Encyclopedia Astronautica
NK-19


Kuznetsov Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. N-1 stage 4. Development ended 1964. Based on NK-9 engine. Originally developed for the modernized second stage of the R-9 (abandoned). Also to have been used on GR-1 / 8K713 Stage 2. First flight 1969.

Designation 11D54 used also for predecessor of 11D57 LOX/LH2 engine.

Application: N-1 stage 4 (block G).

Characteristics

Propellant Formulation: Lox/RG-1.

AKA: NK-9V; NK-19; 11D54.
Status: Development ended 1964.
First Launch: 1960-72.
Number: 4 .

More... - Chronology...


Associated Countries
See also
Associated Launch Vehicles
  • N111 Russian heavy-lift orbital launch vehicle. It was originally planned the N1 would form the basis of a family of launch vehicles that could replace existing ICBM-derived boosters. The N111 would use the third and fourth stages of the N1, and the second stage of Korolev's R-9 ICBM. This would result in a lift-off mass of 200 tonnes and a five tonne payload. It could replace the R-7 derived boosters (Vostok and Soyuz) in this payload category. More...
  • N11GR Russian orbital missile. This 1962 project was designed by Korolev's OKB as a competitor to Chelomei's UR-500 against the military GR-2 (Global Rocket 2) requirement. The N-11GR was an adaptation of the basic N-11, derived from the second and third stages of the N1 heavy booster. The GR-2 was to be a kind of enormous multiple-warhead FOBS (fractional orbit bombing system). Surrounding the top of the second stage of the rocket, like bullets in an enormous revolver, were six final stages derived from the 8K713 GR-1 last stage. Each stage had a 1,500 kg nuclear warhead. More...
  • N1 1964 Russian heavy-lift orbital launch vehicle. The N1 launch vehicle for the N1-L3 lunar landing mission as described in the draft project of 1964. Design requirement for the single-launch lunar-orbit-rendezvous lunar landing was 2750 tonnes liftoff mass and 95 tonnes low earth orbit payload. The actual N1 that flew in 1969 to 1972 had lighter first and third stages, but never demonstrated a full fuel load using superchilled propellants as planned in the draft project.. More...
  • N11 1963 Russian heavy-lift orbital launch vehicle. A military variant of the N-11 which would use a powerful third stage, probably derived from the first stage of the 8K713 GR-1, to put up to 24 tonnes in low earth orbit. This was a competitor with Chelomei's UR-500K, which was selected instead for the heavy military payload mission. More...
  • N1 1962 Russian heavy-lift orbital launch vehicle. Final configuration of the N1 at the time of development go-ahead in 1962. The 75 tonne payload was to consist of the Raskat dispenser, which would have delivered 17 multi-megaton nuclear warheads, essentially destroying the United States in a single launch. The design also supported the OS-1 heavy space station and TMK manned Mars flyby requirements - as opposed to any manned lunar landing project. More...
  • N1 1969 Russian heavy-lift orbital launch vehicle. The N1 launch vehicle, developed by Russia in the 1960's, was to be the Soviet Union's counterpart to the Saturn V. The largest of a family of launch vehicles that were to replace the ICBM-derived launchers then in use, the N series was to launch Soviet cosmonauts to the moon, Mars, and huge space stations into orbit. In comparison to Saturn, the project was started late, starved of funds and priority, and dogged by political and technical struggles between the chief designers Korolev, Glushko, and Chelomei. The end result was four launch failures and cancellation of the project five years after Apollo landed on the moon. Not only did a Soviet cosmonaut never land on the moon, but the Soviet Union even denied that the huge project ever existed. More...
  • N-IU Russian heavy-lift orbital launch vehicle. The N-IU would be the initial production version of the N1 following the mad rush to make the lunar landings. It would have essentially the same payload but would be substantially re-engineered for sharply improved reliability, most notably with autonomously operating engines. It is interesting to note that four years before the disastorous first flight Korolev already foresaw the potential engine problems that would be the downfall of the project. More...
  • N1F Russian heavy-lift orbital launch vehicle. The N1F would have been the definitive flight version of the N1, incorporating all changes resulting from the four flight tests of the vehicle, including the new Kuznetsov engines and 10% greater liftoff mass by using superchilled propellants in all stages. N1 8L would have been the first N1F configuration flight, with launch planned in the third quarter of 1975 at the time the project was cancelled. More...
  • N1 The N1 launch vehicle, developed by Russia in the 1960's, was to be the Soviet Union's counterpart to the Saturn V. The largest of a family of launch vehicles that were to replace the ICBM-derived launchers then in use, the N series was to launch Soviet cosmonauts to the moon, Mars, and huge space stations into orbit. In comparison to Saturn, the project was started late, starved of funds and priority, and dogged by political and technical struggles between the chief designers Korolev, Glushko, and Chelomei. The end result was four launch failures and cancellation of the project five years after Apollo landed on the moon. Not only did a Soviet cosmonaut never land on the moon, but the Soviet Union even denied that the huge project ever existed. More...

