Encyclopedia Astronautica
F-1



f1.jpg
F-1 engine
Credit: © Mark Wade
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F-1
Credit: Boeing / Rocketdyne
Rocketdyne Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 7740.5 kN. Isp=304s. Largest liquid rocket engine ever developed and flown. Severe combustion stability problems were solved during development and it never failed in flight. First flight 1967.

Used in Saturn IC. The largest liquid engine rocket motor ever developed, it represented an incredible order-of-magnitude development from the 150,000 lb thrust class motor developed for Navaho, Jupiter, Thor, Atlas, Titan I, and Saturn I. Severe combustion stability problems were solved during development and it never failed in flight. Proposed for use on Nova NASA-1; Nova A-1; Nova NASA-2; Jarvis-1; Nova B-1; Nova 59-4-2; Saturn MLV 5-23L-0; Saturn S-IB-2; Nova 59-4-1; Nova 60-8-1; Saturn S-ID; Saturn S-IB-4. Saturn V S-1C Stage. Designed for booster applications. Gas generator, pump-fed.

Thrust (sl): 6,747.500 kN (1,516,898 lbf). Thrust (sl): 688,062 kgf. Engine: 8,391 kg (18,498 lb). Chamber Pressure: 70.00 bar. Area Ratio: 16. Propellant Formulation: Lox/RP-1. Thrust to Weight Ratio: 94.0680252651651. Oxidizer to Fuel Ratio: 2.27. Coefficient of Thrust vacuum: 1.815664036964. Coefficient of Thrust sea level: 1.58709260839257.

Unfuelled mass: 8,391 kg (18,498 lb).
Height: 5.64 m (18.50 ft).
Diameter: 3.72 m (12.20 ft).
Thrust: 7,740.50 kN (1,740,134 lbf).
Specific impulse: 304 s.
Specific impulse sea level: 265 s.
Burn time: 161 s.
First Launch: 1959.
Number: 65 .

More... - Chronology...


