Hoag. Program: NASA Lifting Body. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: HL-10. Summary: Maximum Speed - 1482kph. Maximum Altitude - 19540 m. Flight Time - 439 sec..

1969 November 13 - .
  • X-24 Flight 7 - . Crew: Gentry. Payload: X-24A flight 7. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Gentry. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: X-24A. Summary: Glide. Maximum Speed - 687 kph. Maximum Altitude - 13720 m. Flight Time - 270 sec..

1969 November 17 - .
  • HL-10 Flight 29 - . Crew: Dana. Payload: HL-10 flight 29. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Dana. Program: NASA Lifting Body. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: HL-10. Summary: Maximum Speed - 1693 kph. Maximum Altitude - 19690 m. Flight Time - 408 sec..

1969 November 21 - .
  • HL-10 Flight 30 - . Crew: Hoag. Payload: HL-10 flight 30. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Hoag. Program: NASA Lifting Body. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: HL-10. Summary: Maximum Speed - 1532 kph. Maximum Altitude - 24160 m. Flight Time - 378 sec..

1969 November 25 - .
  • X-24 Flight 8 - . Crew: Gentry. Payload: X-24A flight 8. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Gentry. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: X-24A. Summary: Glide. Maximum Speed - 730 kph. Maximum Altitude - 13720 m. Flight Time - 266 sec..

1969 December 1 - . LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K. LV Configuration: Proton 8K82K.
  • First flight Almaz station close to completion - . Nation: USSR. Program: Almaz. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space station. Spacecraft: Almaz OPS. Summary: Ten stations 'in advanced stage of completion' by end of year..

1969 December 12 - .
  • HL-10 Flight 31 - . Crew: Dana. Payload: HL-10 flight 31. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Dana. Program: NASA Lifting Body. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: HL-10. Summary: Maximum Speed - 1401 kph. Maximum Altitude - 24370 m. Flight Time - 428 sec..

1970 January 19 - .
  • HL-10 Flight 32 - . Crew: Hoag. Payload: HL-10 flight 32. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Hoag. Program: NASA Lifting Body. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: HL-10. Summary: Maximum Speed - 1398 kph. Maximum Altitude - 26410 m. Flight Time - 410 sec..

1970 January 26 - .
  • HL-10 Flight 33 - . Crew: Dana. Payload: HL-10 flight 33. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Dana. Program: NASA Lifting Body. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: HL-10. Summary: Maximum Speed - 1443 kph. Maximum Altitude - 26730 m. Flight Time - 411 sec..

1970 February 1 - . LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K. LV Configuration: Proton 8K82K.
  • Space station programs rationalised. - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Chelomei; Mishin. Program: Almaz. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space station. Spacecraft: Almaz OPS; Soyuz 7K-S; Soyuz OB-VI; Salyut 1. Brezhnev orders a cooperative crash program to build a civilian space station to beat Skylab into orbit. The civilian station (later named Salyut) will use the Almaz spaceframe fitted out with Soyuz functional equipment. Mishin's OIS military station was cancelled and Chelomei's Almaz would continue, but as second priority to the civilian station. The Soyuz 7K-S station ferry, the 7K-ST, would be revised to be a more conservative modification of the Soyuz 7K-OK. The OIS cosmonaut group was incorporated into the Almaz group.

1970 February 18 - .
  • HL-10 Flight 34 - . Crew: Hoag. Payload: HL-10 flight 34. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Hoag. Program: NASA Lifting Body. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: HL-10. Summary: Maximum speed. Maximum Speed - 1976 kph. Maximum Altitude - 20520 m. Flight Time - 380 sec..

1970 February 24 - .
  • X-24 Flight 9 - . Crew: Gentry. Payload: X-24A flight 9. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Gentry. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: X-24A. Summary: Glide. Maximum Speed - 819 kph. Maximum Altitude - 14326 m. Flight Time - 258 sec..

1970 February 27 - .
  • HL-10 Flight 35 - . Crew: Dana. Payload: HL-10 flight 35. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Dana. Program: NASA Lifting Body. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: HL-10. Summary: Maximum altitude. Maximum Speed - 1400 kph. Maximum Altitude - 27524 m. Flight Time - 416 sec..

1970 March 19 - .
  • X-24 Flight 10 - . Crew: Gentry. Payload: X-24A flight 10. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Gentry. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: X-24A. Summary: First powered flight. Maximum Speed - 919 kph. Maximum Altitude - 13533 m. Flight Time - 424 sec..

1970 April 2 - .
  • X-24 Flight 11 - . Crew: Manke. Payload: X-24A flight 11. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Manke. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: X-24A. Summary: Maximum Speed - 919 kph. Maximum Altitude - 17892 m. Flight Time - 435 sec..

1970 April 22 - .
  • X-24 Flight 12 - . Crew: Gentry. Payload: X-24A flight 12. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Gentry. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: X-24A. Summary: Maximum Speed - 981 kph. Maximum Altitude - 17587 m. Flight Time - 408 sec..

1970 May 14 - .
  • X-24 Flight 13 - . Crew: Manke. Payload: X-24A flight 13. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Manke. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: X-24A. Summary: 2 chambers. Maximum Speed - 795 kph. Maximum Altitude - 13594 m. Flight Time - 513 sec..

1970 June 1 - . 19:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511.
  • Soyuz 9 - . Call Sign: Sokol (Falcon ). Crew: Nikolayev; Sevastyanov. Backup Crew: Filipchenko; Grechko. Support Crew: Lazarev; Yazdovsky. Payload: Soyuz 7K-OK s/n 17. Mass: 6,590 kg (14,520 lb). Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Nikolayev; Sevastyanov; Filipchenko; Grechko; Lazarev; Yazdovsky. Agency: MOM. Program: Soyuz. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz 9. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-OK. Duration: 17.71 days. Decay Date: 1970-06-19 . USAF Sat Cat: 4407 . COSPAR: 1970-041A. Apogee: 227 km (141 mi). Perigee: 176 km (109 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.50 min. Summary: Manned flight endurance test. Medico-biological, scientific and technical studies and experiments in prolonged orbital flight. Inconclusive results due to slow sun-oriented rotation of spacecraft to conserve fuel producing motion sickness in cosmonauts.. Additional Details: here....

1970 June 2 - .
  • M2 Flight 17 - . Crew: Dana. Payload: M2-F3 flight 1. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Dana. Program: NASA Lifting Body. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: M2-F3. Summary: First M2-F3 flight. Maximum Speed - 755 kph. Maximum Altitude - 13716 m. Flight Time - 218 sec..

1970 June 11 - .
  • HL-10 Flight 36 - . Crew: Hoag. Payload: HL-10 flight 36. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Hoag. Program: NASA Lifting Body. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: HL-10. Summary: Glide landing study. Maximum Speed - 809 kph. Maximum Altitude - 13716 m. Flight Time - 202 sec..

1970 June 17 - .
  • X-24 Flight 14 - . Crew: Manke. Payload: X-24A flight 14. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Manke. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: X-24A. Summary: Maximum Speed - 1051 kph. Maximum Altitude - 18593 m. Flight Time - 432 sec..

1970 June 30 - .
  • Original plan for tests of Spiral - . Nation: USSR. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: MiG 105-11. Summary: Original planned date for first flight tests of Spiral with rocket first stage..

1970 July 17 - .
  • HL-10 Flight 37 - . Crew: Hoag. Payload: HL-10 flight 37. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Hoag. Program: NASA Lifting Body. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: HL-10. Summary: Maximum Speed - 803 kph. Maximum Altitude - 13716 m. Flight Time - 252 sec..

1970 July 21 - .
  • M2 Flight 18 - . Crew: Dana. Payload: M2-F3 flight 2. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Dana. Program: NASA Lifting Body. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: M2-F3. Summary: Maximum Speed - 708 kph. Maximum Altitude - 13716 m. Flight Time - 228 sec..

1970 July 28 - .
  • X-24 Flight 15 - . Crew: Gentry. Payload: X-24A flight 15. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Gentry. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: X-24A. Summary: Maximum Speed - 996 kph. Maximum Altitude - 17678 m. Flight Time - 388 sec..

1970 August 11 - .
  • X-24 Flight 16 - . Crew: Manke. Payload: X-24A flight 16. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Manke. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: X-24A. Summary: Maximum Speed - 1047 kph. Maximum Altitude - 19477 m. Flight Time - 413 sec..

1970 August 26 - .
  • X-24 Flight 17 - . Crew: Gentry. Payload: X-24A flight 17. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Gentry. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: X-24A. Summary: 2 chambers. Maximum Speed - 737 kph. Maximum Altitude - 12649 m. Flight Time - 479 sec..

1970 October 14 - .
  • X-24 Flight 18 - . Crew: Manke. Payload: X-24A flight 18. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Manke. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: X-24A. Summary: First supersonic flight. Maximum Speed - 1261 kph. Maximum Altitude - 20696 m. Flight Time - 411 sec..

1970 October 20 - . 19:55 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/23. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/D. LV Configuration: Proton-K/D 250-01.
  • Zond 8 - . Payload: Soyuz 7K-L1 s/n 14. Mass: 5,390 kg (11,880 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Lunar L1. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-L1 . Duration: 5.17 days. Decay Date: 1970-10-27 . USAF Sat Cat: 4591 . COSPAR: 1970-088A. Apogee: 400,000 km (240,000 mi). Perigee: 200 km (120 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 15,562.22 min. Final circumlunar flight; successfully recovered October 26, 1970. The announced objectives were investigations of the moon and circumlunar space and testing of onboard systems. The spacecraft obtained photographs of the earth on October 21 from a distance of 64,480 km. The spacecraft transmitted flight images of the earth for three days. Zond 8 flew past the moon on October 24, 1970, at a distance of 1,110.4 km and obtained both black and white and colour photographs of the lunar surface. Scientific measurements were also obtained during the flight. The spacecraft used a new variant of the double-dip re-entry, coming in over the north pole, bouncing off the atmosphere, being tracked by Soviet radar stations as it soared south over the Soviet Union, then making a final precision re-entry followed by splashdown at the recovery point in the Indian Ocean.

1970 October 27 - .
  • X-24 Flight 19 - . Crew: Manke. Payload: X-24A flight 19. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Manke. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: X-24A. Summary: Maximum Speed - 1446 kph. Maximum Altitude - 21763 m. Flight Time - 417 sec..

1970 October 31 - . LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K. LV Configuration: Proton 8K82K.
  • Soyuz 7K-L1 s/n 10L and 15L - . Payload: Soyuz 7K-L1 s/n 10L and 15L. Nation: USSR. Program: Lunar L1. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-L1. Summary: Despite decision to cancel immediate manned circumlunar flights after Apollo 8, the remaining two L-1 spacecraft were kept in reserve for support of the L3 lunar landing program and possible later manned flights. They were never used..

1970 November 2 - .
  • M2 Flight 19 - . Crew: Dana. Payload: M2-F3 flight 3. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Dana. Program: NASA Lifting Body. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: M2-F3. Summary: Maximum Speed - 690 kph. Maximum Altitude - 13716 m. Flight Time - 236 sec..

1970 November 20 - .
  • X-24 Flight 20 - . Crew: Gentry. Payload: X-24A flight 20. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Gentry. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: X-24A. Summary: Maximum Speed - 1456 kph. Maximum Altitude - 20604 m. Flight Time - 432 sec..

1970 November 25 - .
  • M2 Flight 20 - . Crew: Dana. Payload: M2-F3 flight 4. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Dana. Program: NASA Lifting Body. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: M2-F3. Summary: First powered flight. Maximum Speed - 859 kph. Maximum Altitude - 15819 m. Flight Time - 377 sec..

1970 December 2 - . 17:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/23. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/D. LV Configuration: Proton-K/D 252-01.
  • Cosmos 382 - . Payload: Soyuz 7K-L1E s/n 2K. Mass: 10,380 kg (22,880 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Lunar L3. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-L1E. Duration: 8,549.30 days. USAF Sat Cat: 4786 . COSPAR: 1970-103A. Apogee: 5,269 km (3,273 mi). Perigee: 2,384 km (1,481 mi). Inclination: 55.9000 deg. Period: 171.00 min. Test of Block D upper stage in its N1 lunar crasher configuration in earth orbit. The three maneuvers simulated the lunar orbit insertion burn; the lunar orbit circularization burn; and the descent burn to bring the LK lunar lander just over the surface. Payload was a modified Soyuz 7K-L1 circumlunar spacecraft, which provided guidance to the Block D and was equipped with television cameras that viewed the behavior of the Block D stage propellants under zero-G conditions.
    Maneuver Summary:
    190km X 300km orbit to 303km X 5038km orbit. Delta V: 982 m/s
    318km X 5040km orbit to 1616km X 5071km orbit. Delta V: 285 m/s
    1616km X 5071km orbit to 2577km X 5082km orbit. Delta V: 1311 m/s
    Total Delta V: 2578 m/s.

1971 January 21 - .
  • X-24 Flight 21 - . Crew: Manke. Payload: X-24A flight 21. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Manke. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: X-24A. Summary: Maximum Speed - 1093 kph. Maximum Altitude - 15819 m. Flight Time - 462 sec..

1971 February 4 - .
  • X-24 Flight 22 - . Crew: Powell. Payload: X-24A flight 22. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Powell. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: X-24A. Summary: Powell's check flight, glide. Maximum Speed - 700 kph. Maximum Altitude - 13716 m. Flight Time - 235 sec..

1971 February 9 - .
  • M2 Flight 21 - . Crew: Gentry. Payload: M2-F3 flight 5. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Gentry. Program: NASA Lifting Body. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: M2-F3. Summary: Maximum Speed - 755 kph. Maximum Altitude - 13716 m. Flight Time - 241 sec..

1971 February 18 - .
  • X-24 Flight 23 - . Crew: Manke. Payload: X-24A flight 23. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Manke. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: X-24A. Summary: Maximum Speed - 1606 kph. Maximum Altitude - 20544 m. Flight Time - 447 sec..

1971 February 26 - .
  • M2 Flight 22 - . Crew: Dana. Payload: M2-F3 flight 6. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Dana. Program: NASA Lifting Body. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: M2-F3. Summary: Maximum Speed - 821 kph. Maximum Altitude - 13716 m. Flight Time - 348 sec..

1971 March 1 - .
  • X-24 Flight 24 - . Crew: Powell. Payload: X-24A flight 24. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Powell. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: X-24A. Summary: Maximum Speed - 1064 kph. Maximum Altitude - 17343 m. Flight Time - 437 sec..

1971 March 29 - .
  • X-24 Flight 25 - . Crew: Manke. Payload: X-24A flight 25. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Manke. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: X-24A. Summary: Fastest X-24 flight. Maximum Speed - 1667 kph. Maximum Altitude - 21488 m. Flight Time - 446 sec..

1971 April 19 - . 01:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/24. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K. LV Configuration: Proton-K 254-01.
  • Salyut 1 - . Payload: Zarya s/n 121. Mass: 18,500 kg (40,700 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space station. Flight: Soyuz 10; Soyuz 11; Soyuz 12 / DOS 1. Spacecraft: Salyut 1. Duration: 179.93 days. Decay Date: 1971-10-11 . USAF Sat Cat: 5160 . COSPAR: 1971-032A. Apogee: 214 km (132 mi). Perigee: 180 km (110 mi). Inclination: 51.4000 deg. Period: 88.50 min. First manned space station. Salyut 1 included a number of military experiments, including the OD-4 optical visual ranger, the Orion ultraviolet instrument for characterising rocket plumes, and the highly classified Svinets radiometer. Primary objectives included photography of the earth, spectrographs of the earth's horizon, experiments with intense gamma rays, and studying manual methods for station orientation.

    At 05:20 the State Commission and their guests arrive at the Area 95 observation point to view the launch. The booster takes off on schedule at 06:40 in light rain and 60 km/hr wind. The tracking station reports good orbital insertion, separation from the third stage, and antennae and solar panel deployment. But the cover of the scientific equipment bay does not separate. This will mean that many experiments cannot be accomplished. It is decided to launch the crew to the station anyway, since the station is otherwise functioning normally. The cosmonauts go to the baths in the evening. Additional Details: here....


1971 April 22 - . 23:54 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511. LV Configuration: Soyuz 11A511 25.
  • Soyuz 10 - . Call Sign: Granit (Granite ). Crew: Rukavishnikov; Shatalov; Yeliseyev. Backup Crew: Kolodin; Kubasov; Leonov. Support Crew: Dobrovolsky; Patsayev; Volkov. Payload: Soyuz 7K-OKS s/n 31. Mass: 6,800 kg (14,900 lb). Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Rukavishnikov; Shatalov; Yeliseyev; Kolodin; Kubasov; Leonov; Dobrovolsky; Patsayev; Volkov. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz 10. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7KT-OK. Duration: 1.99 days. Decay Date: 1971-04-24 . USAF Sat Cat: 5172 . COSPAR: 1971-034A. Apogee: 258 km (160 mi). Perigee: 209 km (129 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 89.10 min. Intended first space station mission; soft docked with Salyut 1. Launch nearly scrubbed due to poor weather. Soyuz 10 approached to 180 m from Salyut 1 automatically. It was hand docked after faillure of the automatic system, but hard docking could not be achieved because of the angle of approach. Post-flight analysis indicated that the cosmonauts had no instrument to proivde the angle and range rate data necessary for a successful manual docking. Soyuz 10 was connected to the station for 5 hours and 30 minutes. Despite the lack of hard dock, it is said that the crew were unable to enter the station due to a faulty hatch on their own spacecraft. When Shatalov tried to undock from the Salyut, the jammed hatch impeded the docking mechanism, preventing undocking. After several attempts he was unable to undock and land.

1971 May 12 - .
  • X-24 Flight 26 - . Crew: Powell. Payload: X-24A flight 26. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Powell. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: X-24A. Summary: Maximum Speed - 1477 kph. Maximum Altitude - 21610 m. Flight Time - 423 sec..

1971 May 25 - .
  • X-24 Flight 27 - . Crew: Manke. Payload: X-24A flight 27. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Manke. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: X-24A. Summary: 3 chambers. Maximum Speed - 1265 kph. Maximum Altitude - 19903 m. Flight Time - 548 sec..

1971 June 4 - .
  • X-24 Flight 28 - . Crew: Manke. Payload: X-24A flight 28. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Manke. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: X-24A. Summary: Final X-24A flight. Maximum Speed - 867 kph. Maximum Altitude - 16581 m. Flight Time - 517 sec..

1971 June 6 - . 04:55 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511.
  • Soyuz 11 - . Call Sign: Yantar (Amber ). Crew: Dobrovolsky; Patsayev; Volkov. Backup Crew: Kolodin; Kubasov; Leonov. Payload: Soyuz 7K-OKS s/n 32. Mass: 6,790 kg (14,960 lb). Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Dobrovolsky; Patsayev; Volkov; Kolodin; Kubasov; Leonov. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz 11. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7KT-OK. Duration: 23.77 days. Decay Date: 1971-06-29 . USAF Sat Cat: 5283 . COSPAR: 1971-053A. Apogee: 237 km (147 mi). Perigee: 163 km (101 mi). Inclination: 51.5000 deg. Period: 88.40 min. First space station flight, two years before the American Skylab. The Soyuz 11 launch proceeds without any difficulties. The first orbital correction in the set of rendezvous manoeuvres to head for Salyut 1 is made on the fourth revolution. At 15:00 Kamanin and other critical staff board a plane for the mission control centre at Yevpatoriya. The aircraft takes 4 hours 30 minutes to get there.

    Equipment aboard Salyut 1 included a telescope, spectrometer, electrophotometer, and television. The crew checked improved on-board spacecraft systems in different conditions of flight and conducted medico-biological research. The main instrument, a large solar telescope, was inoperative because its cover failed to jettison. A small fire and difficult working conditions will lead to a decision to return crew before planned full duration of 30 days.


