Encyclopedia Astronautica

Credit: Yuzhnoye
Yuzhnoye Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 19.6 kN. Upper stages. Design concept 2007. Isp=344s. Derivative of the RD-8 Zenit-2 second stage vernier thrust engine combustion chamber for use in launch vehicle upper stages.

The multi-start pump-fed single-chamber engine featured:

  • Thrust and mixture ratio regulation to an accuracy of 1%;
  • Total operation time up to 1100seconds
  • Generator gas afterburning scheme
  • Thrust vector control by gimbaling the chamber in two orthogonal planes; gimbal angle, 8 deg. Roll control provided by roll nozzles tapping off the gas generator.
  • Spin-up of booster turbopump and operation of solenoid valves for engine start and restart performed by gas from an autonomous pneumatic unit
  • Turbine powered by oxidizer-rich gas.
  • Propellants ignited in the gas generator and combustion chamber by use of a starting fuel.

Application: Upper stages.


Chamber Pressure: 78.00 bar. Oxidizer to Fuel Ratio: 2.5. Restarts: 6.

Status: Design concept 2007.
Height: 1.67 m (5.47 ft).
Thrust: 19.60 kN (4,406 lbf).
Specific impulse: 344 s.
Burn time: 1,100 s.

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Associated Countries
See also
Associated Manufacturers and Agencies
  • Yuzhnoye Ukrainian manufacturer of rockets, spacecraft, and rocket engines. Yangel Design Bureau, Dnepropetrovsk, Ukraine. More...

Associated Propellants
  • Lox/Kerosene Liquid oxygen was the earliest, cheapest, safest, and eventually the preferred oxidiser for large space launchers. Its main drawback is that it is moderately cryogenic, and therefore not suitable for military uses where storage of the fuelled missile and quick launch are required. In January 1953 Rocketdyne commenced the REAP program to develop a number of improvements to the engines being developed for the Navaho and Atlas missiles. Among these was development of a special grade of kerosene suitable for rocket engines. Prior to that any number of rocket propellants derived from petroleum had been used. Goddard had begun with gasoline, and there were experimental engines powered by kerosene, diesel oil, paint thinner, or jet fuel kerosene JP-4 or JP-5. The wide variance in physical properties among fuels of the same class led to the identification of narrow-range petroleum fractions, embodied in 1954 in the standard US kerosene rocket fuel RP-1, covered by Military Specification MIL-R-25576. In Russia, similar specifications were developed for kerosene under the specifications T-1 and RG-1. The Russians also developed a compound of unknown formulation in the 1980's known as 'Sintin', or synthetic kerosene. More...

  • Yuzhnoye Company Web Site, Web Address when accessed: here.

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