Encyclopedia Astronautica
RD-120


Glushko Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 833 kN. Zenit stage 2. In production. Isp=350s. High altitude engine used in the Zenit second stage. First production Russian engine to be test fired in the United States (3 test burns were made). First flight 1985.

Mass is wet mass.

Application: Zenit stage 2.

Characteristics

Engine: 1,125 kg (2,480 lb). Chamber Pressure: 162.80 bar. Area Ratio: 106.7. Thrust to Weight Ratio: 75.55. Oxidizer to Fuel Ratio: 2.6.

AKA: 11D123.
Status: In production.
Unfuelled mass: 1,125 kg (2,480 lb).
Height: 3.87 m (12.70 ft).
Diameter: 1.95 m (6.38 ft).
Thrust: 833.00 kN (187,265 lbf).
Specific impulse: 350 s.
Burn time: 315 s.
First Launch: 1976-85.
Number: 60 .

More... - Chronology...


Associated Countries
See also
Associated Launch Vehicles
  • Zenit Zenit was to be a modular new generation medium Soviet launch vehicle, replacing the various ICBM-derived launch vehicles in use since the 1960's (Tsiklon and Soyuz). A version of the first stage was used as strap-ons for the cancelled Energia heavy booster. But it was built by Yuzhnoye in the Ukraine; when the Soviet Union broke up planned large-scale production for the Soviet military was abandoned (Angara development was begun as an indigenous alternative). Launch pads were completed only at Baikonur; those at Plesetsk were never finished and are planned to be completed as Angara pads. However the vehicle found new life as a commercial launch vehicle, launched from a sea platform by an American/Ukrainian consortium. More...

Associated Manufacturers and Agencies
  • Glushko Russian manufacturer of rocket engines and rockets. Glushko Design Bureau, Russia. More...

Associated Propellants
  • Lox/Kerosene Liquid oxygen was the earliest, cheapest, safest, and eventually the preferred oxidiser for large space launchers. Its main drawback is that it is moderately cryogenic, and therefore not suitable for military uses where storage of the fuelled missile and quick launch are required. In January 1953 Rocketdyne commenced the REAP program to develop a number of improvements to the engines being developed for the Navaho and Atlas missiles. Among these was development of a special grade of kerosene suitable for rocket engines. Prior to that any number of rocket propellants derived from petroleum had been used. Goddard had begun with gasoline, and there were experimental engines powered by kerosene, diesel oil, paint thinner, or jet fuel kerosene JP-4 or JP-5. The wide variance in physical properties among fuels of the same class led to the identification of narrow-range petroleum fractions, embodied in 1954 in the standard US kerosene rocket fuel RP-1, covered by Military Specification MIL-R-25576. In Russia, similar specifications were developed for kerosene under the specifications T-1 and RG-1. The Russians also developed a compound of unknown formulation in the 1980's known as 'Sintin', or synthetic kerosene. More...

Bibliography
  • Salmon, Andrew, The Story Of Russian Rocket Engines - Energomash Museum, Commentary by the guide at the Energomash rocket engine museum in Khimki, April 1998 at YSC98..
  • Klepikov, Katorgin, Chvanov, "The New Generation of Rocket Engines, Operating by Ecologically Safe Propellant ...", IAF-Congress Turin, 1997, IAF-97-S.1.03 via Dietrich Haeseler.
  • Sutton, G P, Rocket Propulsion Elements, John Wiley and Sons, 1991 via Dietrich Haeseler.
  • Novosti kosmonavtiki, Issue 15, 1995.

Associated Stages
  • Pathfinder Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 100,000/30,000 kg. Thrust 833.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 350 seconds. Masses estimated based on performance, propellant load. More...
  • Zenit-2 Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 90,600/9,000 kg. Thrust 912.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 349 seconds. More...

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