Encyclopedia Astronautica

Glushko Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 1374 kN. Development ended 1949. Isp=285s. For R-3 IRBM, 19 ED-140 7 tonne chambers used as preburners to feed a main mixing chamber, a scale-up of the V-2 production motor. Tested, but technical problems too severe.

The German team at Khimki was completing build of a subscale, 7 tonne thrust version of a radical new flat-plate injector, cylindrical combustion chamber. This is identified in Glushko's memoirs as the ED-140 (without noting its German origin). The ED-140 configuration would form the basis of Glushko's rocket engines for the next fifteen years. For Korolev's R-3, Glushko proposed to copy the V-2 approach by using 19 of these 7 tonne chambers as 'preburners' to feed a main mixing chamber, producing a high-performance engine of over 120 tonnes thrust. The preburners had a chamber diameter of 200 mm as opposed to the 240 mm of the ED-140, but the same 60 atmosphere chamber pressure. The spherical chamber had special interior structures to ensure even mixture of the combustion gases and a stable chamber pressure. However during development problems in fabrication of the large spherical mixing chamber, and synchronisation of propellant feed to the 19 preburners could not be solved. The engine was never put into production, but valuable experience was gained in the scientific basis for increasing thrust and specific impulse in other future engines. Glushko instead would scale up the ED-140 concept (flat-plate injector, cylindrical combustion chamber with a 60 atmosphere chamber pressure) to 25 tonnes thrust and cluster these chamber to make his engines for the first generations of large Soviet ballistic missiles. The original design specification was for a specific impulse of 288 sec in vacuum. Only one mock-up engine was completed, a cold flow-test article using kerosene and water. It can be seen at the NPO Energomash museum.

Application: R-3.


Thrust (sl): 1,176.000 kN (264,375 lbf). Thrust (sl): 119,920 kgf. Chamber Pressure: 58.80 bar. Oxidizer to Fuel Ratio: 2.65.

Status: Development ended 1949.
Height: 5.20 m (17.00 ft).
Diameter: 1.80 m (5.90 ft).
Thrust: 1,374.00 kN (308,887 lbf).
Specific impulse: 285 s.
Specific impulse sea level: 244 s.
First Launch: 1947-51.

More... - Chronology...

Associated Countries
See also
Associated Manufacturers and Agencies
  • Glushko Russian manufacturer of rocket engines and rockets. Glushko Design Bureau, Russia. More...

Associated Propellants
  • Lox/Kerosene Liquid oxygen was the earliest, cheapest, safest, and eventually the preferred oxidiser for large space launchers. Its main drawback is that it is moderately cryogenic, and therefore not suitable for military uses where storage of the fuelled missile and quick launch are required. In January 1953 Rocketdyne commenced the REAP program to develop a number of improvements to the engines being developed for the Navaho and Atlas missiles. Among these was development of a special grade of kerosene suitable for rocket engines. Prior to that any number of rocket propellants derived from petroleum had been used. Goddard had begun with gasoline, and there were experimental engines powered by kerosene, diesel oil, paint thinner, or jet fuel kerosene JP-4 or JP-5. The wide variance in physical properties among fuels of the same class led to the identification of narrow-range petroleum fractions, embodied in 1954 in the standard US kerosene rocket fuel RP-1, covered by Military Specification MIL-R-25576. In Russia, similar specifications were developed for kerosene under the specifications T-1 and RG-1. The Russians also developed a compound of unknown formulation in the 1980's known as 'Sintin', or synthetic kerosene. More...

  • Salmon, Andrew, The Story Of Russian Rocket Engines - Energomash Museum, Commentary by the guide at the Energomash rocket engine museum in Khimki, April 1998 at YSC98..
  • Haeseler, Dietrich, Information from NPO Energomash museum exhibit, Nov. 1992 via Dietrich Haeseler.
  • Rakhmanin, V F, Odnazhdy i Navsegda, NPO Energomash, Moscow 1998 via Dietrich Haeseler.
  • Michels, Juergen and Przybilski, Olaf, Peenemuende und seine Erben in Ost und West, Bernard & Graefe, Bonn, 1997.

Associated Stages
  • R-3 Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 69,000/5,480 kg. Thrust 1,370.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 285 seconds. 3000 km range IRBM design to study problems of long-range rockets. Developed April 1947 to 1949 before cancellation. More...

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