Associated Countries
See also
Associated Launch Vehicles
  • Nova NASA American heavy-lift orbital launch vehicle. The Nova vehicle most often illustrated in the popular press and histories. As in other early concepts, this NASA design of 1959/1960 used F-1 engine in both first and second stages. Resulting performance and total liftoff mass was equivalent to later Saturn V. More...
  • Nova B American heavy-lift orbital launch vehicle. Convair/Ehricke Nova design using standard tank/engine modules of 4.9 m diameter in both first and second stages; 6 F-1 engine/modules in first stage, 6 J-2 engine/modules in second stage. More...
  • Nova C American nuclear orbital launch vehicle. General Dynamics Nova vehicle using Nova A as first two stages, nuclear spacecraft with jettisonable tanks as upper stage. More...
  • Nova 8L Mod American heavy-lift orbital launch vehicle. NASA Nova concept where first two stages use short Nova building blocks with 2 F-1's in each block. Four used in stage 1, one in stage 2. Typical of early Nova designs with F-1's in both first and second stages. More...
  • Nova D American nuclear orbital launch vehicle. General Dynamics Nova vehicle using Nova B as first two stages, nuclear spacecraft with jettisonable tanks as upper stage. More...
  • Nova 9L American heavy-lift orbital launch vehicle. NASA Nova design using clustered small diameter tanks; 9 x F-1 first stage and 4 x F-1 second stage; compared with solid Nova using five six segment solid motors in first stage and four four segment motors in second stage. More...
  • Saturn C-4 American orbital launch vehicle. The launch vehicle actually planned for the Lunar Orbit Rendezvous approach to lunar landing. The Saturn C-5 was selected instead to have reserve capacity. More...
  • Nova 4L American heavy-lift orbital launch vehicle. Earliest NASA Nova design, using only 4 F-1's, capability less than later Saturn designs. More...
  • Nova A American heavy-lift orbital launch vehicle. Convair/Ehricke Nova design using standard tank/engine modules of 4.9 m diameter in both first and second stages; 4 F-1 engine/modules in first stage, 4 J-2 engine/modules in second stage. More...
  • Saturn C-3 The launch vehicle concept considered for a time as the leading contender for the Earth Orbit Rendezvous approach to an American lunar landing. More...
  • Saturn C-5 American orbital launch vehicle. Final configuration of Saturn C-5 at the time of selection of this configuration for the Apollo program in December 1961. The actual Saturn V would be derived from this, but with an increased-diameter third stage (6.61 m vs 5.59 m in C-5) and increased propellant load in S-II second stage. More...
  • Saturn C-3B American orbital launch vehicle. Final configurtion of the Saturn C-3 at the time of selection of the Saturn C-5 configuration for the Apollo program in December 1961. More...
  • Saturn C-4B American orbital launch vehicle. Final configurtion of the Saturn C-4 at the time of selection of the Saturn C-5 configuration for the Apollo program in December 1961. Only Saturn configuration with common bulkhead propellant tanks in first stage, resulting in shorter vehicle than less powerful Saturn C-3. More...
  • Saturn C-3BN American nuclear orbital launch vehicle. Version of Saturn C-3 considered with small nuclear thermal stage in place of S-IVB oxygen/hydrogen stage. More...
  • Saturn C-5N American nuclear orbital launch vehicle. Version of Saturn C-5 considered with small nuclear thermal stage in place of S-IVB oxygen/hydrogen stage. More...
  • Nova 8L American heavy-lift orbital launch vehicle. Most capable NASA Nova design, studied in June 1960 just prior to selection of Saturn for moon landing. Used a three stage configuration of eight F-1 engines in stage 1, two M-1 engines in stage 2, and one J-2 engine in stage 3. Similar to the Saturn C-8 except in the use of M-1 engines. Unlike other modular Nova designs of the time, this one had the unitary stage construction of Saturn. More...
  • Saturn C-8 American orbital launch vehicle. The largest member of the Saturn family ever contemplated. Designed for direct landing of Apollo command module on moon. Configuration used eight F-1 engines in the first stage, eight J-2 engines in the second stage, and one J-2 engine in the third stage. Distinguishable from Nova 8L in use of J-2 engines instead of M-1 engines in second stage. More...
  • Saturn MLV-V-4(S) American orbital launch vehicle. MSFC study, 1965. Saturn V core, strengthened but not stretched, with 4 Titan UA1205 strap-on solid rocket boosters. More...
  • Saturn MLV-V-1A American orbital launch vehicle. MSFC study, 1965. Saturn IC stretched 240 inches with 5.6 million pounds propellant and 6 F-1 engines; S-II stretched 156 inches with 1.2 million pounds propellant and 7 J-2 engines; S-IVB stretched 198 inches with 350,000 lbs propellant, 1 J-2 engine. More...
  • Saturn MLV-V-4(S)-A American orbital launch vehicle. MSFC study, 1965. 4 Titan UA1205 solid rocket boosters; Saturn IC stretched 337 inches with 6.0 million pounds propellant and 5 F-1 engines; S-II with 970,000 pounds propellant and 5 J-2 engines; S-IVB strengthened but with standard 230,000 lbs propellant, 1 J-2 engine. More...
  • Saturn INT-20 American orbital launch vehicle. Saturn variant consisting of S-IC first stage and S-IVB second stage. Consideration was given to deleting one or more of the F-1 engines in the first stage. More...
  • Saturn INT-21 American orbital launch vehicle. Saturn variant consisting of S-IC first stage and S-II second stage. This essentially flew once to launch Skylab in 1972, although the IU was located atop the Skylab space station (converted S-IVB stage) rather than atop the S-II as in the INT-21 design. More...
  • Saturn MLV-V-4(S)-B American orbital launch vehicle. Boeing study, 1967. Configuration of improved Saturn 5 with Titan UA1207 120 inch solid rocket boosters. Saturn IC stretched 336 inches with 6.0 million pounds propellant and 5 F-1 engines; Saturn II and Saturn IVB stages strengthened but not stretched. Empty mass of stages increased by 13.9% (S-IC), 8.6% (S-II) and 11.8% (S-IVB). Studied again by Boeing in 1967 as Saturn V-4(S)B. More...
  • Jarvis American orbital launch vehicle. Launch vehicle planned for Pacific launch based on Saturn V engines, tooling. Masses, payload estimated. More...

