Encyclopedia Astronautica
YF-120t


CAALPT Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 1340.2 kN. In development. Isp=336s. For CZ-5 Next Generation Launch Vehicle series. Engine can be throttled to 65% of rated thrust. Firing tests began in 2005.

New Lox/Kerosene engine for the next generation Chinese launch vehicles. Said to have been developed with Russian assistance and has turbomachinery design features in common with the Glushko RD-170/-180/-190 series. However the Russians have no thrust chamber in this thrust category and therefore the engine represents an entirely new design using all-indigenous components. Turbopump-fed, built in one- and two-axis gimballed versions. Oxygen bled from engine is used to pressurize oxygen tank; helium to pressurize kerosene tank. The engine can be throttled to 65% of rated thrust. Firing tests began in 2003 and were to be completed by early 2006. Instead there were delays and the first 300-second full-duration firing test did not occur until 8 November 2005. First launch, originally expected in 2008, was delayed to 2010 or later.

Throttled thrust(vac): 871.000 kN (195,808 lbf). Thrust (sl): 1,200.000 kN (269,700 lbf). Thrust (sl): 122,370 kgf. Oxidizer to Fuel Ratio: 2.7.

Status: In development.
Thrust: 1,340.20 kN (301,289 lbf).
Specific impulse: 336 s.
Specific impulse sea level: 301 s.
First Launch: 1999-2006.

More... - Chronology...


Associated Countries
See also
Associated Launch Vehicles
  • CZ-NGLV-540 Chinese orbital launch vehicle. The 540 configuration for the Long March New Generation Launch Vehicle series would use the 5.0 m diameter core stage with four 2.25 m diameter stages as strap-ons. Payload was given as 10 tonnes to low earth orbit. A standard short 5.2 m diameter fairing tops the vehicle. More...
  • CZ-NGLV-522 Chinese orbital launch vehicle. The 522 configuration for the Long March New Generation Launch Vehicle series would use the 5.0 m diameter core stage with 2 x 2.25 m plus 2 x 3.35 m strap-on stages. Payload is estimated as 18-20 tonnes to low earth orbit. More...
  • CZ-NGLV-522/HO Chinese orbital launch vehicle. The 522/HO was the 'all up' baseline configuration for the Long March New Generation Launch Vehicle series. It would use the 5.0 m core stage, topped by the 5.0 m upper stage, together with 2 x 2.25 m plus 2 x 3.35 m strap-on stages. It was announced in 2003 that it would be first to fly, with a launch before the Beijing Olympics in 2008. It would be used for launch of large communications satellites. Payload is estimated as 10-12 tonnes to geosynchronous transfer orbit. More...
  • CZ-NGLV-504 The 504 configuration for the Long March New Generation Launch Vehicle series would use the 5.0 m diameter core stage with four 3.35 m diameter stages as strap-ons. Payload was given as 25 tonnes to low earth orbit. A standard large 5.2 m diameter fairing tops the vehicle. It would be used to launch the Chinese Space Laboratory in 2010. More...
  • CZ-NGLV-504/HO Chinese orbital launch vehicle. The 504/HO configuration for the Long March New Generation Launch Vehicle series would use the 5.0 m core stage, topped by the 5.0 m upper stage, together with 4 x 3.35 m strap-on stages. First flight of this version was expected after 2010. Payload was given as 14 tonnes to geosynchronous transfer orbit. More...
  • CZ-NGLV-540/HO Chinese orbital launch vehicle. The 540/HO configuration for the Long March New Generation Launch Vehicle series would use the 5.0 m core stage, topped by the 5.0 m upper stage, together with 4 x 2.25 m strap-on stages. First flight of this version was expected after 2010. Payload was given as 6 tonnes to geosynchronous transfer orbit. More...

Associated Manufacturers and Agencies
  • CAALPT Chinese manufacturer of rocket engines. China Academy of Aerospace Liquid Propulsion Technology, Xian, China. More...

Associated Propellants
  • Lox/Kerosene Liquid oxygen was the earliest, cheapest, safest, and eventually the preferred oxidiser for large space launchers. Its main drawback is that it is moderately cryogenic, and therefore not suitable for military uses where storage of the fuelled missile and quick launch are required. In January 1953 Rocketdyne commenced the REAP program to develop a number of improvements to the engines being developed for the Navaho and Atlas missiles. Among these was development of a special grade of kerosene suitable for rocket engines. Prior to that any number of rocket propellants derived from petroleum had been used. Goddard had begun with gasoline, and there were experimental engines powered by kerosene, diesel oil, paint thinner, or jet fuel kerosene JP-4 or JP-5. The wide variance in physical properties among fuels of the same class led to the identification of narrow-range petroleum fractions, embodied in 1954 in the standard US kerosene rocket fuel RP-1, covered by Military Specification MIL-R-25576. In Russia, similar specifications were developed for kerosene under the specifications T-1 and RG-1. The Russians also developed a compound of unknown formulation in the 1980's known as 'Sintin', or synthetic kerosene. More...

Bibliography
  • Video presentation, IAF Bremen, September 2003.
  • Tangming Cheng, Xiaojun Wang, Dong Li, "The New Generation Launch Vehicles of Long March Family", IAF 2003.

Associated Stages
  • CZ-NGLV-200 Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 69,000/6,000 kg. Thrust 1,340.17 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 336.3 seconds. From top to bottom the 2.25-m Chinese new generation launch vehicle consists of a 42.3 cubic meter liquid oxygen tank, an intertank section, a 22.0 cubic meter kerosene tank, and an engine section with one gimballed LOX /Kerosene engines of 1200 kN vacuum thrust. The oxygen tank is pressurised using oxygen bled from the engine and helium is used to pressurise the kerosene tank. The engines can be throttled to 65% of rated thrust. Burn time shown assumes full thrust during engine burn. More...
  • CZ-NGLV-300 Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 147,000/12,000 kg. Thrust 2,680.35 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 336 seconds. From top to bottom the 3.35-m Chinese new generation launch vehicle consists of a 90.7 cubic meter liquid oxygen tank, an intertank section, a 47.7 cubic meter kerosene tank, and an engine section with two gimballed LOX /Kerosene engines of 1200 kN vacuum thrust each. The oxygen tank is pressurised using oxygen bled from the engine and helium is used to pressurise the kerosene tank. The engines can be throttled to 65% of rated thrust. Burn time shown assumes full thrust during engine burn. More...

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