1971 June 26 - . 23:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC110L. LV Family: N1. Launch Vehicle: N1. LV Configuration: N-1 11A52 6L. FAILURE: First stage failed.. Failed Stage: 1.
  • N1 6L - . Payload: Soyuz 7K-LOK / LK Mockups. Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Program: Lunar L3. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-LOK. Decay Date: 1971-07-21 . COSPAR: F710626A. Apogee: 1.00 km (0.60 mi). Superbooster failure of N1 serial number 6L. This was a substantially improved vehicle, incorporating filters in the propellant lines to prevent any foreign objects from getting into the pumps. The shape of the tail of the booster was modified, and ventilation and refrigeration systems were added to keep the engine compartment cool. It was painted white overall to reduce temperatures while sitting on the pad. After liftoff and ascent, an axial rotation was introduced by gas dynamics interactions of the thirty engines with the air slipstream. The launch vehicle developed a roll beyond the capability of the control system to compensate. and began to break up as it went through Max Q. Control was lost at 50.2 seconds into the flight and it was destroyed by range safety a second later. The engines functioned well and did not shut down up to the point of vehicle destruction. No functional payload was carried. It has been stated that this launch did not have a working launch escape system. Additional Details: here....

1971 July 23 - .
  • M2 Flight 23 - . Crew: Dana. Payload: M2-F3 flight 7. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Dana. Program: NASA Lifting Body. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: M2-F3. Summary: Maximum Speed - 788 kph. Maximum Altitude - 18440 m. Flight Time - 353 sec..

1971 August 9 - .
  • M2 Flight 24 - . Crew: Dana. Payload: M2-F3 flight 8. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Dana. Program: NASA Lifting Body. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: M2-F3. Summary: Maximum Speed - 1035 kph. Maximum Altitude - 18898 m. Flight Time - 415 sec..

1971 August 25 - .
  • M2 Flight 25 - . Crew: Dana. Payload: M2-F3 flight 9. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Dana. Program: NASA Lifting Body. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: M2-F3. Summary: First M2-F3 supersonic flight. Maximum Speed - 1163 kph. Maximum Altitude - 20513 m. Flight Time - 390 sec..

1971 September 24 - .
  • M2 Flight 26 - . Crew: Dana. Payload: M2-F3 flight 10. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Dana. Program: NASA Lifting Body. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: M2-F3. Summary: Maximum Speed - 772 kph. Maximum Altitude - 12802 m. Flight Time - 210 sec..

1971 November 15 - .
  • M2 Flight 27 - . Crew: Dana. Payload: M2-F3 flight 11. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Dana. Program: NASA Lifting Body. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: M2-F3. Summary: Glide flight. Maximum Speed - 784 kph. Maximum Altitude - 13716 m. Flight Time - 215 sec..

1971 December 1 - .
  • M2 Flight 28 - . Crew: Dana. Payload: M2-F3 flight 12. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Dana. Program: NASA Lifting Body. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: M2-F3. Summary: Maximum Speed - 1356 kph. Maximum Altitude - 21580 m. Flight Time - 391 sec..

1971 December 16 - .
  • M2 Flight 29 - . Crew: Dana. Payload: M2-F3 flight 13. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Dana. Program: NASA Lifting Body. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: M2-F3. Summary: Maximum Speed - 861 kph. Maximum Altitude - 14265 m. Flight Time - 451 sec..

1972 June 26 - . 14:53 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511.
  • Cosmos 496 - . Payload: Soyuz 7K-T s/n 33L. Mass: 6,675 kg (14,715 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-T. Duration: 9.95 days. Decay Date: 1972-07-02 . USAF Sat Cat: 6066 . COSPAR: 1972-045A. Apogee: 253 km (157 mi). Perigee: 176 km (109 mi). Inclination: 51.5000 deg. Period: 88.70 min. Summary: Recovered July 6, 1972 13:54 GMT. Soyuz 7K-T redesign test..

1972 July 25 - .
  • M2 Flight 30 - . Crew: Dana. Payload: M2-F3 flight 14. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Dana. Program: NASA Lifting Body. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: M2-F3. Summary: Maximum Speed - 1049 kph. Maximum Altitude - 18562 m. Flight Time - 420 sec..

1972 July 26 - .
  • Contract awarded for shuttle OV-102. - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Columbia.

1972 July 29 - . 03:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/23. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K. LV Configuration: Proton-K 260-01. FAILURE: Second stage malfunction at T+ 162 sec.. Failed Stage: 2.
  • Zarya s/n 122 - . Payload: Zarya s/n 122. Mass: 18,000 kg (39,000 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Program: Salyut. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space station. Spacecraft: Salyut 1. Decay Date: 1972-07-29 . COSPAR: F720729A. Summary: Second Salyut space station (DOS 2), failed to reach orbit..

1972 August 11 - .
  • M2 Flight 31 - . Crew: Dana. Payload: M2-F3 flight 15. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Dana. Program: NASA Lifting Body. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: M2-F3. Summary: Maximum Speed - 1168 kph. Maximum Altitude - 20480 m. Flight Time - 375 sec..

1972 August 24 - .
  • M2 Flight 32 - . Crew: Dana. Payload: M2-F3 flight 16. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Dana. Program: NASA Lifting Body. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: M2-F3. Summary: Maximum Speed - 1344 kph. Maximum Altitude - 20330 m. Flight Time - 376 sec..

1972 September 12 - .
  • M2 Flight 33 - . Crew: Dana. Payload: M2-F3 flight 17. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Dana. Program: NASA Lifting Body. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: M2-F3. Summary: Maximum Speed - 935 kph. Maximum Altitude - 14020 m. Flight Time - 387 sec..

1972 September 27 - .
  • M2 Flight 34 - . Crew: Dana. Payload: M2-F3 flight 18. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Dana. Program: NASA Lifting Body. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: M2-F3. Summary: Maximum Speed - 1424 kph. Maximum Altitude - 20330 m. Flight Time - 366.5 sec..

1972 October 5 - .
  • M2 Flight 35 - . Crew: Dana. Payload: M2-F3 flight 19. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Dana. Program: NASA Lifting Body. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: M2-F3. Summary: Maximum Speed - 1455 kph. Maximum Altitude - 20210 m. Flight Time - 376 sec..

1972 October 19 - .
  • M2 Flight 36 - . Crew: Manke. Payload: M2-F3 flight 20. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Manke. Program: NASA Lifting Body. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: M2-F3. Summary: Maximum Speed - 961 kph. Maximum Altitude - 14360 m. Flight Time - 359 sec..

1972 November 1 - .
  • M2 Flight 37 - . Crew: Manke. Payload: M2-F3 flight 21. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Manke. Program: NASA Lifting Body. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: M2-F3. Summary: Maximum Speed - 1292 kph. Maximum Altitude - 21730 m. Flight Time - 378 sec..

1972 November 9 - .
  • M2 Flight 38 - . Crew: Powell. Payload: M2-F3 flight 22. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Powell. Program: NASA Lifting Body. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: M2-F3. Summary: Maximum Speed - 961 kph. Maximum Altitude - 14260 m. Flight Time - 364 sec..

1972 November 21 - .
  • M2 Flight 39 - . Crew: Manke. Payload: M2-F3 flight 23. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Manke. Program: NASA Lifting Body. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: M2-F3. Summary: Maximum Speed - 1524 kph. Maximum Altitude - 20330 m. Flight Time - 377 sec..

1972 November 23 - . 06:11 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC110L. LV Family: N1. Launch Vehicle: N1. LV Configuration: N-1 11A52 7L. FAILURE: Failure. Failed Stage: 1.
  • N1 7L - . Payload: Soyuz 7K-LOK / LK Mockups. Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Program: Lunar L3. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-LOK. Decay Date: 1972-11-23 . COSPAR: F721123A. Apogee: 40 km (24 mi). Unmanned test of manned lunar mission launch vehicle serial number 7L. This article incorporated significant changes to the previous model, including roll 'steering' engines to prevent the loss of control that destroyed 6L. The rocket ascended into the sky, and the engines ran 106.93 seconds, only seven seconds before completion of first stage burnout. Programmed shutdown of some engines to prevent overstressing of the structure led to propellant line hammering, rupture of propellant lines, and an explosion of engine number 4. The vehicle disintegrated. Additional Details: here....

1972 November 29 - .
  • M2 Flight 40 - . Crew: Powell. Payload: M2-F3 flight 24. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Powell. Program: NASA Lifting Body. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: M2-F3. Summary: Maximum Speed - 1432 kph. Maximum Altitude - 20570 m. Flight Time - 357 sec..

1972 December 6 - .
  • M2 Flight 41 - . Crew: Powell. Payload: M2-F3 flight 25. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Powell. Program: NASA Lifting Body. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: M2-F3. Summary: Maximum Speed - 1265 kph. Maximum Altitude - 20820 m. Flight Time - 332 sec..

1972 December 13 - .
  • M2 Flight 42 - . Crew: Dana. Payload: M2-F3 flight 26. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Dana. Program: NASA Lifting Body. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: M2-F3. Summary: Fastest M2-F3 flight. Maximum Speed - 1712 kph. Maximum Altitude - 20330 m. Flight Time - 383 sec..

1972 December 21 - .
  • M2 Flight 43 - . Crew: Manke. Payload: M2-F3 flight 27. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Manke. Program: NASA Lifting Body. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: M2-F3. Summary: Last M2-F3 flight, also highest. Maximum Speed - 1377 kph. Maximum Altitude - 21790 m. Flight Time - 390 sec..

1972 December 31 - . LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K. LV Configuration: Proton 8K82K.
  • Brezhnev selects Almaz for next space station - . Nation: USSR. Program: Almaz. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space station. Spacecraft: Almaz OPS. Summary: Brezhnev personally selects Almaz for next space station launch. Following two successive failures of DOS-7K station (Salyut 1 and the July 29, 1972 launch failure), Brezhnev personally selects Almaz for next launch (Salyut 2)..

1973 April 3 - . 09:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/23. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K. LV Configuration: Proton-K 283-01.
  • Salyut 2 - . Payload: Almaz s/n 101-01. Mass: 18,500 kg (40,700 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Almaz. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space station. Spacecraft: Almaz OPS. Duration: 54.62 days. Decay Date: 1973-05-28 . USAF Sat Cat: 6398 . COSPAR: 1973-017A. Apogee: 248 km (154 mi). Perigee: 216 km (134 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 89.10 min. The first flight of the Almaz manned military space station. In January 1973 the first Almaz OPS was delivered to Baikonur. Launch and initial orbital checkout went according to plan. But before a crew could be launched the station depressurized. It was concluded that a short in electrical equipment started a fire in pressure vessel, leading to rupture of hull and depressurization. An alternate theory was that debris from an explosion of the third stage of Proton penetrated the hull. Control was lost on April 25, 1973, and the OPS cased operations on 29 April. Decayed May 28, 1973. Initial crew was to have been Popovich and Artyukhin.
    Officially: Testing of improved design, on-board systems and equipment; conduct of scientific and technical research and experiments. Additional Details: here....

1973 May 11 - . 00:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/23. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K. LV Configuration: Proton-K 284-01.
  • Cosmos 557 - . Payload: Zarya s/n 123. Mass: 19,400 kg (42,700 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space station. Spacecraft: Salyut 4. Duration: 10.98 days. Decay Date: 1973-05-22 . USAF Sat Cat: 6498 . COSPAR: 1973-026A. Apogee: 225 km (139 mi). Perigee: 206 km (128 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.90 min. Summary: Salyut failure. Unsuccessful mission. Salyut out of control. Decayed May 22, 1973. Was to have been manned by initial crew of Leonov and Kubasov. Last chance to upstage Skylab, launched three days later..

1973 May 14 - . 17:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A. LV Family: Saturn V. Launch Vehicle: Saturn V. LV Configuration: Saturn V-2 SA-513.
  • Skylab 1 - . Payload: Skylab Orbital Workshop. Mass: 74,783 kg (164,868 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Huntsville. Program: Skylab. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space station. Spacecraft: Skylab. Decay Date: 1979-07-11 . USAF Sat Cat: 6633 . COSPAR: 1973-027A. Apogee: 439 km (272 mi). Perigee: 427 km (265 mi). Inclination: 50.0000 deg. Period: 93.20 min. First and only US space station to date. Project began life as Apollo Orbital Workshop - outfitting of an S-IVB stage with docking adapter with equipment launched by several subsequent S-1B launches. Curtailment of the Apollo moon landings meant that surplus Saturn V's were available, so the pre-equipped, five times heavier, and much more capable Skylab resulted.

    An unexpected telemetry indication of meteoroid shield deployment and solar array wing 2 beam fairing separation was received 1 minute and 3 seconds after liftoff. However, all other systems of the OWS appeared normal, and the OWS was inserted into a near-circular Earth orbit of approximately 435 km altitude. The payload shroud was jettisoned, and the ATM with its solar array was deployed as planned during the first orbit. Deployment of the Workshop solar array and the meteoroid shield was not successful. In fact the xternal solar/meteoroid shield had ripped off 63 seconds into ascent, tearing away one solar panel wing and debris jamming the remaining panel. Without shield temperatures soared in station. Repairs by crews led to virtually all mission objectives being met.

    Following the final manned phase of the Skylab mission, ground controllers performed some engineering tests of certain Skylab systems--tests that ground personnel were reluctant to do while men were aboard. Results from these tests helped to determine causes of failures during the mission and to obtain data on long term degradation of space systems.

    Upon completion of the engineering tests, Skylab was positioned into a stable attitude and systems were shut down. It was expected that Skylab would remain in orbit eight to ten years. It was to have been visited by an early shuttle mission, reboosted into a higher orbit, and used by space shuttle crews. But delays in the first flight of the shuttle made this impossible.

    On July 11, 1979, Skylab disintegrated when it re-entered the earth's atmosphere after a worldwide scare over its pending crash. The debris stretched from the south-east Indian Ocean into Western Australia. Additional Details: here....


1973 June 7 - . 15:15 GMT - .
  • EVA Skylab 2-2 - . Crew: Conrad; Kerwin. EVA Type: Extra-Vehicular Activity. EVA Duration: 0.15 days. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Conrad; Kerwin. Program: Skylab. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space station. Flight: Skylab 2. Spacecraft: Skylab. Summary: Succeeded in release of jammed solar panel..

1973 June 15 - . 06:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511.
  • Cosmos 573 - . Payload: Soyuz 7K-T s/n 35. Mass: 6,675 kg (14,715 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-T. Duration: 2.00 days. Decay Date: 1973-06-17 . USAF Sat Cat: 6694 . COSPAR: 1973-041A. Apogee: 308 km (191 mi). Perigee: 191 km (118 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 89.50 min. Summary: Soyuz test flight. Recovered June 17, 1973 6:01 GMT. Soyuz 7K-T redesign test, probably using one of the spacecraft allocated to the failed Salyut 2 or Cosmos 557 stations..

1973 June 19 - . 10:55 GMT - .
  • EVA Skylab 2-3 - . Crew: Conrad; Weitz. EVA Type: Extra-Vehicular Activity. EVA Duration: 0.0722 days. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Conrad; Weitz. Program: Skylab. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space station. Flight: Skylab 2. Spacecraft: Skylab. Summary: Replacement of film cartridges for solar camera..

1973 August 1 - .
  • X-24 Flight 29 - . Crew: Manke. Payload: X-24B flight 1. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Manke. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: X-24B. Summary: First glide flight. Maximum Speed - 740 kph. Maximum Altitude - 12190 m. Flight Time - 252 sec..

1973 August 7 - . 17:30 GMT - .
  • EVA Skylab 3-1 - . Crew: Garriott; Lousma. EVA Type: Extra-Vehicular Activity. EVA Duration: 0.27 days. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Garriott; Lousma. Program: Skylab. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space station. Flight: Skylab 3. Spacecraft: Skylab. Installed second sunshade. Replaced solar camera film cartridges. During EVA by crew members of Skylab 3, a twin-boom sunshade, developed by MSFC, was deployed over the parasol of the OWS. A redesigned and refined thermal parasol had been launched with Skylab 3. However, its use would have required jettisoning the parasol deployed by crew members of Skylab 2, with the possibility of creating the same thermal problems that existed on the OWS prior to the parasol deployment. Following erection of the twin-pole sunshade, the cabin temperature stayed at a comfortable 293-297 K (67.7°F-74.9°F).

1973 August 17 - .
  • X-24 Flight 30 - . Crew: Manke. Payload: X-24B flight 2. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Manke. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: X-24B. Summary: Maximum Speed - 722 kph. Maximum Altitude - 13720 m. Flight Time - 267 sec..

1973 August 24 - . 16:24 GMT - .
  • EVA Skylab 3-2 - . Crew: Garriott; Lousma. EVA Type: Extra-Vehicular Activity. EVA Duration: 0.19 days. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Garriott; Lousma. Program: Skylab. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space station. Flight: Skylab 3. Spacecraft: Skylab. Summary: Replaced solar camera film cartridges; installed replacement gyroscopes..

1973 August 31 - .
  • X-24 Flight 31 - . Crew: Manke. Payload: X-24B flight 3. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Manke. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: X-24B. Summary: Maximum Speed - 771 kph. Maximum Altitude - 13720 m. Flight Time - 277 sec..

1973 September 18 - .
  • X-24 Flight 32 - . Crew: Manke. Payload: X-24B flight 4. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Manke. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: X-24B. Summary: Maximum Speed - 724 kph. Maximum Altitude - 13720 m. Flight Time - 271 sec..

1973 September 22 - . 11:18 GMT - .
  • EVA Skylab 3-3 - . Crew: Bean; Garriott. EVA Type: Extra-Vehicular Activity. EVA Duration: 0.11 days. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Bean; Garriott. Program: Skylab. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space station. Flight: Skylab 3. Spacecraft: Skylab. Summary: Replaced film cartridges for solar camera..

1973 September 27 - . 12:18 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511.
  • Soyuz 12 - . Call Sign: Ural (Urals ). Crew: Lazarev; Makarov. Backup Crew: Grechko; Gubarev. Support Crew: Klimuk; Sevastyanov. Payload: Soyuz 7K-T s/n 36. Mass: 6,720 kg (14,810 lb). Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Lazarev; Makarov; Grechko; Gubarev; Klimuk; Sevastyanov. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz 12. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-T. Duration: 1.97 days. Decay Date: 1973-09-29 . USAF Sat Cat: 6836 . COSPAR: 1973-067A. Apogee: 348 km (216 mi). Perigee: 306 km (190 mi). Inclination: 51.0000 deg. Period: 91.00 min. Experimental flight for the purpose of further development of manned space craft Soyuz 7K-T modifications. After the Soyuz 11 disaster, the Soyuz underwent redesign for increased reliability. Two solo test flights of the new design were planned. Crews for the first flight were those already planned for the deferred follow-on missions to the failed DOS 2 and DOS 3 space stations.

1973 October 4 - .
  • X-24 Flight 33 - . Crew: Love, Michael. Payload: X-24B flight 5. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Love, Michael. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: X-24B. Summary: Maximum Speed - 732 kph. Maximum Altitude - 13720 m. Flight Time - 279 sec..

1973 November 15 - .
  • X-24 Flight 34 - . Crew: Manke. Payload: X-24B flight 6. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Manke. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: X-24B. Summary: First power flight. Maximum Speed - 961 kph. Maximum Altitude - 16080 m. Flight Time - 404 sec..

1973 November 23 - . 17:42 GMT - .
1973 November 30 - . 05:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511.
  • Cosmos 613 - . Payload: Soyuz 7K-T s/n 34L. Mass: 6,675 kg (14,715 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-T. Duration: 60.00 days. Decay Date: 1974-01-29 . USAF Sat Cat: 6957 . COSPAR: 1973-096A. Apogee: 276 km (171 mi). Perigee: 199 km (123 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 89.30 min. Summary: Unmanned Soyuz test flight. Recovered January 29, 1974 5:29 GMT. Soyuz 7K-T duration test..

