Encyclopedia Astronautica

R-7 aft end
Credit: © Mark Wade
Credit: © Mark Wade
Glushko Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 912 kN. R-7 8K71-1, Vostok 8K72-1, Vostok 8K72K-1. OKB Glushko. Used on 8K71 R-7 Stage 1. Developed in 1954-1955. Propellants kerosene (RG-1) / Lox. Diameter is per chamber. Isp=308s. First flight 1957.

Application: R-7 8K71-1, Vostok 8K72-1, Vostok 8K72K-1.

Chambers: 4. Thrust (sl): 713.600 kN (160,424 lbf). Thrust (sl): 72,768 kgf. Engine: 1,278 kg (2,817 lb). Chamber Pressure: 51.00 bar. Area Ratio: 18.9. Thrust to Weight Ratio: 72.76. Oxidizer to Fuel Ratio: 2.39.

AKA: 8D75.
Unfuelled mass: 1,278 kg (2,817 lb).
Height: 2.86 m (9.38 ft).
Diameter: 0.67 m (2.19 ft).
Thrust: 912.00 kN (205,025 lbf).
Specific impulse: 308 s.
Specific impulse sea level: 241 s.
Burn time: 340 s.
Number: 35 .

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Associated Countries
See also
Associated Launch Vehicles
  • R-7 Russian intercontinental ballistic missile. The world's first ICBM and first orbital launch vehicle. The 8K71 version was never actually put into military service, being succeeded by the R-7A 8K74. More...
  • Vostok 8K72 Russian orbital launch vehicle. 8K72 Luna launch vehicle, third stage modified with larger forward cylindrical section to accomodate Vostok-sized spacecraft. Used only for launch of first few prototype Vostoks. More...

Associated Manufacturers and Agencies
  • Glushko Russian manufacturer of rocket engines and rockets. Glushko Design Bureau, Russia. More...

Associated Propellants
  • Lox/Kerosene Liquid oxygen was the earliest, cheapest, safest, and eventually the preferred oxidiser for large space launchers. Its main drawback is that it is moderately cryogenic, and therefore not suitable for military uses where storage of the fuelled missile and quick launch are required. In January 1953 Rocketdyne commenced the REAP program to develop a number of improvements to the engines being developed for the Navaho and Atlas missiles. Among these was development of a special grade of kerosene suitable for rocket engines. Prior to that any number of rocket propellants derived from petroleum had been used. Goddard had begun with gasoline, and there were experimental engines powered by kerosene, diesel oil, paint thinner, or jet fuel kerosene JP-4 or JP-5. The wide variance in physical properties among fuels of the same class led to the identification of narrow-range petroleum fractions, embodied in 1954 in the standard US kerosene rocket fuel RP-1, covered by Military Specification MIL-R-25576. In Russia, similar specifications were developed for kerosene under the specifications T-1 and RG-1. The Russians also developed a compound of unknown formulation in the 1980's known as 'Sintin', or synthetic kerosene. More...

Associated Stages
  • R-7 8K71-1 Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 95,300/7,500 kg. Thrust 912.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 308 seconds. More...
  • Vostok 8K72-1 Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 100,400/6,800 kg. Thrust 912.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 315 seconds. More...

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