Associated Manufacturers and Agencies
  • Kuznetsov Russian manufacturer of rocket engines. Kuznetsov Design Bureau, Russia. More...

Associated Propellants
  • Lox/Kerosene Liquid oxygen was the earliest, cheapest, safest, and eventually the preferred oxidiser for large space launchers. Its main drawback is that it is moderately cryogenic, and therefore not suitable for military uses where storage of the fuelled missile and quick launch are required. In January 1953 Rocketdyne commenced the REAP program to develop a number of improvements to the engines being developed for the Navaho and Atlas missiles. Among these was development of a special grade of kerosene suitable for rocket engines. Prior to that any number of rocket propellants derived from petroleum had been used. Goddard had begun with gasoline, and there were experimental engines powered by kerosene, diesel oil, paint thinner, or jet fuel kerosene JP-4 or JP-5. The wide variance in physical properties among fuels of the same class led to the identification of narrow-range petroleum fractions, embodied in 1954 in the standard US kerosene rocket fuel RP-1, covered by Military Specification MIL-R-25576. In Russia, similar specifications were developed for kerosene under the specifications T-1 and RG-1. The Russians also developed a compound of unknown formulation in the 1980's known as 'Sintin', or synthetic kerosene. More...

Bibliography
  • Anisimov, V S; Lacefield, T C; Andrews, J, "Evolution of the NK-33 and NK-43 reusable LOX/kerosene engines", AIAA Joint Propulsion Conference, via Dietrich Haeseler.
  • Russian Space Industry, Federation of American Scentists Web Pages, 1998 via Dietrich Haeseler. Web Address when accessed: here.

Associated Stages
  • N-11 1963 - V Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 70,000/6,000 kg. Thrust 784.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 347 seconds. Conjectural stage derived from GR-1 stage 1 to match total mass given of launch vehicle. More...
  • N-111-Ab Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 150,000/10,000 kg. Thrust 2,694.37 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 336 seconds. Alternate weight breakdown. More...
  • N-111-A Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 192,000/20,000 kg. Thrust 2,540.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 331 seconds. Variant of N1 Block V for first stage use. Number of engines would have to be increased and reduced expansion ratio nozzles fitted for sea level use. Least attractive of N1 variants and seems not to have been pursued after draft project. More...
  • N-11 Block B Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 192,000/18,000 kg. Thrust 1,560.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 347 seconds. Derived from N1 Block V. More...
  • N1 1964 - V Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 193,000/16,000 kg. Thrust 1,560.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 347 seconds. As per draft project for N1-L3, 1964. Thrust said to be increased 2% but not reflected in figures given. More...
  • N1 1962 - V Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 193,000/16,000 kg. Thrust 1,560.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 347 seconds. Compared to total fuelled mass excludes 1,000 kg in propellants lost to boil-off prior to stage ignition. Values as in draft project as defended on 2-16 July 1962. More...
  • N1 Block G Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 61,800/6,000 kg. Thrust 446.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 353 seconds. Empty mass estimated. More...
  • N1U 1965 - V Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 193,000/15,000 kg. Thrust 1,560.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 347 seconds. As per N1 improvement study, 1965. Primarily improved reliability and produceability compared to first model. More...

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