Associated Manufacturers and Agencies
Associated Propellants
  • Lox/Kerosene Liquid oxygen was the earliest, cheapest, safest, and eventually the preferred oxidiser for large space launchers. Its main drawback is that it is moderately cryogenic, and therefore not suitable for military uses where storage of the fuelled missile and quick launch are required. In January 1953 Rocketdyne commenced the REAP program to develop a number of improvements to the engines being developed for the Navaho and Atlas missiles. Among these was development of a special grade of kerosene suitable for rocket engines. Prior to that any number of rocket propellants derived from petroleum had been used. Goddard had begun with gasoline, and there were experimental engines powered by kerosene, diesel oil, paint thinner, or jet fuel kerosene JP-4 or JP-5. The wide variance in physical properties among fuels of the same class led to the identification of narrow-range petroleum fractions, embodied in 1954 in the standard US kerosene rocket fuel RP-1, covered by Military Specification MIL-R-25576. In Russia, similar specifications were developed for kerosene under the specifications T-1 and RG-1. The Russians also developed a compound of unknown formulation in the 1980's known as 'Sintin', or synthetic kerosene. More...

Bibliography
  • Kudryavtseva, V M, ed., Zhidkostnikh Raketnikh Dvigatley, Visshaya Shkola, Moscow, 1993.