1973 December 12 - .
  • X-24 Flight 35 - . Crew: Manke. Payload: X-24B flight 7. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Manke. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: X-24B. Summary: Maximum Speed - 1038 kph. Maximum Altitude - 19080 m. Flight Time - 434 sec..

1973 December 18 - . 11:55 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511.
  • Soyuz 13 - . Call Sign: Kavkas (Caucasus ). Crew: Klimuk; Lebedev. Backup Crew: Vorobyov; Yazdovsky. Payload: Soyuz 7K-T s/n 33A. Mass: 6,560 kg (14,460 lb). Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Klimuk; Lebedev; Vorobyov; Yazdovsky. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz 13. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-T. Duration: 7.87 days. Decay Date: 1973-12-26 . USAF Sat Cat: 6982 . COSPAR: 1973-103A. Apogee: 247 km (153 mi). Perigee: 188 km (116 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.80 min. A unique flight of the 7K-T/AF modification of the Soyuz spacecraft. The orbital module was dominated by the large Orion 2 astrophysical camera. The crew conducted astrophysical observations of stars in the ultraviolet range. Additional experiments included spectrozonal photography of specific areas of the earth's surface, and continued testing of space craft's on-board systems.

1973 December 25 - . 16:00 GMT - .
  • EVA Skylab 4-2 - . Crew: Carr; Pogue. EVA Type: Extra-Vehicular Activity. EVA Duration: 0.29 days. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Carr; Pogue. Program: Skylab. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space station. Flight: Skylab 4. Spacecraft: Skylab. Summary: Photographed Comet Kohoutek and replaced solar camera film cartridges..

1973 December 29 - . 17:00 GMT - .
1974 February 3 - . 15:19 GMT - .
  • EVA Skylab 4-4 - . Crew: Carr; Gibson, Edward. EVA Type: Extra-Vehicular Activity. EVA Duration: 0.22 days. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Carr; Gibson, Edward. Program: Skylab. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space station. Flight: Skylab 4. Spacecraft: Skylab. Summary: Retrieved solar camera film cartridges and external materials exposure package..

1974 February 15 - .
  • X-24 Flight 36 - . Crew: Love, Michael. Payload: X-24B flight 8. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Love, Michael. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: X-24B. Summary: Maximum Speed - 724 kph. Maximum Altitude - 13720 m. Flight Time - 307 sec..

1974 March 5 - .
  • X-24 Flight 37 - . Crew: Manke. Payload: X-24B flight 9. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Manke. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: X-24B. Summary: First supersonic flight. Maximum Speed - 1139 kph. Maximum Altitude - 18390 m. Flight Time - 437 sec..

1974 April 3 - . 07:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 638 - . Payload: Soyuz ASTP s/n 71-EPSA. Mass: 6,570 kg (14,480 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: ASTP. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-TM. Duration: 9.89 days. Decay Date: 1974-04-13 . USAF Sat Cat: 7234 . COSPAR: 1974-018A. Apogee: 309 km (192 mi). Perigee: 187 km (116 mi). Inclination: 51.8000 deg. Period: 89.40 min. Unmanned Soyuz test flight. Recovered April 13, 1974 5:05 GMT. Soyuz ASTP Test.
    Maneuver Summary:
    190km X 309km orbit to 190km X 266km orbit. Delta V: 12 m/s
    190km X 266km orbit to 240km X 300km orbit. Delta V: 23 m/s
    240km X 300km orbit to 258km X 274km orbit. Delta V: 12 m/s
    Total Delta V: 47 m/s.
    Officially: Investigation of the upper atmosphere and outer space.

1974 April 30 - .
  • X-24 Flight 38 - . Crew: Love, Michael. Payload: X-24B flight 10. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Love, Michael. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: X-24B. Summary: Maximum Speed - 930 kph. Maximum Altitude - 15860 m. Flight Time - 419 sec..

1974 May 2 - . LV Family: N1. Launch Vehicle: N1.
  • N1-L3 program is cancelled - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Glushko; Kozlov; Mishin. Program: Lunar L3. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space station. The N1 program was cancelled before the next test flight. Mishin was removed as head of NPO Energia. Kozlov is first asked to replace him, but he prefers to stay in Samara. Glushko is appointed as the second choice. Two fully assembled (serial numbers 8L and 9L), and four partially assembled rockets were available at time of cancellation. These would have been the first to use the new modernized series NK-33/NK-39 engines. 8L was planned for launch in the fourth quarter of 1974. Confidence was high that, based on the massive telemetry received on the 7L flight, that all problems would have been rectified. A total of 3.6 billion rubles was spent on the N1-L3 program, of which 2.4 billion rubles went into N1 development. Those on the project felt that they were within months of finally providing the Soviet Union with a heavy-lift booster. Instead the work was discarded, and Glushko began design of the RLA/Vulkan with entirely new configuration and engines.

1974 May 24 - .
  • X-24 Flight 39 - . Crew: Manke. Payload: X-24B flight 11. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Manke. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: X-24B. Summary: Maximum Speed - 1212 kph. Maximum Altitude - 17060 m. Flight Time - 448 sec..

1974 May 27 - . 07:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511.
  • Cosmos 656 - . Payload: Soyuz 7K-T(A9) s/n 61. Mass: 6,675 kg (14,715 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Almaz. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-T/A9. Duration: 2.01 days. Decay Date: 1974-05-29 . USAF Sat Cat: 7313 . COSPAR: 1974-036A. Apogee: 364 km (226 mi). Perigee: 195 km (121 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 90.00 min. Summary: Unmanned test flight of the Soyuz 7K-T(A9) Soyuz variant designed for docking with the military Almaz space station. Recovered May 29, 1974 7:50 GMT..

1974 June 4 - .
  • Structural assembly of crew module for OV-102 begun. - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Columbia.

1974 June 14 - .
  • X-24 Flight 40 - . Crew: Love, Michael. Payload: X-24B flight 12. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Love, Michael. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: X-24B. Summary: Maximum Speed - 1303 kph. Maximum Altitude - 19970 m. Flight Time - 405 sec..

1974 June 24 - . 22:38 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/23. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K. LV Configuration: Proton-K 283-02.
  • Salyut 3 - . Payload: Almaz s/n 101-02. Mass: 18,500 kg (40,700 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Almaz. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space station. Spacecraft: Almaz OPS. Duration: 90.00 days. Decay Date: 1975-01-24 . USAF Sat Cat: 7342 . COSPAR: 1974-046A. Apogee: 253 km (157 mi). Perigee: 213 km (132 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 89.10 min. First successful Almaz military manned space station flight. Tested a wide array of reconnaissance sensors. Following the successful Soyuz 14 and unsuccessful Soyuz 15 missions, on 23 September 1974 the station ejected a film return capsule. The KSI capsule suffered damage during re-entry but all the film was recoverable. On 24 January 1975 trials of the on-board 23 mm Nudelmann aircraft cannon (other sources say it was a Nudelmann NR-30 30 mm gun) were conducted. The next day the station was commanded to retrofire to a destructive re-entry over the Pacific Ocean. Although only one of three planned crews managed to board the station, that crew did complete the first completely successful Soviet space station flight. Additional Details: here....

1974 June 28 - .
  • X-24 Flight 41 - . Crew: Manke. Payload: X-24B flight 13. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Manke. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: X-24B. Summary: Maximum Speed - 1480 kph. Maximum Altitude - 20770 m. Flight Time - 427 sec..

1974 June 30 - .
  • Spiral project resurrected - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Glushko. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: MiG 105-11. Summary: Glushko supports modest project to do subsonic flight tests of Spiral orbiter configuration..

1974 July 3 - . 18:51 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511.
  • Soyuz 14 - . Call Sign: Berkut (Golden Eagle ). Crew: Artyukhin; Popovich. Backup Crew: Demin; Sarafanov. Support Crew: Rozhdestvensky; Volynov; Zholobov; Zudov. Payload: Soyuz 7K-T(A9) s/n 62. Mass: 6,800 kg (14,900 lb). Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Artyukhin; Popovich; Demin; Sarafanov; Rozhdestvensky; Volynov; Zholobov; Zudov. Agency: MOM. Program: Almaz. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz 14. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-T/A9. Duration: 15.73 days. Decay Date: 1974-07-19 . USAF Sat Cat: 7361 . COSPAR: 1974-051A. Apogee: 217 km (134 mi). Perigee: 195 km (121 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.60 min. On 4 July Soyuz 14 docked with the Salyut 3 space station after 15 revolutions of the earth. The planned experimental program included manned military reconnaissance of the earth's surface, assessing the fundamental value of such observations, and some supplemental medico-biological research. After the crew's return research continued in the development of the on-board systems and the principles of remote control of such a station.

1974 August 6 - . 00:02 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 670 - . Payload: Soyuz 7K-S s/n 1L. Mass: 6,700 kg (14,700 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-S. Duration: 2.99 days. Decay Date: 1974-08-09 . USAF Sat Cat: 7405 . COSPAR: 1974-061A. Apogee: 294 km (182 mi). Perigee: 211 km (131 mi). Inclination: 50.6000 deg. Period: 89.50 min. Summary: Unmanned Soyuz 7K-S test flight. Recovered August 8, 1974 23:59 GMT..

1974 August 8 - .
  • X-24 Flight 42 - . Crew: Love, Michael. Payload: X-24B flight 14. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Love, Michael. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: X-24B. Summary: Maximum Speed - 1644 kph. Maximum Altitude - 22370 m. Flight Time - 395 sec..

1974 August 12 - . 06:25 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 672 - . Payload: Soyuz ASTP s/n 72-EPSA. Mass: 6,570 kg (14,480 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: ASTP. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-TM. Duration: 5.94 days. Decay Date: 1974-08-18 . USAF Sat Cat: 7413 . COSPAR: 1974-064A. Apogee: 226 km (140 mi). Perigee: 222 km (137 mi). Inclination: 51.7000 deg. Period: 88.90 min. ASTP precursor. Recovered August 18, 1974 5:02 GMT. Soyuz ASTP test.
    Maneuver Summary:
    195km X 305km orbit to 195km X 221km orbit. Delta V: 24 m/s
    195km X 221km orbit to 223km X 223km orbit. Delta V: 8 m/s
    231km X 231km orbit to 231km X 231km orbit. Delta V: 1 m/s
    223km X 223km orbit to 231km X 231km orbit. Delta V: 4 m/s
    231km X 231km orbit to 227km X 237km orbit. Delta V: 2 m/s
    Total Delta V: 39 m/s.
    Officially: Investigation of the upper atmosphere and outer space.

1974 August 26 - .
  • Shuttle Enterprise fuselage assembly starts. - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Enterprise. Summary: Start structural assembly aft fuselage, Enterprise (OV-101).

1974 August 26 - . 19:58 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511.
  • Soyuz 15 - . Call Sign: Duna (Danube ). Crew: Demin; Sarafanov. Backup Crew: Volynov; Zholobov. Support Crew: Rozhdestvensky; Zudov. Payload: Soyuz 7K-T(A9) s/n 63. Mass: 6,760 kg (14,900 lb). Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Demin; Sarafanov; Volynov; Zholobov; Rozhdestvensky; Zudov. Agency: MOM. Program: Almaz. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz 15. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-T/A9. Duration: 2.01 days. Decay Date: 1974-08-28 . USAF Sat Cat: 7421 . COSPAR: 1974-067A. Apogee: 236 km (146 mi). Perigee: 173 km (107 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.50 min. Soyuz 15 was to conduct the second phase of manned operations aboard the Salyut 3 military space station, but the Igla rendezvous system failed and no docking was made. The two day flight could only be characterised as '... research in manoeuvring and docking with the OPS in various modes, and development of methods for evacuation and landing from space complex in new conditions....'

    As Chelomei had complained, Soyuz had no reserves or backup systems for repeated manual docking attempts and had to be recovered after a two-day flight. The state commission found that the Igla docking system of the Soyuz needed serious modification. This could not be completed before Salyut 3 decayed. Therefore the planned Soyuz 16 spacecraft became excess to the program (it was later flown as Soyuz 20 to a civilian Salyut station, even though over its two year rated storage life).

    Officially: Conduct of joint experiments with the Salyut-3 orbital scientific station.


1974 August 29 - .
  • X-24 Flight 43 - . Crew: Manke. Payload: X-24B flight 15. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Manke. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: X-24B. Summary: Maximum Speed - 1170 kph. Maximum Altitude - 22080 m. Flight Time - 467 sec..

1974 October 25 - .
  • X-24 Flight 44 - . Crew: Love, Michael. Payload: X-24B flight 16. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Love, Michael. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: X-24B. Summary: Max. speed flight. Maximum Speed - 1873 kph. Maximum Altitude - 21990 m. Flight Time - 417 sec..

1974 November 15 - .
  • X-24 Flight 45 - . Crew: Manke. Payload: X-24B flight 17. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Manke. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: X-24B. Summary: Maximum Speed - 1722 kph. Maximum Altitude - 21960 m. Flight Time - 481 sec..

1974 December 2 - . 09:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Soyuz 16 - . Call Sign: Buran (Snowstorm ). Crew: Filipchenko; Rukavishnikov. Backup Crew: Andreyev; Dzhanibekov. Support Crew: Ivanchenkov; Romanenko. Payload: Soyuz ASTP s/n 73-EPSA. Mass: 6,800 kg (14,900 lb). Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Filipchenko; Rukavishnikov; Andreyev; Dzhanibekov; Ivanchenkov; Romanenko. Agency: MOM. Program: ASTP. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz 16. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-TM. Duration: 5.93 days. Decay Date: 1974-12-08 . USAF Sat Cat: 7561 . COSPAR: 1974-096A. Apogee: 291 km (180 mi). Perigee: 184 km (114 mi). Inclination: 51.8000 deg. Period: 89.20 min. ASTP Manned Test Flight. Check-out of the Soyuz space craft's on-board systems which had been modernized to meet the requirements of the 1975 joint flight in accordance with the programme of the Soviet-United States experiment; conduct of scientific and technical investigations.

1974 December 17 - .
  • X-24 Flight 46 - . Crew: Love, Michael. Payload: X-24B flight 18. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Love, Michael. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: X-24B. Summary: Maximum Speed - 1667 kph. Maximum Altitude - 20960 m. Flight Time - 420 sec..

1974 December 26 - . 04:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/24. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K. LV Configuration: Proton-K 284-02.
  • Salyut 4 - . Payload: Zarya s/n 124. Mass: 18,500 kg (40,700 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space station. Spacecraft: Salyut 4. Duration: 768.82 days. Decay Date: 1977-02-02 . USAF Sat Cat: 7591 . COSPAR: 1974-104A. Apogee: 251 km (155 mi). Perigee: 212 km (131 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 89.10 min. Deorbited February 2, 1977.
    Maneuver Summary:
    211km X 250km orbit to 215km X 286km orbit. Delta V: 11 m/s
    211km X 284km orbit to 276km X 344km orbit. Delta V: 35 m/s
    277km X 342km orbit to 338km X 351km orbit. Delta V: 19 m/s
    330km X 340km orbit to 337km X 350km orbit. Delta V: 4 m/s
    337km X 349km orbit to 339km X 351km orbit. Delta V: 1 m/s
    332km X 348km orbit to 348km X 355km orbit. Delta V: 6 m/s
    347km X 354km orbit to 343km X 351km orbit. Delta V: 1 m/s
    335km X 344km orbit to 335km X 360km orbit. Delta V: 4 m/s
    335km X 360km orbit to 342km X 361km orbit. Delta V: 2 m/s
    330km X 351km orbit to 344km X 353km orbit. Delta V: 4 m/s
    186km X 187km orbit to 90km X 186km orbit. Delta V: 28 m/s
    Total Delta V: 87/115 m/s.
    Officially: Further testing of station design, on-board systems and equipment; conduct of scientific and technical research and experiments in outer space. Further testing of station design, on-board systems and equipment; conduct of scientific and technical researc h and experiments in outer space.

1975 January 10 - . 21:43 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511.
  • Soyuz 17 - . Call Sign: Zenit (Zenith ). Crew: Grechko; Gubarev. Backup Crew: Lazarev; Makarov. Support Crew: Klimuk; Sevastyanov. Payload: Soyuz 7K-T s/n 38. Mass: 6,800 kg (14,900 lb). Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Grechko; Gubarev; Lazarev; Makarov; Klimuk; Sevastyanov. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz 17. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-T. Duration: 29.56 days. Decay Date: 1975-02-09 . USAF Sat Cat: 7604 . COSPAR: 1975-001A. Apogee: 249 km (154 mi). Perigee: 185 km (114 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.80 min. Summary: Manned two crew. Docked with Salyut 4. Joint experiments with the Salyut scientific orbital station..

1975 January 14 - .
  • X-24 Flight 47 - . Crew: Manke. Payload: X-24B flight 19. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Manke. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: X-24B. Summary: Maximum Speed - 1862 kph. Maximum Altitude - 22180 m. Flight Time - 477 sec..

1975 March 20 - .
  • X-24 Flight 48 - . Crew: Love, Michael. Payload: X-24B flight 20. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Love, Michael. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: X-24B. Summary: Maximum Speed - 1537 kph. Maximum Altitude - 21450 m. Flight Time - 409 sec..

1975 March 27 - .
  • Shuttle Enterprise fuselage complete. - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Enterprise.

1975 March 27 - .
  • Shuttle Columbia fuselage assembly starts. - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Columbia. Summary: Start long-lead fabrication aft fuselage, Columbia (OV-102).

1975 April 5 - . 11:04 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511. FAILURE: During second-third stage separation third stage failed to separate from second stage but still ignited.. Failed Stage: 3.
  • Soyuz 18-1 - . Call Sign: Ural (Urals ). Crew: Lazarev; Makarov. Backup Crew: Klimuk; Sevastyanov. Payload: Soyuz 7K-T s/n 39. Mass: 6,830 kg (15,050 lb). Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Lazarev; Makarov; Klimuk; Sevastyanov. Agency: RVSN. Program: Salyut. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz 18-1. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-T. Duration: 0.0149 days. Decay Date: 1975-04-05 . COSPAR: F750405A. Apogee: 192 km (119 mi). Carried Oleg Makarov, Vasili Lazarev for rendezvous with Salyut 4; but during second-third stage seperation third stage failed to separate from second stage but still ignited. The crew demanded that the abort procedures be implemented but ground control could not see the launch vehicle gyrations in their telemetry. Soyuz finally was separated from by ground control command at 192 km, and following a 20.6+ G reentry, the capsule landed in the Altai mountains, tumbled down a mountainside, and snagged in some bushes just short of a precipice. The crew was worried that they may have landed in China and would face internment, but after an hour sitting in the cold next to the capsule, they were discovered by locals speaking Russian. Total flight duration was 1574 km and flight time 21 minutes 27 seconds. Lazarev suffered internal injuries from the high-G reentry and tumble down the mountain side and never flew again. Both cosmonauts were denied their 3000 ruble spaceflight bonus pay and had to apeal all the way to Brezhnev before being paid.

1975 April 18 - .
  • X-24 Flight 49 - . Crew: Manke. Payload: X-24B flight 21. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Manke. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: X-24B. Summary: Maximum Speed - 1279 kph. Maximum Altitude - 17650 m. Flight Time - 450 sec..

1975 May 6 - .
  • X-24 Flight 50 - . Crew: Love, Michael. Payload: X-24B flight 22. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Love, Michael. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: X-24B. Summary: Maximum Speed - 1541 kph. Maximum Altitude - 22370 m. Flight Time - 448 sec..

