Encyclopedia Astronautica

R-7 aft end
Credit: © Mark Wade
Credit: © Mark Wade
Glushko Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 997 kN. Soyuz 11A511-1, Soyuz 11A511U-1. Design 2000. Diameter is per chamber. Isp=315s. First flight 1965.

Application: Soyuz 11A511-1, Soyuz 11A511U-1.

Chambers: 4. Thrust (sl): 746.400 kN (167,797 lbf). Thrust (sl): 76,100 kgf. Engine: 1,400 kg (3,000 lb). Chamber Pressure: 51.00 bar. Thrust to Weight Ratio: 72.59.

AKA: 11D512.
Status: Design 2000.
Unfuelled mass: 1,400 kg (3,000 lb).
Height: 2.86 m (9.38 ft).
Diameter: 0.67 m (2.19 ft).
Thrust: 997.00 kN (224,134 lbf).
Specific impulse: 315 s.
Specific impulse sea level: 248 s.
Burn time: 286 s.
Number: 752 .

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Associated Countries
See also
Associated Launch Vehicles
  • Soyuz 11A511 Russian orbital launch vehicle. Standardized launch vehicle designed to replace a proliferation of earlier models (8K72, 8A91, 8K74, 8K78, 11A57). Designed initially to support launch of the Soyuz complex (7K manned, 9K rocket stage, and 11k tanker) and Zenit-4 reconnaisance satellite. Later 'U' model extended to cover a range of follow-on satellites. Compared to 11A57, the telemetry system was reduced in mass to no more than 150 kg, and engines were cherry-picked for the vehicle core to ensure that specific impulse was no less than 252 seconds at sea level, 315 in vacuum. More...
  • Soyuz 11A511U Russian standardised man-rated orbital launch vehicle derived from the original R-7 ICBM of 1957. It has been launched in greater numbers than any orbital launch vehicle in history. Not coincidentally, it has been the most reliable as well. After over 40 years service in Russia, ESA built a new launch pad at Kourou which will keep it in service from three launch sites in three countries well into the mid-21st Century. More...

Associated Manufacturers and Agencies
  • Glushko Russian manufacturer of rocket engines and rockets. Glushko Design Bureau, Russia. More...

Associated Propellants
  • Lox/Kerosene Liquid oxygen was the earliest, cheapest, safest, and eventually the preferred oxidiser for large space launchers. Its main drawback is that it is moderately cryogenic, and therefore not suitable for military uses where storage of the fuelled missile and quick launch are required. In January 1953 Rocketdyne commenced the REAP program to develop a number of improvements to the engines being developed for the Navaho and Atlas missiles. Among these was development of a special grade of kerosene suitable for rocket engines. Prior to that any number of rocket propellants derived from petroleum had been used. Goddard had begun with gasoline, and there were experimental engines powered by kerosene, diesel oil, paint thinner, or jet fuel kerosene JP-4 or JP-5. The wide variance in physical properties among fuels of the same class led to the identification of narrow-range petroleum fractions, embodied in 1954 in the standard US kerosene rocket fuel RP-1, covered by Military Specification MIL-R-25576. In Russia, similar specifications were developed for kerosene under the specifications T-1 and RG-1. The Russians also developed a compound of unknown formulation in the 1980's known as 'Sintin', or synthetic kerosene. More...

  • Semenov, Yuri P Editor, Raketno-kosmicheskaya korporatsiya 'Energia' imeni S P Koroleva, Moscow, Russia, 1996.
  • Varfolomyev, Timothy, "Soviet Rocketry that Conquered Space - Part 1", Spaceflight, 1995, Volume 37, page 260.
  • Kudryavtseva, V M, ed., Zhidkostnikh Raketnikh Dvigatley, Visshaya Shkola, Moscow, 1993.
  • Salmon, Andrew, The Story Of Russian Rocket Engines - Energomash Museum, Commentary by the guide at the Energomash rocket engine museum in Khimki, April 1998 at YSC98..

Associated Stages
  • Soyuz 11A511-1 Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 100,500/6,500 kg. Thrust 977.70 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 315 seconds. More...
  • Soyuz 11A511U-1 Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 105,400/6,875 kg. Thrust 997.09 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 311 seconds. Current version. Gross mass includes 2600 kg of hydrogen peroxide and 520 kg of liquid nitrogen expended during ascent but not contributing to propulsion. More...

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