Associated Stages
  • Jarvis-1 Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 950,000/60,000 kg. Thrust 15,481.26 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 304 seconds. More...
  • Nova B-1 Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 1,995,000/100,000 kg. Thrust 45,914.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 304 seconds. More...
  • Nova NASA-1 Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 2,268,000/113,000 kg. Thrust 45,914.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 296 seconds. More...
  • Nova A-1 Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 1,342,000/73,000 kg. Thrust 30,616.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 304 seconds. More...
  • Nova 9L-2 Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 1,814,000/125,000 kg. Thrust 30,243.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 304 seconds. Masses estimated based on total vehicle thrust, performance, and stage volumes. More...
  • Nova 9L-1 Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 2,721,000/181,000 kg. Thrust 68,048.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 304 seconds. Masses estimated based on total vehicle thrust, performance, and stage volumes. More...
  • Nova 60-8-1 Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 3,628,000/227,000 kg. Thrust 61,928.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 304 seconds. Mass estimated based on total LV weight. More...
  • Nova 59-4-2 Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 590,000/45,000 kg. Thrust 7,560.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 310 seconds. Empty Mass Estimated More...
  • Nova 59-4-1 Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 2,177,000/136,000 kg. Thrust 38,697.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 295 seconds. Empty Mass Estimated More...
  • Nova 2 F-1 Module Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 1,134,000/77,000 kg. Thrust 15,121.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 304 seconds. Short Nova building block. Four used in stage 1, one in stage 2. More...
  • Nova NASA-2 Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 499,000/35,000 kg. Thrust 7,640.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 304 seconds. More...
  • Saturn MS-IC-23(L) Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 2,694,000/169,000 kg. Thrust 38,703.16 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 304 seconds. Basic Saturn IC stretched 240 inches with standard F-1 engines. More...
  • Saturn S-ID Sustainer Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 2,219,100/68,100 kg. Thrust 7,740.30 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 304 seconds. Boeing studies, 1967:'Stage and a half' S-1C with four outboard F-1's jettisoned and inboard F-1 functioning as sustainer as in Atlas. Booster half stage burns 124 seconds in this configuration. More...
  • Saturn S-ID Booster Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 67,100/67,100 kg. Thrust 30,962.50 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 304 seconds. Boeing studies, 1967:'Stage and a half' S-1C with four outboard F-1's jettisoned and inboard F-1 functioning as sustainer as in Atlas. Booster half stage recoverable. Mass estimated based on double mass of four F-1's (based on Atlas example). More...
  • Saturn S-IC-TLB Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 952,500/68,000 kg. Thrust 15,532.70 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 304 seconds. Boeing Low-Cost Saturn Derivative Study, 1967 (trade study of 260 inch first stages for S-IVB, all delivering 86,000 lb pyld to LEO): S-IC Technology Liquid Booster: 260 inch liquid booster with 2 x F-1 engines, recoverable/reusable More...
  • Saturn S-IC-8 Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 3,627,500/181,400 kg. Thrust 61,925.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 304 seconds. More...
  • Saturn S-IB-4 Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 1,813,729/108,823 kg. Thrust 30,962.53 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 304 seconds. More...
  • Saturn S-IB-2 Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 725,491/68,014 kg. Thrust 13,339.96 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 304 seconds. More...
  • Saturn S-ID Sustainer-1 Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 2,627,600/84,400 kg. Thrust 7,740.30 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 304 seconds. Boeing studies, 1967:'Stage and a half' S-1C with four outboard F-1's jettisoned and inboard F-1 functioning as sustainer as in Atlas; 20 foot stretch of sustainer stage. Booster stage burn 154 seconds in this configuration. More...
  • Saturn MS-IC-4(S)B Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 2,875,500/154,000 kg. Thrust 38,717.60 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 304 seconds. S-IC with 336 inch stretch, 6,000,0000 lbs propellant, structural strength increased from 56% to 65% depending on station, resulting in 13.9% increase in empty weight. More...
  • Saturn MS-IC/260 Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 2,721,600/181,400 kg. Thrust 38,717.60 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 304 seconds. Standard length S-IC but with feed of propellant from fuel and propellant tanks housed above strap-on solid rocket motors More...
  • Saturn MLV 5-23L-0 Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 1,180,000/80,000 kg. Thrust 15,484.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 304 seconds. Liquid strap-on booster studied for improved Saturn V. More...
  • Saturn IC-Flat Bulkhead Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 2,278,800/127,000 kg. Thrust 38,717.60 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 304 seconds. Standard S-IC but with reduced length and structural weight through use of 'flat' bulkheads consisting of multiple conical sections. More...
  • Saturn IC C-5A Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 2,217,285/131,495 kg. Thrust 38,257.99 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 304 seconds. Final first stage design of Saturn C-5 (November 1961) before selection as Apollo launch vehicle and development in Saturn V. More...
  • Saturn IC C-4B Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 1,450,984/90,686 kg. Thrust 30,606.40 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 304 seconds. Final first stage design of Saturn C-3 (November 1961). Unique S-IC design in that fuel and propellant tank shared common bulkhead; stage was actually shorter than C-3B S-IC. More...
  • Saturn IC C-3B Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 1,160,787/72,549 kg. Thrust 22,954.80 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 304 seconds. Final first stage design of Saturn C-3 (November 1961). More...
  • Saturn IC Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 2,286,217/135,218 kg. Thrust 38,703.16 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 304 seconds. Configuration as flown. More...
  • Saturn MS-LRB-23(L) Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 874,100/18,100 kg. Thrust 15,486.60 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 304 seconds. Liquid rocket booster strap-ons using 2 F-1's. More...
  • Saturn MS-IC-1A Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 2,694,700/160,600 kg. Thrust 46,443.30 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 304 seconds. Basic Saturn IC stretched 240 inches with 6 F-1 engines. More...

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