1975 May 22 - .
  • X-24 Flight 51 - . Crew: Manke. Payload: X-24B flight 23. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Manke. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: X-24B. Summary: Max. altitude. Maximum Speed - 1744 kph. Maximum Altitude - 22370 m. Flight Time - 461 sec..

1975 May 23 - .
  • Enterprise wings complete. - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Enterprise. Summary: Wings on dock, Palmdale-less elevons, seals and main gear doors-Enterprise (OV-101).

1975 May 24 - . 14:58 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511.
  • Soyuz 18 - . Call Sign: Kavkas (Caucasus ). Crew: Klimuk; Sevastyanov. Backup Crew: Kovalyonok; Ponomaryov. Payload: Soyuz 7K-T s/n 40. Mass: 6,825 kg (15,046 lb). Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Klimuk; Sevastyanov; Kovalyonok; Ponomaryov. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz 18. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-T. Duration: 62.97 days. Decay Date: 1975-07-26 . USAF Sat Cat: 7818 . COSPAR: 1975-044A. Apogee: 230 km (140 mi). Perigee: 186 km (115 mi). Inclination: 51.7000 deg. Period: 88.60 min. Summary: Manned two crew. Docked with Salyut 4. Joint experiments with the Salyut scientific orbital station. The crew remained aloft aboard the station during the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project joint flight..

1975 May 27 - .
  • Enterprise vertical stabilizer complete. - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Enterprise. Summary: Vertical stabilizer on dock, Palmdale (main fin box only), Enterprise (OV-101).

1975 June 6 - .
  • X-24 Flight 52 - . Crew: Love, Michael. Payload: X-24B flight 24. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Love, Michael. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: X-24B. Summary: Maximum Speed - 1786 kph. Maximum Altitude - 21980 m. Flight Time - 474 sec..

1975 June 25 - .
  • X-24 Flight 53 - . Crew: Manke. Payload: X-24B flight 25. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Manke. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: X-24B. Summary: Maximum Speed - 1427 kph. Maximum Altitude - 17680 m. Flight Time - 426 sec..

1975 July 15 - .
  • X-24 Flight 54 - . Crew: Love, Michael. Payload: X-24B flight 26. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Love, Michael. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: X-24B. Summary: Maximum Speed - 1685 kph. Maximum Altitude - 21180 m. Flight Time - 415 sec..

1975 July 15 - . 12:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Soyuz 19 (ASTP) - . Call Sign: Soyuz (Union ). Crew: Kubasov; Leonov. Backup Crew: Filipchenko; Rukavishnikov. Support Crew: Andreyev; Dzhanibekov; Ivanchenkov; Romanenko. Payload: Soyuz ASTP s/n 75 (EPSA). Mass: 6,790 kg (14,960 lb). Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Kubasov; Leonov; Filipchenko; Rukavishnikov; Andreyev; Dzhanibekov; Ivanchenkov; Romanenko. Agency: MOM. Program: ASTP. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz 19 (ASTP); Apollo (ASTP). Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-TM. Duration: 5.94 days. Decay Date: 1975-07-21 . USAF Sat Cat: 8030 . COSPAR: 1975-065A. Apogee: 220 km (130 mi). Perigee: 186 km (115 mi). Inclination: 51.8000 deg. Period: 88.50 min. Soyuz 19 initial orbital parameters were 220.8 by 185.07 kilometres, at the desired inclination of 51.80°, while the period of the first orbit was 88.6 minutes. On 17 July the two spacecraft docked. The crew members rotated between the two spacecraft and conducted various mainly ceremonial activities. Leonov was on the American side for 5 hours, 43 minutes, while Kubasov spent 4:57 in the command and docking modules.

    After being docked for nearly 44 hours, Apollo and Soyuz parted for the first time and were station-keeping at a range of 50 meters. The Apollo crew placed its craft between Soyuz and the sun so that the diameter of the service module formed a disk which blocked out the sun. After this experiment Apollo moved towards Soyuz for the second docking.

    Three hours later Apollo and Soyuz undocked for the second and final time. The spacecraft moved to a 40 m station-keeping distance so that an ultraviolet absorption experiment could be performed. With all the joint flight activities completed, the ships went on their separate ways.


1975 August 5 - .
  • X-24 Flight 55 - . Crew: Manke. Payload: X-24B flight 27. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Manke. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: X-24B. Summary: Maximum Speed - 1381 kph. Maximum Altitude - 18290 m. Flight Time - 420 sec..

1975 August 20 - .
  • X-24 Flight 56 - . Crew: Love, Michael. Payload: X-24B flight 28. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Love, Michael. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: X-24B. Summary: Maximum Speed - 1625 kph. Maximum Altitude - 21950 m. Flight Time - 420 sec..

1975 August 25 - .
  • Shuttle Enterprise final assembly. - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Enterprise. Summary: Start final assembly and closeout system installation, Enterprise (OV-101).

1975 September 5 - .
  • Enterprise aft fuselage complete. - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Enterprise. Summary: Aft fuselage on dock, Palmdale, Enterprise (OV-101).

1975 September 9 - .
  • X-24 Flight 57 - . Crew: Dana. Payload: X-24B flight 29. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Dana. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: X-24B. Summary: Maximum Speed - 1593 kph. Maximum Altitude - 21640 m. Flight Time - 435 sec..

1975 September 23 - .
  • X-24 Flight 58 - . Crew: Dana. Payload: X-24B flight 30. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Dana. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: X-24B. Summary: Last rocket-powered flight. Maximum Speed - 1255 kph. Maximum Altitude - 17680 m. Flight Time - 438 sec..

1975 September 29 - . 04:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 772 - . Payload: Soyuz 7K-S s/n 2L. Mass: 6,750 kg (14,880 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut 6. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-S. Duration: 3.99 days. Decay Date: 1975-10-02 . USAF Sat Cat: 8338 . COSPAR: 1975-093A. Apogee: 245 km (152 mi). Perigee: 154 km (95 mi). Inclination: 51.8000 deg. Period: 88.40 min. Unmanned military Soyuz 7K-S test flight. Recovered October 3, 1975 4:10 GMT. Unsuccessful mission. Transmitted only on 166 MHz frequency, at none of the other usual Soyuz wavelengths.
    Maneuver Summary:
    193 km X 270 km orbit to 195 km X 300 km orbit. Delta V: 8 m/s
    196 km X 300 km orbit to 196 km X 328 km orbit. Delta V: 8 m/s
    Total Delta V: 16 m/s

1975 October 9 - .
  • X-24 Flight 59 - . Crew: Enevoldson. Payload: X-24B flight 31. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Enevoldson. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: X-24B. Summary: Maximum Speed - 724 kph. Maximum Altitude - 13720 m. Flight Time - 251 sec..

1975 October 21 - .
  • X-24 Flight 60 - . Crew: Scobee. Payload: X-24B flight 32. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Scobee. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: X-24B. Summary: Maximum Speed - 743 kph. Maximum Altitude - 13720 m. Flight Time - 255 sec..

1975 October 31 - .
  • Enterprise lower fuselage complete. - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Enterprise. Summary: Lower forward fuselage on dock, Palmdale, Enterprise (OV-101).

1975 November 3 - .
  • X-24 Flight 61 - . Crew: McMurtry. Payload: X-24B flight 33. Nation: USA. Related Persons: McMurtry. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: X-24B. Summary: Maximum Speed - 734 kph. Maximum Altitude - 13720 m. Flight Time - 248 sec..

1975 November 12 - .
  • X-24 Flight 62 - . Crew: Enevoldson. Payload: X-24B flight 34. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Enevoldson. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: X-24B. Summary: Maximum Speed - 734 kph. Maximum Altitude - 13720 m. Flight Time - 241 sec..

1975 November 17 - .
  • Columbia crew module started. - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Columbia. Summary: Start long-lead fabrication of crew module, Columbia (OV-102).

1975 November 17 - . 14:36 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Soyuz 20 - . Payload: Soyuz 7K-T(A9) s/n 64. Mass: 6,700 kg (14,700 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-T/A9. Duration: 90.49 days. Decay Date: 1976-02-16 . USAF Sat Cat: 8430 . COSPAR: 1975-106A. Apogee: 251 km (155 mi). Perigee: 184 km (114 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.80 min. Unmanned long duration test of the Soyuz transport vehicle; docked with Salyut 4. Recovered February 16, 1976 2:24 GMT. Comprehensive checking of improved on-board systems of the space craft under various flight conditions. Carried a biological payload. Living organisms were exposed to three months in space.

1975 November 19 - .
  • X-24 Flight 63 - . Crew: Scobee. Payload: X-24B flight 35. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Scobee. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: X-24B. Summary: Maximum Speed - 740 kph. Maximum Altitude - 13720 m. Flight Time - 249 sec..

1975 November 26 - .
  • X-24 Flight 64 - . Crew: McMurtry. Payload: X-24B flight 36. Nation: USA. Related Persons: McMurtry. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: X-24B. Summary: Maximum Speed - 740 kph. Maximum Altitude - 13720 m. Flight Time - 245 sec..

1975 December 1 - .
  • Enterprise upper forward fuselage complete. - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Enterprise. Summary: Upper forward fuselage on dock, Palmdale, Enterprise (OV-101).

1976 January 16 - .
  • Crew module on dock, Palmdale, Enterprise (OV-101) - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Enterprise.

1976 March 3 - .
  • Payload bay doors on dock, Palmdale, Enterprise - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Enterprise. Summary: Payload bay doors on dock, Palmdale, Enterprise (OV-101).

1976 March 12 - . LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle.
  • Enterprise final assembly complete. - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Enterprise. Summary: Complete final assembly and closeout system installation..

1976 March 15 - .
  • Start functional checkout, Enterprise - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Enterprise. Summary: Start functional checkout, Enterprise (OV-101)..

1976 April 22 - .
  • Body flap on dock, Palmdale, Enterprise (OV-101) - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Enterprise.

1976 June 22 - . 18:04 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/23. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K. LV Configuration: Proton-K 290-02.
  • Salyut 5 - . Payload: Almaz s/n 103-01. Mass: 19,000 kg (41,000 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Almaz. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space station. Spacecraft: Almaz OPS. Duration: 411.24 days. Decay Date: 1977-08-08 . USAF Sat Cat: 8911 . COSPAR: 1976-057A. Apogee: 232 km (144 mi). Perigee: 215 km (133 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.90 min. Second successful flight of the Almaz manned military space station. It had taken only 60 days and 1450 man-hours to prepare Almaz 0101-2 for flight, using the services of 368 officers and 337 non-commissioned officers. The tracking ships Academician Sergei Korolev and Cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin were stationed in the Atlantic and Caribean to provide communications when out of tracking range of the USSR. Salyut 5 operated for 409 days, during which the crews of Soyuz 22 and 24 visited the station. Soyuz 23 was to have docked but its long-distance rendezvous system failed. Soyuz 25 was planned, but the mission would have been incomplete due to low orientation fuel on Salyut 5, so it was cancelled.

    During the flight of Salyut 5 a 'parallel crew' was aboard a duplicate station on the ground. They conducted the same operations in support of over 300 astrophysical, geophysical, technological, and medical/biological experiments. Astrophysics studies included an infrared telescope-spectrometer in the 2-15 micrometer range which also obtained solar spectra. Earth resources studies were conducted as well as Kristall, Potok, Diffuziya, Sfera, and Reatsiya technology experiments. Presumably Salyut 5 was equipped with a SAR side-looking radar for reconnaissance of land and sea targets even through cloud cover.

    The film capsule was ejected 22 February 1977 (and sold at Sotheby's, New York, on December 11, 1993!). The station was deorbited on 8 August 1977. In addition to the human crew two Russian tortoises (Testudo horsfieldi) and Zebrafish (Danio rerio) were flown.

    The results of the Salyut 3 and 5 flights showed that manned reconnaissance was not worth the expense. There was minimal time to operate the equipment after the crew took the necessary time for maintenance of station housekeeping and environmental control systems. The experiments themselves showed good results and especially the value of reconnaissance of the same location in many different spectral bands and parts of the electromagnetic spectrum. Additional Details: here....


1976 June 25 - .
  • Complete functional checkout, Enterprise (OV-101) - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Enterprise.

1976 June 28 - .
  • Start horizontal ground vibration tests Enterprise - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Enterprise. Summary: Start horizontal ground vibration tests and proof load tests, Enterprise (OV-101).

1976 June 30 - .
  • SSME dummy set on dock, Palmdale. - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Enterprise. Summary: SSME dummy set on dock, Palmdale, Enterprise (OV-101).

1976 July 6 - . 12:08 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Soyuz 21 - . Call Sign: Baikal (Baikal - lake in Siberia). Crew: Volynov; Zholobov. Backup Crew: Rozhdestvensky; Zudov. Support Crew: Berezovoi; Glazkov; Gorbatko; Lisun. Payload: Soyuz 7K-T(A9) s/n 41. Mass: 6,800 kg (14,900 lb). Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Volynov; Zholobov; Rozhdestvensky; Zudov; Berezovoi; Glazkov; Gorbatko; Lisun. Agency: MOM. Program: Almaz. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz 21. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-T/A9. Duration: 49.27 days. Decay Date: 1976-08-24 . USAF Sat Cat: 8934 . COSPAR: 1976-064A. Apogee: 274 km (170 mi). Perigee: 246 km (152 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 89.70 min. Soyuz 21 with Volynov and Zholobov aboard hard-docked with the station on 6 July 1976 after failure of the Igla system at the last stage of rendezvous. Towards the end of the two month mission an early return to earth was requested due to the poor condition of flight engineer Zholobov (who was suffering from space sickness and psychological problems).

1976 August 23 - .
  • Start Delta F modification, Enterprise (OV-101) - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Enterprise.

1976 August 27 - .
  • Shuttle Enterprise - dummy OMS pods delivered. - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Enterprise. Summary: Reaction control system/orbital maneuvering system pods (simulated), approach and landing tests, on dock, Palmdale, Enterprise.

1976 September 10 - .
  • Complete Delta F modifications, Enterprise - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Enterprise.

1976 September 13 - .
  • Start preparations for first rollout, Enterprise - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Enterprise.

1976 September 15 - . 09:48 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Soyuz 22 - . Call Sign: Yastreb (Hawk ). Crew: Aksyonov; Bykovsky. Backup Crew: Malyshev; Strekalov. Support Crew: Andreyev; Popov. Payload: Soyuz ASTP s/n 74 modified with MF6 camera. Mass: 6,510 kg (14,350 lb). Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Aksyonov; Bykovsky; Malyshev; Strekalov; Andreyev; Popov. Agency: MOM. Program: ASTP. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz 22. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-MF6. Duration: 7.91 days. Decay Date: 1976-09-23 . USAF Sat Cat: 9421 . COSPAR: 1976-093A. Apogee: 296 km (183 mi). Perigee: 185 km (114 mi). Inclination: 64.8000 deg. Period: 89.30 min. Surplus Soyuz ASTP spacecraft modified with a multi-spectral camera manufactured by Carl Zeiss-Jena in place of the universal docking apparatus. Eight days were spent photographing the earth. Tested and perfected scientific-technical methods and devices for studying the geological characteristics of the earth's surface from outer space for economic purposes.

1976 September 20 - .
  • Start Delta F retest, Enterprise (OV-101) - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Enterprise.

1976 October 14 - . 17:39 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Soyuz 23 - . Call Sign: Radon (Radon ). Crew: Rozhdestvensky; Zudov. Backup Crew: Glazkov; Gorbatko. Support Crew: Berezovoi; Lisun. Payload: Soyuz 7K-T(A9) s/n 65. Mass: 6,760 kg (14,900 lb). Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Rozhdestvensky; Zudov; Glazkov; Gorbatko; Berezovoi; Lisun. Agency: MOM. Program: Almaz. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz 23. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-T/A9. Duration: 2.00 days. Decay Date: 1976-10-16 . USAF Sat Cat: 9477 . COSPAR: 1976-100A. Apogee: 269 km (167 mi). Perigee: 239 km (148 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 89.50 min. The Soyuz 23 ferry spacecraft suffered a docking system failure. Sensors indicated an incorrect lateral velocity, causing unnecessary firing of the thrusters during rendezvous. The automatic system was turned off, but no fuel remained for a manual docking by the crew.

1976 October 29 - .
  • Complete Delta F retest, Enterprise (OV-101) - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Enterprise.

1976 November 26 - .
  • Complete integrated checkout, Enterprise (OV-101) - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Enterprise.

1976 November 29 - . 16:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 869 - . Payload: Soyuz 7K-S s/n 3L. Mass: 6,800 kg (14,900 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut 6. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-S. Duration: 17.77 days. Decay Date: 1976-12-17 . USAF Sat Cat: 9564 . COSPAR: 1976-114A. Apogee: 289 km (179 mi). Perigee: 209 km (129 mi). Inclination: 51.7000 deg. Period: 89.40 min. Unmanned military Soyuz 7K-S test flight. Recovered December 17, 1976 10:31 GMT. Transmitted only on 20.008 MHz and 166 MHz frequencies, at none of the other usual Soyuz wavelengths.
    Maneuver Summary:
    196 km X 290 km orbit to 187 km X 335 km orbit. Delta V: 15 m/s
    187 km X 335 km orbit to 259 km X 335 km orbit. Delta V: 21 m/s
    259 km X 335 km orbit to 260 km X 345 km orbit. Delta V: 2 m/s
    260 km X 345 km orbit to 265 km X 368 km orbit. Delta V: 7 m/s
    265 km X 368 km orbit to 267 km X 391 km orbit. Delta V: 6 m/s
    267 km X 391 km orbit to 300 km X 310 km orbit. Delta V: 32 m/s
    Total Delta V: 83 m/s

1976 December 13 - .
  • Start assembly upper forward fuselage, Columbia - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Columbia.

1976 December 15 - . 01:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/24. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K. LV Configuration: Proton-K 289-02.
  • Cosmos 881 - . Payload: TKS VA s/n 009P. Mass: 4,250 kg (9,360 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Almaz. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: TKS VA . Duration: 0.0600 days. Decay Date: 1976-12-15 . USAF Sat Cat: 9606 . COSPAR: 1976-121A. Apogee: 241 km (149 mi). Perigee: 201 km (124 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.90 min. Launch of mission LVI-1 came at 04:00 on 15 December. At 176 seconds the ADU escape tower separated from the LVI. Once the final stage had shut down in orbit, by command from the launch vehicle sequencer, the VA 009A (also given as 009P) and its TDU separated from the LVI. Two seconds later VA 009 (or 009L) was ejected. Fifteen minutes after launch all systems of the both VA capsules were in operation. The guidance system detected the direction of flight and oriented each spacecraft for retro-fire, and the pair began the return to earth after less than one revolution. At an external atmospheric pressure of 165 mm (10 km altitude) the NO section jettisoned, the three-cupola drogue parachute ejected, and the antennae and altimeter were deployed. The Komara landing radio beacon (installed on the landing section of the parachute) was activated when the spacecraft was 1.0 to 1.5 m above the ground - which occurred at the same moment on both 009 and 009A. The Kaktus special system tripped the soft landing PRSP (parachute landing propulsion system). The soft landing was accomplished with higher accuracy than Soyuz, both capsules being recovered at 44 deg N, 73 deg E, on December 15, 1976 3:00 GMT. The flights were officially given the designations Cosmos 881 (VA 009A) and Cosmos 882 (VA 009). US intelligence believed them to be tests of recoverable manned spaceplane prototypes.
  • Cosmos 882 - . Payload: TKS VA s/n 009L. Mass: 4,250 kg (9,360 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Almaz. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: TKS VA. Decay Date: 1976-12-15 . USAF Sat Cat: 9607 . COSPAR: 1976-121B. Apogee: 213 km (132 mi). Perigee: 191 km (118 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.50 min. Summary: Test of TKS-VA capsule. Two satellites launched by a single rocket..

