Encyclopedia Astronautica

Kuznetsov Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 441.3 kN. R-9, GR-1 stage 1. Isp=327s. Reached phase of stand testing in 1965, but then RD-111 selected. Later planned for 1st Stage of GR-1, but that rocket also cancelled.

Application: R-9, GR-1 stage 1.

Thrust (sl): 360.390 kN (81,019 lbf). Thrust (sl): 36,750 kgf. Propellant Formulation: Lox/RG-1.

Thrust: 441.30 kN (99,208 lbf).
Specific impulse: 327 s.
Specific impulse sea level: 280 s.
First Launch: 1959-65.

More... - Chronology...

Associated Countries
See also
Associated Launch Vehicles
  • Superraket Russian nuclear orbital launch vehicle. The ancestor of the N1 lunar launch vehicle, this was the first heavy lift launch vehicle actively considered in the USSR. The 2,000 tonne liftoff mass was similar to the later N1 design, but the first stage would use a staggering cluster of around 66 Kuznetsov NK-9 engines (as opposed to the modest 24 NK-15's of the first N1 configuration). The real difference was in the second stage, which used the nuclear YaRD engine, giving the launch vehicle nearly double the later N1's payload capacity. More...
  • R-9M Russian intercontinental ballistic missile. Improved version with Kuznetsov engines in first and second stages. Development undertaken, but cancelled in favour of basic version with RD-111/RD-0106 engines. More...
  • GR-1 Russian intercontinental ballistic missile. Korolev's entry in the 'Global Rocket' competition, a missile that could place a nuclear warhead in orbit, where it could come in under or behind American anti-ballistic missile defences, and be deorbited with little warning. Cancelled in 1964 in preference to Yangel's R-36-O. More...

Associated Manufacturers and Agencies
  • Kuznetsov Russian manufacturer of rocket engines. Kuznetsov Design Bureau, Russia. More...

Associated Propellants
  • Lox/Kerosene Liquid oxygen was the earliest, cheapest, safest, and eventually the preferred oxidiser for large space launchers. Its main drawback is that it is moderately cryogenic, and therefore not suitable for military uses where storage of the fuelled missile and quick launch are required. In January 1953 Rocketdyne commenced the REAP program to develop a number of improvements to the engines being developed for the Navaho and Atlas missiles. Among these was development of a special grade of kerosene suitable for rocket engines. Prior to that any number of rocket propellants derived from petroleum had been used. Goddard had begun with gasoline, and there were experimental engines powered by kerosene, diesel oil, paint thinner, or jet fuel kerosene JP-4 or JP-5. The wide variance in physical properties among fuels of the same class led to the identification of narrow-range petroleum fractions, embodied in 1954 in the standard US kerosene rocket fuel RP-1, covered by Military Specification MIL-R-25576. In Russia, similar specifications were developed for kerosene under the specifications T-1 and RG-1. The Russians also developed a compound of unknown formulation in the 1980's known as 'Sintin', or synthetic kerosene. More...

  • Vetrov, G S, S. P. Korolev i evo delo, Nauka, Moscow, 1998.
  • Anisimov, V S; Lacefield, T C; Andrews, J, "Evolution of the NK-33 and NK-43 reusable LOX/kerosene engines", AIAA Joint Propulsion Conference, via Dietrich Haeseler.
  • Russian Space Industry, Federation of American Scentists Web Pages, 1998 via Dietrich Haeseler. Web Address when accessed: here.
  • Kobelyev, V N; Milovanov, A G, Rakety Nositeli, Moscow State Aviation Techology University, 1993 via Dietrich Haeseler.

Associated Stages
  • GR-1 Stage 1 Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 80,000/6,000 kg. Thrust 1,676.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 325 seconds. Payload 4,000 kg (2.2 MT nuclear warhead). Range 13,000 km or orbital. Accuracy (90%) 5 km in range and 3 km in dispersion. Masses estimated based on total vehicle mass of 117 tonnes. More...
  • Superraket Block A Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 1,150,000/100,000 kg. Thrust 33,656.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 310 seconds. Ancestor of N1 Block A; conical liquid oxygen/kerosene stage using massive cluster of Kuznetsov engines. Gross mass estimated based on 2,000 tonne total vehicle weight; empty mass estimated. More...

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