Encyclopedia Astronautica

Polyarniy Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 1373 kN. R-3. Out of Production. Competing engine for 3000 km range IRBM design to study problems of long-range rockets. Developed from April 1947 until cancellation. Isp=288s.

Application: R-3.

AKA: R-3; D-2.
Status: Out of Production.
Thrust: 1,373.00 kN (308,662 lbf).
Specific impulse: 288 s.
Specific impulse sea level: 240 s.
Burn time: 124 s.
First Launch: 1947-51.

More... - Chronology...

Associated Countries
See also
Associated Launch Vehicles
  • R-3 Russian intermediate range ballistic missile. Development of the long-range R-3 missile was authorised at the same time as the V-2-derived R-1 and R-2 rockets in April 1947. Supplemental authorisation was contained in a government decree of 14 April 1948.The specification was an order of magnitude leap from the other vehicles - to deliver a 3 tonne atomic bomb to any point in Europe from Soviet territory - a required range of 3000 km. To achieve this objective innovative technology was needed in every area of the missile design. Korolev was again in direct competition with the design to the same specification of the captured Germans (Groettrup's G-4). More...

Associated Manufacturers and Agencies
  • Polyarniy Russian manufacturer of rocket engines. Polyarniy Design Bureau, Russia. More...

Associated Propellants
  • Lox/Kerosene Liquid oxygen was the earliest, cheapest, safest, and eventually the preferred oxidiser for large space launchers. Its main drawback is that it is moderately cryogenic, and therefore not suitable for military uses where storage of the fuelled missile and quick launch are required. In January 1953 Rocketdyne commenced the REAP program to develop a number of improvements to the engines being developed for the Navaho and Atlas missiles. Among these was development of a special grade of kerosene suitable for rocket engines. Prior to that any number of rocket propellants derived from petroleum had been used. Goddard had begun with gasoline, and there were experimental engines powered by kerosene, diesel oil, paint thinner, or jet fuel kerosene JP-4 or JP-5. The wide variance in physical properties among fuels of the same class led to the identification of narrow-range petroleum fractions, embodied in 1954 in the standard US kerosene rocket fuel RP-1, covered by Military Specification MIL-R-25576. In Russia, similar specifications were developed for kerosene under the specifications T-1 and RG-1. The Russians also developed a compound of unknown formulation in the 1980's known as 'Sintin', or synthetic kerosene. More...

  • Placard, Orevo Museum of MAI,
  • Vetrov, G S, S. P. Korolev i evo delo, Nauka, Moscow, 1998.

Associated Stages
  • R-3 Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 69,000/5,480 kg. Thrust 1,370.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 285 seconds. 3000 km range IRBM design to study problems of long-range rockets. Developed April 1947 to 1949 before cancellation. More...

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