1977 January 3 - .
  • Start assembly vertical stabilizer, Columbia - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Columbia.

1977 January 31 - .
  • Enterprise (OV-101) transported to Edwards AFB - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Enterprise.

1977 January 31 - .
  • Mockup SSME's delivered for Enterprise - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Enterprise. Summary: Mass simulated SSMEs on dock, Palmdale, Enterprise (OV-101).

1977 January 31 - .
  • Mass simulated SSMEs on dock, Palmdale, Enterprise - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Enterprise.

1977 February 7 - .
  • Enterprise (OV-101)/shuttle carrier aircraft mate - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Enterprise. Summary: Enterprise (OV-101)/shuttle carrier aircraft mate start.

1977 February 7 - . 16:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Soyuz 24 - . Call Sign: Terek (Terek - river in the Caucasus). Crew: Glazkov; Gorbatko. Backup Crew: Berezovoi; Lisun. Support Crew: Kozelsky; Preobrazhensky. Payload: Soyuz 7K-T(A9) s/n 66. Mass: 6,800 kg (14,900 lb). Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Glazkov; Gorbatko; Berezovoi; Lisun; Kozelsky; Preobrazhensky. Agency: MOM. Program: Almaz. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz 24. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-T/A9. Duration: 17.73 days. Decay Date: 1977-02-25 . USAF Sat Cat: 9804 . COSPAR: 1977-008A. Apogee: 264 km (164 mi). Perigee: 226 km (140 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 89.30 min. Soyuz 24 docked with Salyut 5 and brought repair equipment and equipment for a change of cabin atmosphere. This special apparatus was designed to allow the entire station to be vented through the EVA airlock. Because of this the planned EVA was cancelled. However analysis after arrival showed no toxins in the air. The crew changed the cabin air anyway, then returned to earth. The mission, although a short 18 days, was characterised as a busy and successful mission, accomplishing nearly as much as the earlier Soyuz 21's 50 day mission.

1977 February 10 - .
  • Midfuselage on dock, Palmdale, Columbia (OV-102) - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Columbia.

1977 February 15 - . Launch Site: Edwards.
  • Enterprise (OV-101)/shuttle carrier aircraft mated - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Enterprise. Summary: Complete Enterprise (OV-101)/shuttle carrier aircraft mated.

1977 February 18 - . Launch Site: Edwards. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle.
  • First inert captive flight - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Enterprise. Summary: Conduct first inert captive flight, Edwards (2 hours, 5 minutes), Enterprise (OV-101).

1977 February 22 - . Launch Site: Edwards. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle.
  • Second inert captive flight - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Enterprise. Summary: Conduct second inert captive flight, Edwards (3 hours, 13 minutes), Enterprise (OV-101).

1977 February 25 - . Launch Site: Edwards. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle.
  • Third inert captive flight - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Enterprise. Summary: Conduct third inert captive flight, Edwards (2 hours, 28 minutes), Enterprise (OV-101).

1977 February 28 - . Launch Site: Edwards. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle.
  • Fourth inert captive flight - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Enterprise. Summary: Conduct fourth inert captive flight, Edwards (2 hours, 11 minutes), Enterprise (OV-101).

1977 March 2 - . Launch Site: Edwards. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle.
  • Fifth inert captive flight - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Enterprise. Summary: Conduct fifth inert captive flight, Edwards (1 hour, 39 minutes), Enterprise (OV-101).

1977 June 7 - .
  • Complete integrated checkout of Enterprise - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Enterprise. Summary: Complete integrated checkout and hot-fire ground test, Edwards, Enterprise (OV-101).

1977 June 18 - . Launch Site: Edwards. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle.
  • Enterprise flight 1 - . Call Sign: Enterprise. Crew: Fullerton; Haise. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Fullerton; Haise. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Enterprise. Summary: First manned captive active flight. Enterprise (OV-101)/shuttle carrier aircraft, Edwards (55 minutes, 46 seconds).

1977 June 28 - . Launch Site: Edwards. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle.
  • Enterprise flight 2 - . Call Sign: Enterprise. Crew: Engle; Truly. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Engle; Truly. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Enterprise. Summary: Second manned captive active flight. Enterprise (OV-101)/shuttle carrier aircraft, Edwards (1 hour, 2 minutes).

1977 June 30 - .
  • Originally planned full up Spiral flight - . Nation: USSR. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: MiG 105-11. Summary: Original planned date for flight test of Spiral with airbreathing hypersonic first stage..

1977 July 17 - . 09:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/24. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K. LV Configuration: Proton-K 293-02.
  • Cosmos 929 - . Payload: TKS s/n 16101. Mass: 19,000 kg (41,000 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Almaz. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: TKS . Duration: 199.62 days. Decay Date: 1978-02-02 . USAF Sat Cat: 10146 . COSPAR: 1977-066A. Apogee: 260 km (160 mi). Perigee: 226 km (140 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 89.40 min. First test of TKS manned shuttle. Maneuvered extensively. TKS-VA capsule returned to earth August 16, 1977. Deorbited February 2, 1978.
    Maneuver Summary:
    214 km X 261 km orbit to 215 km X 279 km orbit. Delta V: 5 m/s
    207 km X 261 km orbit to 208 km X 264 km orbit. Delta V: 1 m/s
    208 km X 260 km orbit to 209 km X 267 km orbit. Delta V: 2 m/s
    192 km X 222 km orbit to 219 km X 232 km orbit. Delta V: 9 m/s
    219 km X 232 km orbit to 303 km X 327 km orbit. Delta V: 51 m/s
    303 km X 327 km orbit to 312 km X 318 km orbit. Delta V: 4 m/s
    312 km X 319 km orbit to 314 km X 325 km orbit. Delta V: 1 m/s
    284 km X 294 km orbit to 290 km X 301 km orbit. Delta V: 3 m/s
    288 km X 300 km orbit to 286 km X 305 km orbit. Delta V: 1 m/s
    285 km X 303 km orbit to 439 km X 447 km orbit. Delta V: 84 m/s
    437 km X 448 km orbit to 335 km X 437 km orbit. Delta V: 31 m/s
    335 km X 437 km orbit to 337 km X 438 km orbit. Delta V: 1 m/s
    337 km X 438 km orbit to 90 km X 337 km orbit. Delta V: 100 m/s
    Total Delta V: 193/293 m/s
    Officially: Investigation of the upper atmosphere and outer space.

1977 July 26 - . Launch Site: Edwards. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle.
  • Enterprise flight 3 - . Call Sign: Enterprise. Crew: Fullerton; Haise. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Fullerton; Haise. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Enterprise. Summary: Third manned captive active flight. Enterprise (OV-101)/shuttle carrier aircraft, Edwards (59 minutes, 50 seconds).

1977 August 4 - . 22:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/24. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K. LV Configuration: Proton-K 293-01. FAILURE: First stage engine steering unit failure at T+40.1 seconds. Failed Stage: 1.
  • TKS VA s/n 009L/P - . Payload: TKS VA s/n 009L/P. Mass: 4,250 kg (9,360 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Program: Almaz. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: TKS VA. Decay Date: 1977-08-04 . COSPAR: F770804A. Summary: Spacecraft lost in booster explosion..

1977 August 12 - . Launch Site: Edwards. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle.
  • Enterprise flight 4 - . Call Sign: Enterprise. Crew: Fullerton; Haise. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Fullerton; Haise. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Enterprise. Summary: Conduct first free flight, ALT, tail cone on, Edwards (5 minutes, 21 seconds), Enterprise (OV-101), lake bed Runway 17.

1977 August 26 - .
  • Deliver wings on dock, Palmdale, Columbia (OV-102) - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Columbia.

1977 September 7 - .
  • Lower forward fuselage on dock, Palmdale, Columbia - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Columbia.

1977 September 13 - . Launch Site: Edwards. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle.
  • Enterprise flight 5 - . Call Sign: Enterprise. Crew: Engle; Truly. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Engle; Truly. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Enterprise. Summary: Second free flight, ALT, tail cone on, Edwards (5 minutes, 28 seconds), Enterprise (OV-101), lake bed Runway 17.

1977 September 23 - . Launch Site: Edwards. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle.
  • Enterprise flight 6 - . Call Sign: Enterprise. Crew: Fullerton; Haise. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Fullerton; Haise. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Enterprise. Summary: Third free flight , ALT, tail cone on, Edwards (5 minutes, 34 seconds), Enterprise (OV-101), lake bed Runway 15.

1977 September 29 - . 06:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/24. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K. LV Configuration: Proton-K 295-01.
  • Salyut 6 - . Payload: Zarya s/n 125 s/n 5L. Mass: 19,824 kg (43,704 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut 6. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space station. Spacecraft: Salyut 6. Duration: 1,763.71 days. Decay Date: 1982-07-29 . USAF Sat Cat: 10382 . COSPAR: 1977-097A. Apogee: 237 km (147 mi). Perigee: 188 km (116 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.70 min. Conduct of scientific and technical research and experiments; further testing of station design, on-board system and equipment. Soyuz 25 docking unsuccessful. EVA 20 Dec 1977 to examine forward docking port (no damage). EVA 29 July 1978 to retrieve externally mounted experiments (micrometeorites, biopolymers, radiation plates, materials tests). Soyuz 33 failure to dock due to propulsion failure April 1979. Soyuz 34 launched unmanned to provide replacement vehicle June 1979. EVA August 15 to dislodge 10 m diameter KRT-10 radio telescope from aft docking collar. Repair mission Soyuz T-3 December 1980 (temperature control hydraulics). Repair mission Soyuz T-4 March 1981 (stuck solar array). Salyut ejected a module on May 31 (perhaps retained Soyuz Orbital Module). Kosmos 1267 docks 19 June 1981. Commanded to reentry using Kosmos 1267 propulsion system over Pacific July 29 1982. Additional Details: here....

1977 October 9 - . 02:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Soyuz 25 - . Call Sign: Foton (Photon). Crew: Kovalyonok; Ryumin. Backup Crew: Ivanchenkov; Romanenko. Payload: Soyuz 7K-T s/n 42. Mass: 6,860 kg (15,120 lb). Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Kovalyonok; Ryumin; Ivanchenkov; Romanenko. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut 6. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz 25. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-T. Duration: 2.03 days. Decay Date: 1977-10-11 . USAF Sat Cat: 10401 . COSPAR: 1977-099A. Apogee: 240 km (140 mi). Perigee: 194 km (120 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.80 min. Summary: Manned two crew. Unsuccessful mission. Failed to dock with Salyut 6..

1977 October 12 - . Launch Site: Edwards. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle.
  • Enterprise flight 7 - . Call Sign: Enterprise. Crew: Engle; Truly. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Engle; Truly. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Enterprise. Summary: Fourth free flight, ALT, first tail cone off, Edwards (2 minutes, 34 seconds), Enterprise (OV-101), lake bed Runway 17.

1977 October 26 - . Launch Site: Edwards. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle.
  • Enterprise flight 8 - . Call Sign: Enterprise. Crew: Fullerton; Haise. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Fullerton; Haise. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Enterprise. Summary: Fifth free flight, ALT, final tail cone off, Edwards (2 minutes, 1 second), Enterprise (OV-101), concrete Runway 04.

1977 October 28 - .
  • Lower forward fuselage on dock, Palmdale, Columbia - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Columbia.

1977 November 4 - .
  • Deliver aft fuselage on dock, Palmdale, Columbia - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Columbia.

1977 November 7 - .
  • Start final assembly Columbia. - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Columbia. Summary: Start final assembly and closeout system installation, Palmdale, Columbia (OV-102).

1977 November 15 - . Launch Site: Edwards. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle.
  • First ferry flight test, Edwards - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Enterprise. Summary: First ferry flight test, Edwards (3 hours, 21 minutes), Enterprise (OV-101).

1977 November 16 - . Launch Site: Edwards. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle.
  • Second ferry flight test, Edwards - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Enterprise. Summary: Second ferry flight test, Edwards (4 hours, 17 minutes), Enterprise (OV-101).

1977 November 17 - . Launch Site: Edwards. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle.
  • Third ferry flight test, Edwards - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Enterprise. Summary: Third ferry flight test, Edwards (4 hours, 13 minutes), Enterprise (OV-101).

1977 November 18 - . Launch Site: Edwards. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle.
  • Fourth ferry flight test, Edwards - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Enterprise. Summary: Fourth ferry flight test, Edwards (3 hours, 37 minutes), Enterprise (OV-101).

1977 December 9 - . Launch Site: Edwards. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle.
  • Complete approach and landing flight tests - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Enterprise. Summary: Complete approach and landing flight tests, including ferry flights, Enterprise (OV-101).

1977 December 10 - . 01:18 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Soyuz 26 - . Call Sign: Taimyr (Taimyr - Russian peninsula). Crew: Grechko; Romanenko. Backup Crew: Ivanchenkov; Kovalyonok. Payload: Soyuz 7K-T s/n 43. Mass: 6,800 kg (14,900 lb). Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Grechko; Romanenko; Ivanchenkov; Kovalyonok. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut 6. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Salyut 6 EO-1. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-T. Duration: 37.42 days. Decay Date: 1978-01-16 . USAF Sat Cat: 10506 . COSPAR: 1977-113A. Apogee: 235 km (146 mi). Perigee: 205 km (127 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.80 min. Summary: Manned two crew. Docked with Salyut 6. Carried Yuri Romanenko, Georgi Grechko to Salyut 6; returned crew of Soyuz 27 to Earth. Conduct of joint experiments with the Salyut-6 scientific station..

1977 December 12 - .
  • Start modification of Enterprise for ground vibe tests - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Enterprise. Summary: Start removal for mated vertical ground vibration test modification at Edwards, Enterprise (OV-101).

1977 December 19 - . 21:36 GMT - .
1978 - During the year - .
  • Manned Almaz program terminated - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Chelomei; Glushko; Ustinov. Program: Almaz. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space station. Spacecraft: Almaz OPS-2; TKS. Almaz station portion of the project already severely cut back after Marshal Grechko's heart attack in early 1976. Chelomei lost his most active patron and was unable to withstand the slow strangulation of his projects by Ustinov and Glushko. Almaz finally completely scrapped in 1980, but Chelomei hid the completed space stations in a corner of his complex, labelling them as 'radioactive material'. Chelomei finally forced to retire in October 1983. TKS shuttle craft used to dock with Salyut stations but never in manned mode. Following Ustinov's death, Almaz stations finally flown as unmanned radarsats, but Chelomei did not live to see this.

1978 January 1 - .
  • Kovunenko succeds Babkin as OKB head - . Nation: USSR. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space station. Summary: VM Kovunenko succeds Babkin as head of former Lavochkin design bureau..

1978 January 10 - .
  • Vertical stabilizer on dock, Palmdale, Columbia - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Columbia.

1978 January 10 - . 12:26 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Soyuz 27 - . Call Sign: Pamir (Pamir mountains). Crew: Dzhanibekov; Makarov. Backup Crew: Ivanchenkov; Kovalyonok. Payload: Soyuz 7K-T s/n 44. Mass: 6,800 kg (14,900 lb). Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Dzhanibekov; Makarov; Ivanchenkov; Kovalyonok. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut 6. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Salyut 6 EP-1; Salyut 6 EO-1. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-T. Duration: 64.95 days. Decay Date: 1978-03-16 . USAF Sat Cat: 10560 . COSPAR: 1978-003A. Apogee: 237 km (147 mi). Perigee: 190 km (110 mi). Inclination: 51.7000 deg. Period: 88.70 min. Summary: Manned two crew. Carried Oleg Makarov, Vladimir Dzhanibekov to Salyut 6; returned crew of Soyuz 26 to Earth. Docked with Salyut 6..

1978 January 20 - . 08:24 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Progress 1 - . Payload: Progress s/n 102. Mass: 7,020 kg (15,470 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut 6. Class: Manned. Type: Manned logistics spacecraft. Flight: Salyut 6 EO-1. Spacecraft: Progress. Duration: 18.73 days. Completed Operations Date: 1978-02-08 02:00:20 . Decay Date: 1978-02-08 02:00:20 . USAF Sat Cat: 10603 . COSPAR: 1978-008A. Apogee: 256 km (159 mi). Perigee: 173 km (107 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.70 min. Unmanned supply vessel to Salyut 6. Delivery of fuel, consumable materials and equipment to the Salyut 6 station. Docked with Salyut 6 on 22 Jan 1978 10:12:14 GMT. Undocked on 6 Feb 1978 05:54:00 GMT. Destroyed in reentry on 8 Feb 1978 02:00:00 GMT. Total free-flight time 3.91 days. Total docked time 14.82 days.

1978 February 10 - .
  • Complete final assembly, STA-099, Palmdale - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Challenger.

1978 February 14 - .
  • STA-099 on dock, Lockheed facility, Palmdale - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Challenger.

1978 February 17 - .
  • Crew module on dock, Palmdale, Columbia (OV-102) - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Columbia.

1978 February 24 - .
  • Body flap on dock, Palmdale, Columbia (OV-102) - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Columbia.

1978 March 2 - . 15:28 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Soyuz 28 - . Call Sign: Zenit (Zenith ). Crew: Gubarev; Remek. Backup Crew: Pelczak; Rukavishnikov. Payload: Soyuz 7K-T s/n 45. Mass: 6,800 kg (14,900 lb). Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Gubarev; Remek; Pelczak; Rukavishnikov. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut 6. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Salyut 6 EP-2; Salyut 6 EO-1. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-T. Duration: 7.93 days. Decay Date: 1978-03-10 . USAF Sat Cat: 10694 . COSPAR: 1978-023A. Apogee: 246 km (152 mi). Perigee: 192 km (119 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.80 min. Manned two crew. Docked with Salyut 6. Delivery to the Salyut-6 station of the first international 'Intercosmos' team consisting of A.A. Gubarev (USSR) and V. Remek (Czechoslovak Socialist Republic) to carry out scientific research and experiments jointly developed by Soviet a nd Czechoslovak specialists.

1978 March 3 - .
  • Complete modification for mated vibe tests. - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Enterprise. Summary: Complete modification for mated vertical ground vibration test, Edwards, Enterprise (OV-101).

1978 March 6 - .
  • Upper forward fuselage on dock, Palmdale, Columbia - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Columbia.

1978 March 10 - . Launch Site: Edwards.
  • Ferry Enterprise from Edwards to Texas. - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Enterprise. Summary: Ferry Enterprise (OV-101) atop shuttle carrier aircraft from Edwards to Ellington Air Force Base, Texas (approximately 3 hours, 38 min).

1978 March 13 - .
  • Ferry Enterprise from Texas to Huntsville - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Enterprise. Summary: Ferry Enterprise (OV-101) atop shuttle carrier aircraft from Ellington AFB to Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, Ala..

1978 March 19 - .
  • Aft payload bay doors on dock, Palmdale, Columbia - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Columbia.

1978 March 30 - . 00:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/24. Launch Pad: LC81/24?. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K. LV Configuration: Proton-K 292-01.
  • Cosmos 997 - . Payload: TKS VA s/n 102L. Mass: 4,250 kg (9,360 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Almaz. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Cosmos 997. Spacecraft: TKS VA . Decay Date: 1978-03-30 . USAF Sat Cat: 10770 . COSPAR: 1978-032A. Apogee: 230 km (140 mi). Perigee: 200 km (120 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.70 min. Given the on-pad explosion of the LVI-2 launch attempt, plans to crew the upper VA re-entry capsule in the next test was abandoned. LVI-3 (VA's 102P and 102L / Cosmos 997 and Cosmos 998) was launched unmanned four months behind the original schedule. Both capsules were recovered after one orbit. One source indicates that one of the capsules was 009P, on its third launch and second flight to orbit. This was said to have demonstrated the multiple re-entry capability of the heat shield and the first planned reuse of a spacecraft (Gemini 2 was refurbished and reflown as MOL-1 in the 1960's, but was not designed for that purpose).
  • Cosmos 998 - . Payload: TKS VA s/n 102P. Mass: 4,250 kg (9,360 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Almaz. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: TKS VA. Decay Date: 1978-03-30 . USAF Sat Cat: 10771 . COSPAR: 1978-032B. Apogee: 230 km (140 mi). Perigee: 200 km (120 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.70 min. Summary: Dual reentry test of two TKS-VA capsules. Recovered March 30, 1978 after one orbit..

