Encyclopedia Astronautica

XCOR Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 8 kN. First stages. Hardware. Pump-fed, regeneratively cooled with fuel. Engine could be used to power the prototype Xerus suborbital manned vehicle for initial flight testing.

XCOR's largest engine in active development, designated XR4K5, was an 8,000-newton engine that was pump-fed, LOX/kerosene regeneratively cooled with fuel. This engine may be used to power the prototype Xerus vehicle for initial flight testing, but XCOR has not yet decided on this approach

Application: First stages.


Propellant Formulation: Lox/RP-1.

Status: Hardware.
Thrust: 8.00 kN (1,798 lbf).
First Launch: 2000-2004.

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  • Lox/Kerosene Liquid oxygen was the earliest, cheapest, safest, and eventually the preferred oxidiser for large space launchers. Its main drawback is that it is moderately cryogenic, and therefore not suitable for military uses where storage of the fuelled missile and quick launch are required. In January 1953 Rocketdyne commenced the REAP program to develop a number of improvements to the engines being developed for the Navaho and Atlas missiles. Among these was development of a special grade of kerosene suitable for rocket engines. Prior to that any number of rocket propellants derived from petroleum had been used. Goddard had begun with gasoline, and there were experimental engines powered by kerosene, diesel oil, paint thinner, or jet fuel kerosene JP-4 or JP-5. The wide variance in physical properties among fuels of the same class led to the identification of narrow-range petroleum fractions, embodied in 1954 in the standard US kerosene rocket fuel RP-1, covered by Military Specification MIL-R-25576. In Russia, similar specifications were developed for kerosene under the specifications T-1 and RG-1. The Russians also developed a compound of unknown formulation in the 1980's known as 'Sintin', or synthetic kerosene. More...

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