1978 April 4 - . 15:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 1001 - . Payload: Soyuz T s/n 4L. Mass: 6,850 kg (15,100 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut 6. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: Soyuz T. Duration: 10.87 days. Decay Date: 1978-04-15 . USAF Sat Cat: 10783 . COSPAR: 1978-036A. Apogee: 228 km (141 mi). Perigee: 199 km (123 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.70 min. Manned precursor. Recovered April 15, 1978 12:02 GMT. Unsuccessful mission. Soyuz T test -failure.
    Maneuver Summary:
    202 km X 231 km orbit to 195 km X 291 km orbit. Delta V: 19 m/s
    195 km X 291 km orbit to 306 km X 322 km orbit. Delta V: 40 m/s
    306 km X 322 km orbit to 308 km X 318 km orbit. Delta V: 1 m/s
    Total Delta V: 60 m/s.
    Officially: Investigation of the upper atmosphere and outer space.

1978 April 23 - .
  • Columbia ready for power-on. - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Columbia. Summary: Complete final assembly and closeout system installation, ready for power-on, Columbia (OV-102).

1978 April 24 - .
  • Start precombined systems test, Columbia (OV-102) - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Columbia.

1978 April 28 - .
  • Forward payload bay doors on dock, Columbia. - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Columbia. Summary: Forward payload bay doors on dock, Palmdale, Columbia (OV-102).

1978 May 26 - .
  • Complete forward RCS structure, Columbia (OV-102) - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Columbia.

1978 May 26 - .
  • Upper forward fuselage mate, Columbia (OV-102) - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Columbia.

1978 May 30 - .
  • Start Enterprise (OV-101)/ ET mated vibe test - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Enterprise. Summary: Start Enterprise (OV-101)/ ET mated vertical ground vibration test, MSFC.

1978 June 15 - . 20:16 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Soyuz 29 - . Call Sign: Foton (Photon). Crew: Ivanchenkov; Kovalyonok. Backup Crew: Lyakhov; Ryumin. Payload: Soyuz 7K-T s/n 46. Mass: 6,800 kg (14,900 lb). Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Ivanchenkov; Kovalyonok; Lyakhov; Ryumin. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut 6. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Salyut 6 EO-2. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-T. Duration: 79.64 days. Decay Date: 1978-09-03 . USAF Sat Cat: 10952 . COSPAR: 1978-061A. Apogee: 248 km (154 mi). Perigee: 193 km (119 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.90 min. Summary: Manned two crew. Docked with Salyut 6. Placed on board the Salyut-6 station a crew consisting of V.V. Kovalenko and A.S. Ivanchenkov to conduct scientific and technological investigations and experiments..

1978 June 27 - . 15:27 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Soyuz 30 - . Call Sign: Kavkas (Caucasus ). Crew: Hermaszewski; Klimuk. Backup Crew: Jankowski; Kubasov. Payload: Soyuz 7K-T(A9) s/n 67. Mass: 6,800 kg (14,900 lb). Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Hermaszewski; Klimuk; Jankowski; Kubasov. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut 6. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Salyut 6 EP-3; Salyut 6 EO-2. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-T/A9. Duration: 7.92 days. Decay Date: 1978-07-05 . USAF Sat Cat: 10968 . COSPAR: 1978-065A. Apogee: 244 km (151 mi). Perigee: 194 km (120 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.80 min. Summary: Manned two crew. Docked with Salyut 6. Placed on board the Salyut-6 station, under the Intercosmos programme, a second, international, crew consisting of P.I. Klimuk (USSR) and M. Hermaszewski (Poland) to conduct scientific investigations and experiments..

1978 July 7 - .
  • Complete mate payload bay doors, Columbia - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Columbia. Summary: Complete mate forward and aft payload bay doors, Columbia (OV-102).

1978 July 7 - . 11:26 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Progress 2 - . Payload: Progress s/n 101. Mass: 7,014 kg (15,463 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut 6. Class: Manned. Type: Manned logistics spacecraft. Flight: Salyut 6 EO-2. Spacecraft: Progress. Duration: 27.59 days. Completed Operations Date: 1978-08-04 01:30:51 . Decay Date: 1978-08-04 01:30:51 . USAF Sat Cat: 10979 . COSPAR: 1978-070A. Apogee: 307 km (190 mi). Perigee: 248 km (154 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 90.00 min. Unmanned supply vessel to Salyut 6. Delivery of fuel, consumable materials and equipment to the Salyut 6 station. Docked with Salyut 6 on 9 Jul 1978 12:58:59 GMT. Undocked on 2 Aug 1978 04:57:44 GMT. Destroyed in reentry on 4 Aug 1978 01:31:07 GMT. Total free-flight time 3.92 days. Total docked time 23.67 days.

1978 July 13 - .
  • Reconfigure from boost to launch, vibe test - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Enterprise. Summary: Reconfigure from boost to launch, mated vertical ground vibration test, MSFC, Enterprise (OV-101).

1978 July 29 - . 04:00 GMT - .
1978 August 7 - . 22:31 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Progress 3 - . Payload: Progress s/n 103. Mass: 7,014 kg (15,463 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut 6. Class: Manned. Type: Manned logistics spacecraft. Flight: Salyut 6 EO-2. Spacecraft: Progress. Duration: 15.76 days. Completed Operations Date: 1978-08-24 16:44:38 . Decay Date: 1978-08-24 16:44:38 . USAF Sat Cat: 10999 . COSPAR: 1978-077A. Apogee: 232 km (144 mi). Perigee: 190 km (110 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.70 min. Unmanned supply vessel to Salyut 6. Delivery of fuel, consumable materials and equipment to the Salyut 6 station. Docked with Salyut 6 on 9 Aug 1978 23:59:30 GMT. Undocked on 21 Aug 1978 15:42:50 GMT. Destroyed in reentry on 23 Aug 1978 16:45:00 GMT. Total free-flight time 4.10 days. Total docked time 11.66 days.

1978 August 11 - .
  • Complete forward RCS, Columbia (OV-102) - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Columbia.

1978 August 26 - . 14:51 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Soyuz 31 - . Call Sign: Yastreb (Hawk ). Crew: Bykovsky; Jaehn. Backup Crew: Gorbatko; Koellner. Payload: Soyuz 7K-T s/n 47. Mass: 6,800 kg (14,900 lb). Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Bykovsky; Jaehn; Gorbatko; Koellner. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut 6. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Salyut 6 EP-4; Salyut 6 EO-2. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-T. Duration: 67.84 days. Decay Date: 1978-11-02 . USAF Sat Cat: 11010 . COSPAR: 1978-081A. Apogee: 243 km (150 mi). Perigee: 193 km (119 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.80 min. Summary: Manned two crew. Docked with Salyut 6. Delivered to the Salyut-6 station the third international 'Intercosmos' crew consisting of V F Bykovsky (USSR) and S Jaehn (German Democratic Republic) to carry out scientific research and experiments..

1978 September 25 - .
  • Start precombined system test, Columbia (OV-102) - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Columbia.

1978 September 30 - .
  • Uragan space interceptor project begun - . Nation: USSR. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Uragan Space Interceptor. In order to counter US space shuttle flights made in polar orbits from Vandenberg, deep black Uragan project begun. Scaled-up Spiral to be launched by new Zenit launch vehicle, carrying Nudelmann recoilless gun (same as developed for TKS) for destruction of shuttle after interception and inspection. First flight planned 1983.

1978 October 3 - . 23:09 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Progress 4 - . Payload: Progress s/n 105. Mass: 7,014 kg (15,463 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut 6. Class: Manned. Type: Manned logistics spacecraft. Flight: Salyut 6 EO-2. Spacecraft: Progress. Duration: 22.72 days. Completed Operations Date: 1978-10-27 16:27:43 . Decay Date: 1978-10-27 16:27:43 . USAF Sat Cat: 11040 . COSPAR: 1978-090A. Apogee: 247 km (153 mi). Perigee: 185 km (114 mi). Inclination: 51.7000 deg. Period: 88.80 min. Unmanned supply vessel to Salyut 6. Delivery of fuel, consumable materials and equipment to the Salyut 6 station. Docked with Salyut 6 on 6 Oct 1978 01:00:15 GMT. Undocked on 24 Oct 1978 13:01:52 GMT. Destroyed in reentry on 26 Oct 1978 16:28:13 GMT. Total free-flight time 4.22 days. Total docked time 18.50 days.

1978 December 15 - .
  • Complete precombined system test, Columbia. - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Columbia.

1979 January 31 - . 09:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 1074 - . Payload: Soyuz T s/n 5L. Mass: 6,850 kg (15,100 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut 6. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: Soyuz T. Duration: 60.04 days. Decay Date: 1979-04-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 11259 . COSPAR: 1979-008A. Apogee: 238 km (147 mi). Perigee: 195 km (121 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.80 min. Manned precursor. Recovered April 1, 1979 10:09 GMT. Soyuz T Test.
    Maneuver Summary:
    197 km X 240 km orbit to 255 km X 297 km orbit. Delta V: 33 m/s
    255 km X 297 km orbit to 264 km X 306 km orbit. Delta V: 4 m/s
    264 km X 306 km orbit to 309 km X 321 km orbit. Delta V: 17 m/s
    309 km X 321 km orbit to 279 km X 357 km orbit. Delta V: 18 m/s
    279 km X 357 km orbit to 352 km X 402 km orbit. Delta V: 32 m/s
    352 km X 402 km orbit to 363 km X 384 km orbit. Delta V: 8 m/s
    Total Delta V: 112 m/s
    Officially: Investigation of the upper atmosphere and outer space.

1979 February 3 - .
  • Complete combined systems test, Palmdale, Columbia - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Columbia.

1979 February 16 - .
  • Airlock on dock, Palmdale, Columbia (OV-102) - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Columbia.

1979 February 25 - . 11:53 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Soyuz 32 - . Call Sign: Proton (Proton ). Crew: Lyakhov; Ryumin. Backup Crew: Lebedev; Popov. Payload: Soyuz 7K-T s/n 48. Mass: 6,800 kg (14,900 lb). Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Lyakhov; Ryumin; Lebedev; Popov. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut 6. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Salyut 6 EO-3. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-T. Duration: 110.18 days. Decay Date: 1979-06-13 . USAF Sat Cat: 11281 . COSPAR: 1979-018A. Apogee: 256 km (159 mi). Perigee: 193 km (119 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.90 min. Summary: Manned two crew. Docked with Salyut 6. Transported a team consisting of V A Lyakhov and V V Ryumin to the Salyut-6 space station to conduct scientific investigations and experiments and repair work. Recovered June 15, 1979 16:18 GMT. Returned unmanned..

1979 February 26 - .
  • Complete mated vertical ground vibe test program - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Enterprise. Summary: Complete mated vertical ground vibration test program at MSFC, Enterprise (OV-101).

1979 March 5 - .
  • Complete postcheckout, Palmdale, Columbia (OV-102) - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Columbia.

1979 March 8 - . Launch Site: Edwards.
  • Columbia (OV-102) transported overland to Edwards. - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Columbia. Summary: Columbia (OV-102) transported overland from Palmdale to Edwards (38 miles).

1979 March 9 - . LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle.
  • Shuttle carrier aircraft/Columbia test flight - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Columbia. Summary: Shuttle carrier aircraft/Columbia (OV-102) test flight at NASA Edwards.

1979 March 12 - . 05:47 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Progress 5 - . Payload: Progress s/n 104. Mass: 7,014 kg (15,463 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut 6. Class: Manned. Type: Manned logistics spacecraft. Flight: Salyut 6 EO-3. Spacecraft: Progress. Duration: 23.77 days. Completed Operations Date: 1979-04-05 00:09:54 . Decay Date: 1979-04-05 00:09:54 . USAF Sat Cat: 11292 . COSPAR: 1979-022A. Apogee: 256 km (159 mi). Perigee: 183 km (113 mi). Inclination: 51.7000 deg. Period: 88.80 min. Unmanned supply vessel to Salyut 6. Delivery of fuel, consumable materials and equipment to the Salyut 6 station. Docked with Salyut 6 on 14 Mar 1979 07:19:21 GMT. Undocked on 3 Apr 1979 16:10:00 GMT. Destroyed in reentry on 5 Apr 1979 00:10:22 GMT. Total free-flight time 3.40 days. Total docked time 20.37 days.

1979 March 20 - .
  • Ferry flight, Edwards to El Paso - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Columbia. Summary: Ferry flight, shuttle carrier aircraft/Columbia (OV-102) from Edwards to Biggs Army Air Base, El Paso, Texas (3 hours, 20 minutes).

1979 March 22 - .
  • Ferry flight El Paso to Kelly AFB - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Columbia. Summary: Ferry flight, shuttle carrier aircraft/Columbia (OV-102) from Biggs Army Air Base to Kelly AFB, San Antonio, Texas (1 hr, 39 min).

1979 March 23 - .
  • Ferry flight, Kelly AFB to Eglin AFB, Fla - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Columbia. Summary: Ferry flight, shuttle carrier aircraft/Columbia (OV-102) from Kelly AFB to Eglin AFB, Fla. (2 hours, 12 minutes).

1979 March 24 - .
  • Ferry flight, Eglin AFB to KSC - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Columbia. Summary: Ferry flight, shuttle carrier aircraft/Columbia (OV-102) from Eglin AFB to KSC (1 hour, 33 minutes).

1979 April 10 - .
  • Ferry flight, MSFC to KSC - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Enterprise. Summary: Ferry flight, shuttle carrier aircraft/Enterprise (OV-101) from MSFC to KSC (1 hour, 52 minutes).

1979 April 10 - . 17:34 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
1979 April 18 - .
  • Complete left-hand OMS/RCS Phase I qualification - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Enterprise. Summary: Complete left-hand OMS/RCS Phase I qualification, WSTF May 1 Enterprise (OV-101)/ ET/SRBs mated on mobile launcher platform,.

1979 April 20 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/24.
  • TKS VA s/n 008 - . Payload: TKS VA s/n 008. Mass: 4,250 kg (9,360 lb). Nation: USSR. Program: Almaz. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: TKS VA s/n 008. Spacecraft: TKS VA . On 20 April 1979 LVI-4 VA (VA s/n 103 and s/n 008) was awaiting launch. The booster ignited, but then shut down on the pad. This triggered the launch escape system, which pulled the top capsule away from the booster. The parachute system failed and the capsule crashed to the ground. The lower capsule remained in the rocket. The top capsule was to have been manned, but the inability to demonstrate two consecutive failure-free launches of the Proton/TKS-VA combination made that (luckily) impossible.

1979 April 20 - .
  • TKS VA s/n 103 - . Payload: TKS VA s/n 103. Mass: 4,250 kg (9,360 lb). Nation: USSR. Program: Almaz. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: TKS VA .

1979 April 20 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/24. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K. LV Configuration: Proton 8K82K s/n 300-02. FAILURE: Engines ignited but immediately shut down on launch pad. Booster could be reused with new payload.. Failed Stage: 1.
  • - . Payload: TKS VA s/n 008. Nation: USSR. Program: Almaz. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: TKS VA . Decay Date: 1979-05-23 . USAF Sat Cat: 11362 . Apogee: 223 km (138 mi). Perigee: 193 km (119 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.70 min.

1979 May 10 - .
  • Deliver right-hand OMS/RCS for Columbia - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Columbia. Summary: Deliver right-hand OMS/RCS from McDonnell Douglas, St. Louis, to KSC, Columbia (OV-102).

1979 May 13 - . 04:17 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Progress 6 - . Payload: Progress s/n 106. Mass: 7,014 kg (15,463 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut 6. Class: Manned. Type: Manned logistics spacecraft. Flight: Salyut 6 EO-3. Spacecraft: Progress. Duration: 27.61 days. Completed Operations Date: 1979-06-09 18:52:36 . Decay Date: 1979-06-09 18:52:36 . USAF Sat Cat: 11356 . COSPAR: 1979-039A. Apogee: 247 km (153 mi). Perigee: 190 km (110 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.80 min. Unmanned supply vessel to Salyut 6. Delivery of fuel, consumable materials and equipment to the Salyut 6 station. Docked with Salyut 6 on 15 May 1979 06:19:22 GMT. Undocked on 8 Jun 1979 07:59:41 GMT. Destroyed in reentry on 9 Jun 1979 18:52:46 GMT. Total free-flight time 3.54 days. Total docked time 24.07 days.

1979 May 15 - .
  • Deliver left-hand OMS/RCS for Columbia - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Columbia. Summary: Deliver left-hand OMS/RCS from McDonnell Douglas to KSC, Columbia (OV-102).

1979 May 22 - . 23:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/24. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K. LV Configuration: Proton-K 300-02.
  • Cosmos 1100 - . Payload: TKS VA s/n 102P. Mass: 4,250 kg (9,360 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Almaz. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Cosmos 1100. Spacecraft: TKS VA . Duration: 0.0600 days. Decay Date: 1979-05-23 . USAF Sat Cat: 11362 . COSPAR: 1979-042A. Apogee: 222 km (137 mi). Perigee: 193 km (119 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.60 min. The Proton launch vehicle that shut down on the original LVI-4 launch attempt was undamaged, and just a month later, with a switch of payload, LVI-4 was orbited as Cosmos 1100 and 1101. The pair launched were the 102P/102L twins from LVI-3. One capsule failed when the automatic system suffered an electrical distribution failure and it did not land correctly, spending two orbits in space, while the other landed as planned after one orbit. The launch again successfully demonstrated the reusability of the VA capsule. Plans to launch the upper capsule manned were scrubbed due to the inability to get two consecutive failure-free launches of the Proton/TKS-VA.
  • Cosmos 1101 - . Payload: TKS VA s/n 102L. Mass: 4,250 kg (9,360 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Almaz. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: TKS VA. Decay Date: 1979-05-23 . USAF Sat Cat: 11363 . COSPAR: 1979-042B. Apogee: 222 km (137 mi). Perigee: 193 km (119 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.60 min. Summary: Test of TKS-VA manned capsule. Two satellites launched by a single rocket..

1979 June 6 - . 18:12 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Soyuz 34 - . Call Sign: Proton (Proton ). Payload: Soyuz 7K-T s/n 50. Mass: 6,800 kg (14,900 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut 6. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Salyut 6 EO-3. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-T. Duration: 73.76 days. Decay Date: 1979-08-19 . USAF Sat Cat: 11387 . COSPAR: 1979-049A. Apogee: 254 km (157 mi). Perigee: 192 km (119 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.90 min. Docked with Salyut 6. Launched unmanned to provide return vehicle for Soyuz 32 crew of Lyakhov/Ryumin after Soyuz 33 primary propulsion system failure. Checked the operation of the spacecraft propulsion unit; transportated the crew of the Salyut-6 station back to earth.

1979 June 21 - .
  • Start assembly crew module, Challenger (OV-099) - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Challenger.

1979 June 28 - . 09:25 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Progress 7 - . Payload: Progress s/n 107. Mass: 7,014 kg (15,463 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut 6. Class: Manned. Type: Manned logistics spacecraft. Flight: Salyut 6 EO-3. Spacecraft: Progress. Duration: 21.69 days. Completed Operations Date: 1979-07-20 01:57:19 . Decay Date: 1979-07-20 01:57:19 . USAF Sat Cat: 11421 . COSPAR: 1979-059A. Apogee: 251 km (155 mi). Perigee: 186 km (115 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.80 min. Unmanned supply vessel to Salyut 6. Delivery of fuel, consumable materials and equipment to the Salyut 6 station. Docked with Salyut 6 on 30 Jun 1979 11:18:22 GMT. Undocked on 18 Jul 1979 03:49:55 GMT. Destroyed in reentry on 20 Jul 1979 01:57:30 GMT. Total free-flight time 4.0 days. Total docked time 17.69 days.

1979 July 23 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A.
  • First test STS stack move from VAB to LC39A - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Enterprise. Summary: Enterprise (OV-101), ET, SRBs transported on mobile launcher platform from Launch Complex 39-A to Vehicle Assembly Building at KSC.

1979 August 1 - . LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle.
  • Start long-lead fabrication crew module, Discovery - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Discovery.

1979 August 6 - .
  • Complete limit test (STA-099) - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Challenger. Summary: Complete limit test (STA-099), Lockheed facility, Palmdale.

1979 August 10 - .
  • Ferry flight, KSC to Atlanta - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Enterprise. Summary: Ferry flight, shuttle carrier aircraft/Enterprise (OV-101), KSC to Atlanta (1 hour, 55 minutes).

1979 August 11 - .
  • Ferry flight, Atlanta to St. Louis - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Enterprise. Summary: Ferry flight, shuttle carrier aircraft/Enterprise (OV-101), Atlanta to St. Louis (1 hour, 50 minutes).

1979 August 12 - .
  • Ferry flight, St. Louis to Tulsa - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Enterprise. Summary: Ferry flight, shuttle carrier aircraft/Enterprise (OV-101), St. Louis to Tulsa (1 hour, 35 minutes).

1979 August 13 - .
  • Ferry flight, Tulsa to Denver - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Enterprise. Summary: Ferry flight, shuttle carrier aircraft/Enterprise (OV-101), Tulsa to Denver (2 hours).

1979 August 14 - .
  • Ferry flight, Denver to Hill AFB, Ogden, Utah - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Enterprise. Summary: Ferry flight, shuttle carrier aircraft/Enterprise (OV-101), Denver to Hill AFB, Ogden, Utah (1 hour, 30 minutes).

1979 August 15 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg.
  • Ferry flight, Ogden to Vandenberg AFB - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Enterprise. Summary: Ferry flight, shuttle carrier aircraft/Enterprise (OV-101), Ogden to Vandenberg AFB (2 hours, 20 minutes).

1979 August 15 - . 14:16 GMT - .
  • EVA Salyut 6 EO-3-1 - . Crew: Lyakhov; Ryumin. EVA Type: Extra-Vehicular Activity. EVA Duration: 0.0576 days. Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Lyakhov; Ryumin. Program: Salyut 6. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space station. Flight: Salyut 6 EO-3. Spacecraft: Salyut 6. Summary: Jettisoned KRT-10 antenna from rear docking port..

1979 August 16 - . Launch Site: Edwards.
  • Ferry flight, Vandenberg AFB to Edwards - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Enterprise. Summary: Ferry flight, shuttle carrier aircraft/Enterprise (OV-101), Vandenberg AFB to Edwards (1 hour, 10 minutes).

1979 August 23 - . Launch Site: Edwards.
  • Enterprise / shuttle carrier demate, Edwards - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Enterprise. Summary: Enterprise (OV-101)/ shuttle carrier demate, Edwards.

1979 August 27 - .
  • Start long-lead fabrication crew module, Discovery - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Discovery.

1979 December 16 - . 12:29 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Soyuz T-1 - . Payload: Soyuz T s/n 6L. Mass: 6,850 kg (15,100 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut 6. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: Soyuz T. Duration: 100.38 days. Decay Date: 1980-03-25 . USAF Sat Cat: 11640 . COSPAR: 1979-103A. Apogee: 252 km (156 mi). Perigee: 213 km (132 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 89.20 min. New generation Soyuz capsule; unmanned flight to Salyut 6. Docked with Salyut 6. Recovered March 25, 1980 21:47 GMT. Unmanned test of Soyuz T design.
    Officially: Complex experimental testing of new on-board systems and assemblies under various flight conditions and operation in conjunction with the Salyut-6 orbital station.

1980 March 27 - . 18:53 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Progress 8 - . Payload: Progress s/n 108. Mass: 7,014 kg (15,463 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut 6. Class: Manned. Type: Manned logistics spacecraft. Spacecraft: Progress. Duration: 29.50 days. Completed Operations Date: 1980-04-26 06:54:00 . Decay Date: 1980-04-26 06:54:00 . USAF Sat Cat: 11743 . COSPAR: 1980-024A. Apogee: 250 km (150 mi). Perigee: 185 km (114 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.90 min. Unmanned supply vessel for Salyut 6. Delivery of various cargoes to the Salyut-6 orbital station. Docked with Salyut 6 on 29 Mar 1980 20:01:00 GMT. Undocked on 25 Apr 1980 08:04:00 GMT. Destroyed in reentry on 26 Apr 1980 06:54:00 GMT. Total free-flight time 3.0 days. Total docked time 26.50 days.

1980 April 9 - . 13:38 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Soyuz 35 - . Call Sign: Dnepr (Dnieper ). Crew: Popov; Ryumin. Backup Crew: Andreyev; Zudov. Payload: Soyuz 7K-T s/n 51. Mass: 6,800 kg (14,900 lb). Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Popov; Ryumin; Andreyev; Zudov. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut 6. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Salyut 6 EO-4. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-T. Duration: 55.06 days. Decay Date: 1980-06-03 . USAF Sat Cat: 11753 . COSPAR: 1980-027A. Apogee: 247 km (153 mi). Perigee: 197 km (122 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.90 min. Summary: Manned two crew. Docked with Salyut 6. Carried crew comprising L I Popov and V V Ryumin to the Salyut-6 station to carry out scientific and technical research and experiments..

1980 April 27 - . 06:24 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Progress 9 - . Payload: Progress s/n 109. Mass: 7,014 kg (15,463 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut 6. Class: Manned. Type: Manned logistics spacecraft. Flight: Salyut 6 EO-4. Spacecraft: Progress. Duration: 24.76 days. Completed Operations Date: 1980-05-22 00:44:00 . Decay Date: 1980-05-22 00:44:00 . USAF Sat Cat: 11784 . COSPAR: 1980-033A. Apogee: 255 km (158 mi). Perigee: 185 km (114 mi). Inclination: 51.7000 deg. Period: 88.80 min. Unmanned supply vessel for Salyut 6. Delivery of various cargoes to the Salyut-6 orbital station. Docked with Salyut 6 on 29 Apr 1980 08:09:19 GMT. Undocked on 20 May 1980 18:51:00 GMT. Destroyed in reentry on 22 May 1980 00:44:00 GMT. Total free-flight time 3.32 days. Total docked time 21.45 days.

1980 May 26 - . 18:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Soyuz 36 - . Call Sign: Orion (Orion ). Crew: Farkas; Kubasov. Backup Crew: Dzhanibekov; Magyari. Payload: Soyuz 7K-T s/n 52. Mass: 6,800 kg (14,900 lb). Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Farkas; Kubasov; Dzhanibekov; Magyari. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut 6. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Salyut 6 EP-5; Salyut 6 EO-4. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-T. Duration: 65.87 days. Decay Date: 1980-07-31 . USAF Sat Cat: 11811 . COSPAR: 1980-041A. Apogee: 263 km (163 mi). Perigee: 190 km (110 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 89.00 min. Summary: Transported the fifth international crew under the INTERCOSMOS programme, comprising V N Kubasov (USSR) and B Farkas (Hungary) to the Salyut-6 station to carry out scientific research and experiments..

1980 June 5 - . 14:19 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Soyuz T-2 - . Call Sign: Yupiter (Jupiter ). Crew: Aksyonov; Malyshev. Backup Crew: Kizim; Makarov. Payload: Soyuz T s/n 7L. Mass: 6,850 kg (15,100 lb). Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Aksyonov; Malyshev; Kizim; Makarov. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut 6. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Salyut 6 EP-6; Salyut 6 EO-4. Spacecraft: Soyuz T. Duration: 3.93 days. Decay Date: 1980-06-09 . USAF Sat Cat: 11825 . COSPAR: 1980-045A. Apogee: 232 km (144 mi). Perigee: 195 km (121 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.70 min. Summary: Test flight of new Soyuz T; docked with Salyut 6. Conducted testing and development of on-board systems in the improved Soyuz T series transport vehicle under piloted conditions..

1980 June 29 - . 04:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Progress 10 - . Payload: Progress s/n 110. Mass: 7,014 kg (15,463 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut 6. Class: Manned. Type: Manned logistics spacecraft. Flight: Salyut 6 EO-4. Spacecraft: Progress. Duration: 19.88 days. Completed Operations Date: 1980-07-19 01:47:18 . Decay Date: 1980-07-19 01:47:18 . USAF Sat Cat: 11867 . COSPAR: 1980-055A. Apogee: 264 km (164 mi). Perigee: 183 km (113 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 89.00 min. Unmanned supply vessel for Salyut 6. Delivery of various cargoes to the Salyut-6 orbital station. Docked with Salyut 6 on 1 Jul 1980 05:53:00 GMT. Undocked on 17 Jul 1980 22:21:00 GMT. Destroyed in reentry on 19 Jul 1980 01:47:00 GMT. Total free-flight time 3.19 days. Total docked time 16.69 days.

1980 July 23 - . 18:33 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Soyuz 37 - . Call Sign: Terek (Terek - river in the Caucasus). Crew: Gorbatko; Tuan. Backup Crew: Bykovsky; Liem. Payload: Soyuz 7K-T s/n 53. Mass: 6,800 kg (14,900 lb). Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Gorbatko; Tuan; Bykovsky; Liem. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut 6. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Salyut 6 EP-7; Salyut 6 EO-4. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-T. Duration: 79.64 days. Decay Date: 1980-10-11 . USAF Sat Cat: 11905 . COSPAR: 1980-064A. Apogee: 273 km (169 mi). Perigee: 190 km (110 mi). Inclination: 51.5000 deg. Period: 89.10 min. Manned two crew. Transported to the Salyut-6 station the sixth international crew under the Intercosmos programme, comprising V V Gorbatko (USSR) and Pham Tuan (Viet Nam), to conduct scientific research and experiments. Returned crew of Soyuz 35 to Earth. Recovered October 11, 1980 9:50 GMT.

1980 September 18 - . 19:11 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Soyuz 38 - . Call Sign: Taimyr (Taimyr - Russian peninsula). Crew: Romanenko; Tamayo-Mendez. Backup Crew: Khrunov; Lopez-Falcon. Payload: Soyuz 7K-T s/n 54. Mass: 6,800 kg (14,900 lb). Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Romanenko; Tamayo-Mendez; Khrunov; Lopez-Falcon. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut 6. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Salyut 6 EP-8; Salyut 6 EO-4. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-T. Duration: 7.86 days. Decay Date: 1980-09-26 . USAF Sat Cat: 11977 . COSPAR: 1980-075A. Apogee: 257 km (159 mi). Perigee: 195 km (121 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 89.00 min. Summary: Manned two crew. Docked with Salyut 6. Transported to the Salyut-6 station the seventh international crew under the INTERCOSMOS programme, comprising Y V Romanenko (USSR) and A. Tomaio Mendez (Cuba), to conduct scientific research and experiments..

1980 September 28 - . 15:09 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Progress 11 - . Payload: Progress s/n 111. Mass: 7,014 kg (15,463 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut 6. Class: Manned. Type: Manned logistics spacecraft. Flight: Salyut 6 EO-4. Spacecraft: Progress. Duration: 73.95 days. Completed Operations Date: 1980-12-11 14:00:05 . Decay Date: 1980-12-11 14:00:05 . USAF Sat Cat: 11993 . COSPAR: 1980-079A. Apogee: 241 km (149 mi). Perigee: 188 km (116 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.70 min. Unmanned supply vessel for Salyut 6. Delivery of various cargoes to the Salyut-6 orbital station. Docked with Salyut 6 on 30 Sep 1980 17:03:00 GMT. Undocked on 9 Dec 1980 10:23:00 GMT. Destroyed in reentry on 11 Dec 1980 14:00:00 GMT. Total free-flight time 4.23 days. Total docked time 69.72 days.

1980 November 27 - . 14:18 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Soyuz T-3 - . Call Sign: Mayak (Beacon ). Crew: Kizim; Makarov; Strekalov. Backup Crew: Kovalyonok; Polyakov; Savinykh. Payload: Soyuz T s/n 8L. Mass: 6,850 kg (15,100 lb). Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Kizim; Makarov; Strekalov; Kovalyonok; Polyakov; Savinykh. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut 6. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Salyut 6 EO-5. Spacecraft: Soyuz T. Duration: 12.80 days. Decay Date: 1980-12-10 . USAF Sat Cat: 12077 . COSPAR: 1980-094A. Apogee: 260 km (160 mi). Perigee: 256 km (159 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 89.70 min. Manned three crew. Docked with Salyut 6. Tested the improved transport ship of the 'SOYUZ T' series; transported to the Salyut-6 orbital station a crew consisting of L D Kizim, O G Makarov and G M Strekalov to carry out repair and preventive work and scientific and technical investigation and experiments.

1981 January 24 - . 14:18 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Progress 12 - . Payload: Progress s/n 113. Mass: 7,020 kg (15,470 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut 6. Class: Manned. Type: Manned logistics spacecraft. Spacecraft: Progress. Duration: 55.11 days. Completed Operations Date: 1981-03-20 16:58:58 . Decay Date: 1981-03-20 16:58:58 . USAF Sat Cat: 12152 . COSPAR: 1981-007A. Apogee: 308 km (191 mi). Perigee: 247 km (153 mi). Inclination: 51.7000 deg. Period: 90.00 min. Unmanned supply vessel to Salyut 6. Delivery of various cargoes to the Salyut-6 orbital station. Docked with Salyut 6 on 26 Jan 1981 15:56:00 GMT. Undocked on 19 Mar 1981 18:14:00 GMT. Destroyed in reentry on 20 Mar 1981 16:59:00 GMT. Total free-flight time 3.02 days. Total docked time 52.10 days.

1981 March 12 - . 19:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Soyuz T-4 - . Call Sign: Foton (Photon ). Crew: Kovalyonok; Savinykh. Backup Crew: Andreyev; Zudov. Payload: Soyuz T s/n 10L. Mass: 6,850 kg (15,100 lb). Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Kovalyonok; Savinykh; Andreyev; Zudov. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut 6. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Salyut 6 EO-6. Spacecraft: Soyuz T. Duration: 74.73 days. Decay Date: 1981-05-26 . USAF Sat Cat: 12334 . COSPAR: 1981-023A. Apogee: 237 km (147 mi). Perigee: 201 km (124 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.90 min. Summary: Manned two crew. Docked with Salyut 6. Transported to the Salyut-6 orbital station cosmonauts V V Kovalenok and V P Savinykh to carry out repairs and preventive maintenance and scientific and technical investigations and experiments..

1981 March 22 - . 14:58 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Soyuz 39 - . Call Sign: Pamir (Pamir mountains). Crew: Dzhanibekov; Gurragcha. Backup Crew: Ganzorig; Lyakhov. Payload: Soyuz 7K-T s/n 55. Mass: 6,800 kg (14,900 lb). Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Dzhanibekov; Gurragcha; Ganzorig; Lyakhov. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut 6. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Salyut 6 EP-9; Salyut 6 EO-6. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-T. Duration: 7.86 days. Decay Date: 1981-03-30 . USAF Sat Cat: 12366 . COSPAR: 1981-029A. Apogee: 249 km (154 mi). Perigee: 198 km (123 mi). Inclination: 51.8000 deg. Period: 88.90 min. Manned two crew. Docked with Salyut 6. Transported to the Salyut-6 orbital station the eighth international crew under the INTERCOSMOS programme, comprising V A Dzhanibekov (USSR) and Z. Gurragchi (Mongolian People's Republic) to conduct scientific investigations and experiments.

1981 April 12 - . 12:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. LV Configuration: Space Shuttle STS-1.
  • STS-1 - . Call Sign: Columbia. Crew: Crippen; Young. Payload: Columbia F01 / DFI. Mass: 4,909 kg (10,822 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Crippen; Young. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-1. Spacecraft: Columbia. Duration: 2.26 days. Decay Date: 1981-04-14 . USAF Sat Cat: 12399 . COSPAR: 1981-034A. Apogee: 251 km (155 mi). Perigee: 240 km (140 mi). Inclination: 40.3000 deg. Period: 89.40 min. Summary: First flight of Space Transportation System (aka Space Shuttle).. Payloads: Development Flight Instrumentation and Aerodynamic Coefficient Identification Package..

1981 April 25 - . 02:01 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/39. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K. LV Configuration: Proton-K 299-02.
  • Cosmos 1267 - . Payload: TKS s/n 16301. Mass: 19,000 kg (41,000 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Almaz. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: TKS . Duration: 459.91 days. Decay Date: 1982-07-29 . USAF Sat Cat: 12419 . COSPAR: 1981-039A. Apogee: 259 km (160 mi). Perigee: 192 km (119 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.90 min. TKS space station ferry. Flown unmanned to the Salyut 6 space station after the Almaz military station program was cancelled. Capsule recovered 24 May 1981. Docked with Salyut 6 on June 19 at 10:52 AM MT after 57 days autonomous flight. Deorbited and destroyed with Salyut July 29, 1982. Additional Details: here....

1981 May 14 - . 17:16 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Soyuz 40 - . Call Sign: Dnepr (Dnieper ). Crew: Popov; Prunariu. Backup Crew: Dediu; Romanenko. Payload: Soyuz 7K-T s/n 56. Mass: 6,800 kg (14,900 lb). Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Popov; Prunariu; Dediu; Romanenko. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut 6. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Salyut 6 EP-10; Salyut 6 EO-6. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-T. Duration: 7.86 days. Decay Date: 1981-05-22 . USAF Sat Cat: 12454 . COSPAR: 1981-042A. Apogee: 270 km (160 mi). Perigee: 192 km (119 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 89.10 min. Summary: Manned two crew. Docked with Salyut 6. Transported to the Salyut-6 orbital station the ninth international crew under the INTERCOSMOS programme, comprising L I Popov (USSR), and D. Prunariu (Romania), to conduct scientific research and experiments..

1981 November 12 - . 15:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. LV Configuration: Space Shuttle STS-2.
  • STS-2 - . Call Sign: Columbia. Crew: Engle; Truly. Payload: Columbia F02 / DFI. Mass: 8,517 kg (18,776 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Engle; Truly. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-2. Spacecraft: Columbia. Duration: 2.26 days. Decay Date: 1981-11-14 . USAF Sat Cat: 12953 . COSPAR: 1981-111A. Apogee: 231 km (143 mi). Perigee: 222 km (137 mi). Inclination: 38.0000 deg. Period: 89.00 min. Summary: Second shuttle test flight. Payloads: Office of Space and Terrestrial Applications (OSTA)-1 experiments, Orbiter Experiments (OEX)..

1982 March 22 - . 16:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. LV Configuration: Space Shuttle STS-3.
  • STS-3 - . Call Sign: Columbia. Crew: Fullerton; Lousma. Payload: Columbia F03 / OSS-1. Mass: 10,301 kg (22,709 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Fullerton; Lousma. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-3. Spacecraft: Columbia. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1982-03-30 . USAF Sat Cat: 13106 . COSPAR: 1982-022A. Apogee: 249 km (154 mi). Perigee: 241 km (149 mi). Inclination: 38.0000 deg. Period: 89.40 min. Summary: Manned two crew. Payloads: Office of Space Science (OSS) experiments, Monodisperse Latex Reactor (MLR), Electro-phoresis Verification Test (EEVT), Plant Lignification Experiment..

1982 April 19 - . 19:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/40. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K. LV Configuration: Proton-K 306-02.
  • Salyut 7 - . Payload: Zarya s/n 125-2. Mass: 18,900 kg (41,600 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut 7. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space station. Spacecraft: Salyut 7. Duration: 3,215.34 days. Decay Date: 1991-02-07 . USAF Sat Cat: 13138 . COSPAR: 1982-033A. Apogee: 284 km (176 mi). Perigee: 279 km (173 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 90.20 min. Second Soviet replenishable long-duration ‘civilian’ space station. Objectives: Continuation of scientific research on board manned space complexes in the interests of science and the Soviet national economy; testing of advanced systems and apparatus for orbital stations. Continuation of the scientific research in progress on board manned space complexes in the interests of science and the national economy; testing of advanced systems and apparatus for orbital stations. Although of the same design as Salyut 6, technical breakdowns throughout its life made Salyut 7 a much less productive station. Replaced finally by Mir. Two different TKS resupply craft, originally designed for the Almaz military station, docked with Salyut 7 to provide a larger complex. With the cancellation of Almaz, a large proportion of the experiments carried out on board had military objectives. As of January 1990 out of fuel, unable to manoeuvre, uncontrolled re-entry expected in three to four years. Re-entered in 1991 with 70 kg fuel remaining over Argentina. Controllers attempted to control impact point (set for Atlantic Ocean) by setting Salyut 7/Kosmos 1686 assembly into a tumble. This however failed and Salyut 7 re-entered February 7, 1991 04:00 GMT. Many fragments fell on the town of Capitan Bermudez, 25 km from Rosario and 400 km from Buenos Aires, Argentina. At 1 am local time the sky was lit up with hundreds of incandescent meteors travelling from Southwest to Northeast. At dawn the inhabitants discovered numerous metal fragments, which seemed to have fallen in distinct groups at various locations in the city. Luckily no one was hurt in the metallic shower. Additional Details: here....

1982 May 13 - . 09:58 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Soyuz T-5 - . Call Sign: Elbrus (Elbrus - tallest mountain in Europe). Crew: Berezovoi; Lebedev. Backup Crew: Strekalov; Titov, Vladimir. Payload: Soyuz T s/n 11L. Mass: 6,850 kg (15,100 lb). Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Berezovoi; Lebedev; Strekalov; Titov, Vladimir. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut 7. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Salyut 7 EO-1. Spacecraft: Soyuz T. Duration: 106.21 days. Decay Date: 1982-08-27 . USAF Sat Cat: 13173 . COSPAR: 1982-042A. Apogee: 231 km (143 mi). Perigee: 190 km (110 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.70 min. Summary: Carried Anatoli Berezovoi, Valentin Lebedev to Salyut 7 to conduct scientific research and experiments; returned crew of Soyuz T-7 to Earth..

1982 May 23 - . 05:58 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Progress 13 - . Payload: Progress s/n 114. Mass: 7,020 kg (15,470 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut 7. Class: Manned. Type: Manned logistics spacecraft. Flight: Salyut 7 EO-1. Spacecraft: Progress. Duration: 13.75 days. Completed Operations Date: 1982-06-06 00:03:11 . Decay Date: 1982-06-06 00:03:11 . USAF Sat Cat: 13210 . COSPAR: 1982-047A. Apogee: 263 km (163 mi). Perigee: 186 km (115 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 89.00 min. Unmanned supply vessel to Salyut 7. Transport of various cargoes to the Salyut-7 orbital station. Docked with Salyut 7 on 25 May 1982 07:56:36 GMT. Undocked on 4 Jun 1982 06:31:00 GMT. Destroyed in reentry on 6 Jun 1982 00:05:00 GMT. Total free-flight time 3.81 days. Total docked time 9.94 days.

1982 June 3 - . 21:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar LC107/1. Launch Pad: LC107/pad?. LV Family: Kosmos 3. Launch Vehicle: K65M-RB.
  • Cosmos 1374 - . Mass: 1,000 kg (2,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MO. Program: Buran. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: BOR-4. Duration: 0.0700 days. Decay Date: 1982-06-03 . USAF Sat Cat: 13257 . COSPAR: 1982-054A. Apogee: 204 km (126 mi). Perigee: 158 km (98 mi). Inclination: 50.7000 deg. Period: 88.10 min. Subscale Spiral spaceplane. After 1.25 revolutions of the earth, deorbited and recovered by Soviet naval forces in the Indian Ocean at 17 degrees South, 98 degrees East, 560 km south of Cocos Islands. Made a 600 km cross-range maneuver during reentry. The recovery was filmed by an Australian Orion reconnaissance aircraft, revealing the configuration to the West for the first time.

1982 June 24 - . 16:29 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Soyuz T-6 - . Call Sign: Pamir (Pamirs ). Crew: Chretien; Dzhanibekov; Ivanchenkov. Backup Crew: Baudry; Kizim; Solovyov, Vladimir. Payload: Soyuz T s/n 9L. Mass: 6,850 kg (15,100 lb). Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Chretien; Dzhanibekov; Ivanchenkov; Baudry; Kizim; Solovyov, Vladimir. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut 7. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Salyut 7 EP-1; Salyut 7 EO-1. Spacecraft: Soyuz T. Duration: 7.91 days. Decay Date: 1982-07-02 . USAF Sat Cat: 13292 . COSPAR: 1982-063A. Apogee: 233 km (144 mi). Perigee: 189 km (117 mi). Inclination: 51.7000 deg. Period: 88.70 min. Manned three crew. Docked with Salyut 7. Transported to the Salyut-7 orbital station the Soviet-French international crew, comprising V A Dzhanibekov (USSR), A S Ivanchenkov (USSR) and Jean-Loup Chretien (France) to conduct scientific research and experiments.

1982 June 27 - . 15:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. LV Configuration: Space Shuttle STS-4.
  • STS-4 - . Call Sign: Columbia. Crew: Hartsfield; Mattingly. Payload: Columbia F04 / DoD 82-1. Mass: 11,109 kg (24,491 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Hartsfield; Mattingly. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-4. Spacecraft: Columbia. Duration: 7.05 days. Decay Date: 1982-07-04 . USAF Sat Cat: 13300 . COSPAR: 1982-065A. Apogee: 302 km (187 mi). Perigee: 295 km (183 mi). Inclination: 28.5000 deg. Period: 90.30 min. Manned two crew. Fourth space shuttle test flight. Payloads: Induced Environment Contamination Monitor (IECM), Monodisperse Latex Reactor (MLR), Continuous Flow Electrophoresis System (CFES), Development Flight Instrumentation (DFl), Orbiter Experiments (OEX), first NASA getaway special (GAS), Night/Day Optical Survey of Lightning (NOSL) experiment, Vapor Phase Compression (VPC) freezer heat exchanger dynamics for freezing samples, Aerodynamic Coefficient Identification Package (AClP) experiment.

1982 July 10 - . 09:57 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Progress 14 - . Payload: Progress s/n 117. Mass: 7,020 kg (15,470 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut 7. Class: Manned. Type: Manned logistics spacecraft. Flight: Salyut 7 EO-1. Spacecraft: Progress. Duration: 33.65 days. Completed Operations Date: 1982-08-13 11:29:16 . Decay Date: 1982-08-13 11:29:16 . USAF Sat Cat: 13361 . COSPAR: 1982-070A. Apogee: 325 km (201 mi). Perigee: 301 km (187 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 90.70 min. Summary: Unmanned supply vessel to Salyut 7. Docked with Salyut 7 on 12 Jul 1982 11:41:00 GMT. Undocked on 10 Aug 1982 22:11:00 GMT. Destroyed in reentry on 13 Aug 1982 01:29:00 GMT. Total free-flight time 4.21 days. Total docked time 29.44 days..

1982 July 30 - . 02:39 GMT - .
1982 August 19 - . 17:11 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Soyuz T-7 - . Call Sign: Dnepr (Dnieper ). Crew: Popov; Savitskaya; Serebrov. Backup Crew: Pronina; Romanenko; Savinykh. Payload: Soyuz T s/n 12L. Mass: 6,850 kg (15,100 lb). Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Popov; Savitskaya; Serebrov; Pronina; Romanenko; Savinykh. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut 7. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Salyut 7 EP-2; Salyut 7 EO-1. Spacecraft: Soyuz T. Duration: 113.08 days. Decay Date: 1982-12-10 . USAF Sat Cat: 13425 . COSPAR: 1982-080A. Apogee: 299 km (185 mi). Perigee: 289 km (179 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 90.30 min. Summary: Docked with Salyut 7. Carried Svetlana Savitskaya, Leonid Popov, Alexander Serebrov to Salyut 7 to conduct scientific and technical research and experiments..

1982 September 18 - . 04:58 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Progress 15 - . Payload: Progress s/n 112. Mass: 7,020 kg (15,470 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut 7. Class: Manned. Type: Manned logistics spacecraft. Flight: Salyut 7 EO-1. Spacecraft: Progress. Duration: 28.51 days. Completed Operations Date: 1982-10-16 17:08:06 . Decay Date: 1982-10-16 17:08:06 . USAF Sat Cat: 13558 . COSPAR: 1982-094A. Apogee: 241 km (149 mi). Perigee: 188 km (116 mi). Inclination: 51.7000 deg. Period: 88.80 min. Summary: Unmanned supply vessel to Salyut 7. Docked with Salyut 7 on 20 Sep 1982 06:12:00 GMT. Undocked on 14 Oct 1982 13:46:00 GMT. Destroyed in reentry on 16 Oct 1982 17:08:00 GMT. Total free-flight time 4.19 days. Total docked time 24.32 days..

1982 October 31 - . 11:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Progress 16 - . Payload: Progress s/n 115. Mass: 7,020 kg (15,470 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut 7. Class: Manned. Type: Manned logistics spacecraft. Flight: Salyut 7 EO-1. Spacecraft: Progress. Duration: 44.25 days. Completed Operations Date: 1982-12-14 17:16:24 . Decay Date: 1982-12-14 17:16:24 . USAF Sat Cat: 13638 . COSPAR: 1982-107A. Apogee: 246 km (152 mi). Perigee: 186 km (115 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.80 min. Summary: Unmanned supply vessel to Salyut 7. Docked with Salyut 7 on 2 Nov 1982 13:22:00 GMT. Undocked on 13 Dec 1982 15:32:00 GMT. Destroyed in reentry on 14 Dec 1982 17:17:00 GMT. Total free-flight time 3.16 days. Total docked time 41.09 days..

1982 November 11 - . 12:19 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. LV Configuration: Space Shuttle STS-5.
  • STS-5 - . Call Sign: Columbia. Crew: Allen; Brand; Lenoir; Overmyer. Payload: Columbia F05 / SBS 3 [PAM-D] / Anik C3 [PAM-D]. Mass: 14,551 kg (32,079 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Allen; Brand; Lenoir; Overmyer. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-5. Spacecraft: Columbia. Duration: 5.09 days. Decay Date: 1982-11-16 . USAF Sat Cat: 13650 . COSPAR: 1982-110A. Apogee: 317 km (196 mi). Perigee: 294 km (182 mi). Inclination: 28.5000 deg. Period: 90.50 min. Manned four crew. First mission to deploy commercial communications satellites (SBS 3, Anik C3). Payloads: : Satellite Business Systems (SBS)-C with Payload Assist ; (PAM)-D; Telesat-E (Canadian communications satellite) with PAM-D. Monodisperse Latex Reactor (MLR), Continuous Flow Electrophoresis System (CFES), three getaway specials (GAS), Student experiments, GLOW experiment, Vestibular experiment, Oxygen Interaction With Materials experiment.

1983 March 2 - . 09:37 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/39. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K. LV Configuration: Proton-K 309-02.
  • Cosmos 1443 - . Payload: TKS-M s/n 16401L. Mass: 20,000 kg (44,000 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Almaz. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: TKS . Duration: 200.62 days. Decay Date: 1983-09-19 . USAF Sat Cat: 13868 . COSPAR: 1983-013A. Apogee: 261 km (162 mi). Perigee: 194 km (120 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 89.00 min. TKS manned ferry spacecraft from the cancelled Almaz OPS-4 mission. Flown unmanned to the Salyut 7 space station. Docked with Salyut 7 on 4 March 1983. Separated from Salyut 7 on 14 August. The VA re-entry capsule separated and the space station deorbited itself on September 19, 1983 at 0:28 GMT. The VA capsule continued in space for four more days, demonstrating autonomous flight, before successfully re-entering on 23 August 1983. Returned 350 kg of material from the station. Additional Details: here....

1983 March 15 - . 22:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar LC107/1. Launch Pad: LC107/pad?. LV Family: Kosmos 3. Launch Vehicle: K65M-RB.
  • Cosmos 1445 - . Mass: 1,000 kg (2,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MO. Program: Buran. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: BOR-4. Duration: 0.0700 days. Decay Date: 1983-03-16 . USAF Sat Cat: 13883 . COSPAR: 1983-017A. Apogee: 208 km (129 mi). Perigee: 158 km (98 mi). Inclination: 50.7000 deg. Period: 88.20 min. Summary: Subscale Spiral spaceplane. After 1.25 revolutions of the earth, deorbited and recovered by Soviet naval forces in the Indian Ocean, 556 km south of the Cocos Islands ..

1983 April 4 - . 18:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. LV Configuration: Space Shuttle STS-6.
  • STS-6 - . Call Sign: Challenger. Crew: Bobko; Musgrave; Peterson; Weitz. Payload: Challenger F01 / TDRS 1 [IUS]. Mass: 21,305 kg (46,969 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Bobko; Musgrave; Peterson; Weitz. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-6. Spacecraft: Challenger. Duration: 5.02 days. Decay Date: 1983-04-09 . USAF Sat Cat: 13968 . COSPAR: 1983-026A. Apogee: 295 km (183 mi). Perigee: 288 km (178 mi). Inclination: 28.5000 deg. Period: 90.40 min. Manned four crew. First flight of space shuttle Challenger; deployed TDRSS. Payloads: Deployment of Tracking and Data Relay Satellite (TDRS)-A with Inertial Upper Stage (lUS)-2, Continuous Flow Electrophoresis System (CFES), Monodisperse Latex Reactor (MLR), Night/Day Optical Survey of Lightning (NOSL) experiment, three getaway specials (GAS).

1983 April 8 - . 21:05 GMT - .
  • EVA STS-6-1 - . Crew: Musgrave; Peterson. EVA Type: Extra-Vehicular Activity. EVA Duration: 0.17 days. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Musgrave; Peterson. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-6. Spacecraft: Challenger. Summary: Tested EMU Manoeuvring Unit. Tested EVA emergency procedures..

1983 April 20 - . 13:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U. LV Configuration: Soyuz 11A511U 372.
1983 June 18 - . 11:33 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. LV Configuration: Space Shuttle STS-7.
  • STS-7 - . Call Sign: Challenger. Crew: Crippen; Fabian; Hauck; Ride; Thagard. Payload: Challenger F02 / OSTA-2. Mass: 16,839 kg (37,123 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Crippen; Fabian; Hauck; Ride; Thagard. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-7. Spacecraft: Challenger. Duration: 6.10 days. Decay Date: 1983-06-24 . USAF Sat Cat: 14132 . COSPAR: 1983-059A. Apogee: 307 km (190 mi). Perigee: 299 km (185 mi). Inclination: 28.3000 deg. Period: 90.60 min. Manned five crew. Deployed Anik C2, Palapa B1; deployed and retrieved SPAS platform. Payloads: Office of Space and Terrestrial Applications (OSTA)-2 experiments, deployment of PALAPA-B1 communications satellite for Indonesia with Payload Assist Module (PAM)-D and Telesat-F communications satellite for Canada with PAM-D, German Shuttle Pallet Satellite (SPAS)-01, seven getaway specials (GAS), Monodisperse Latex Reactor (MLR), Continuous Flow Electrophoresis System (CFES).

1983 June 27 - . 09:12 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U. LV Configuration: Soyuz 11A511U 379.
  • Soyuz T-9 - . Call Sign: Proton (Proton ). Crew: Aleksandrov; Lyakhov. Backup Crew: Strekalov; Titov, Vladimir. Payload: Soyuz T s/n 14L. Mass: 6,850 kg (15,100 lb). Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Aleksandrov; Lyakhov; Strekalov; Titov, Vladimir. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut 7. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Salyut 7 EO-2. Spacecraft: Soyuz T. Duration: 149.45 days. Decay Date: 1983-11-23 . USAF Sat Cat: 14152 . COSPAR: 1983-062A. Apogee: 228 km (141 mi). Perigee: 197 km (122 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.80 min. Summary: Manned two crew. Docked with Salyut 7. Transported to the Salyut-7 orbital station a crew consisting of V A Lyakhov, commander of the spacecraft, and A P Aleksandrov, flight engineer, to conduct scientific and technical research and experiments..

1983 July 4 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar LC107/1. Launch Pad: LC107/pad?. LV Family: Kosmos 3. Launch Vehicle: K65M-RB.
  • BOR-5 Flight 1 - . Payload: BOR-5. Nation: USSR. Program: Buran. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: BOR-5. Decay Date: 1983-07-04 . Apogee: 120 km (70 mi). Summary: Suborbital test of 1/8 scale model of Buran. Typical trajectory: ascent to 120 km; pitch down to drive model in atmosphere at 45 degree at Mach 18.5. None were reflown but at least 4 were recovered..

1983 August 17 - . 12:08 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U. LV Configuration: Soyuz 11A511U Ts15000-302.
  • Progress 17 - . Payload: Progress s/n 119. Mass: 7,020 kg (15,470 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut 7. Class: Manned. Type: Manned logistics spacecraft. Flight: Salyut 7 EO-2. Spacecraft: Progress. Duration: 31.48 days. Completed Operations Date: 1983-09-17 23:42:37 . Decay Date: 1983-09-17 23:42:37 . USAF Sat Cat: 14283 . COSPAR: 1983-085A. Apogee: 242 km (150 mi). Perigee: 189 km (117 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.80 min. Summary: Unmanned supply vessel to Salyut 7. Docked with Salyut 7 on 19 Aug 1983 13:47:00 GMT. Undocked on 17 Sep 1983 11:44:00 GMT. Destroyed in reentry on 17 Sep 1983 23:43:00 GMT. Total free-flight time 2.57 days. Total docked time 28.91 days..

1983 August 30 - . 06:32 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. LV Configuration: Space Shuttle STS-8.
  • STS-8 - . Call Sign: Challenger. Crew: Bluford; Brandenstein; Gardner; Thornton, Bill; Truly. Payload: Challenger F03 / PFTA. Mass: 13,642 kg (30,075 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Bluford; Brandenstein; Gardner; Thornton, Bill; Truly. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-8. Spacecraft: Challenger. Duration: 6.05 days. Decay Date: 1983-09-05 . USAF Sat Cat: 14312 . COSPAR: 1983-089A. Apogee: 313 km (194 mi). Perigee: 306 km (190 mi). Inclination: 28.5000 deg. Period: 90.70 min. First night launch and night landing. Deployed Insat 1B. Payloads: Deployment of INSAT (lndia communica-tion satellite) with Payload Assist Module (PAM)-D, Payload Flight Test Article (PFTA)/ Payload Deployment Retrieval System (PDRS), Continuous Flow Electrophoresis (CFES), biomedical experiments. 250,000 express mail envelopes with special cachet for U.S. Postal Service were carried for a first-day cover.

1983 September 26 - . 19:37 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U. FAILURE: Launch vehicle blew up on pad.. Failed Stage: 0.