European tether technology satellite. 2 launches, 1997.10.30 (YES) and 2007.09.14 (YES). Young Engineers Satellite sponsored by the European Space Tech.
Centre, Noordwijk, with several technology experiments. YES-2/Fotino conducted the space tether for re-entry experiment.
First Launch: 1997.10.30.
More... - Chronology...
Last Launch: 2007.09.14.
Number: 2 .
Ariane 5 The Ariane 5 was a completely new design, unrelated to the earlier Ariane 1 to 4. It consisted of a single-engine Lox/LH2 core stage flanked by two solid rocket boosters. Preparatory work began in 1984. Full scale development began in 1988 and cost $ 8 billion. The design was sized for the Hermes manned spaceplane, later cancelled. This resulted in the booster being a bit too large for the main commercial payload, geosynchronous communications satellites. As a result, development of an uprated version capable of launching two such satellites at a time was funded in 2000. More...
Soyuz The Russian Soyuz spacecraft has been the longest-lived, most adaptable, and most successful manned spacecraft design. In production for fifty years, more than 240 have been built and flown on a wide range of missions. The design will remain in use with the international space station well into the 21st century, providing the only manned access to the station after the retirement of the shuttle in 2011. More...
Associated Launch Vehicles
Soyuz Russian orbital launch vehicle. The world's first ICBM became the most often used and most reliable launch vehicle in history. The original core+four strap-on booster missile had a small third stage added to produce the Vostok launch vehicle, with a payload of 5 metric tons. Addition of a larger third stage produced the Voskhod/Soyuz vehicle, with a payload over 6 metric tons. Using this with a fourth stage, the resulting Molniya booster placed communications satellites and early lunar and planetary probes in higher energy trajectories. By the year 2000 over 1,628 had been launched with an unmatched success rate of 97.5% for production models. Improved models providing commercial launch services for international customers entered service in the new millenium, and a new launch pad at Kourou was to be inaugurated in 2009. It appeared that the R-7 could easily still be in service 70 years after its first launch. More...
Soyuz 11A511U Russian standardised man-rated orbital launch vehicle derived from the original R-7 ICBM of 1957. It has been launched in greater numbers than any orbital launch vehicle in history. Not coincidentally, it has been the most reliable as well. After over 40 years service in Russia, ESA built a new launch pad at Kourou which will keep it in service from three launch sites in three countries well into the mid-21st Century. More...
Ariane 5 French orbital launch vehicle. The Ariane 5 was a completely new design, unrelated to the earlier Ariane 1 to 4. It consisted of a single-engine Lox/LH2 core stage flanked by two solid rocket boosters. Preparatory work began in 1984. Full scale development began in 1988 and cost $ 8 billion. The design was sized for the Hermes manned spaceplane, later cancelled. This resulted in the booster being a bit too large for the main commercial payload, geosynchronous communications satellites. As a result, development of an uprated version capable of launching two such satellites at a time was funded in 2000. More...
Ariane 5G French orbital launch vehicle. Initial version of the Ariane 5, a bit too large for the main commercial geosynchronous communications satellite payloads. More...
Associated Manufacturers and Agencies
ESA European agency overseeing development of rockets and spacecraft. European Space Agency, Europe. More...
ESTEC Dutch manufacturer of spacecraft. European Space Tech. Centre, Noordwijk, Netherlands More...
McDowell, Jonathan, Jonathan's Space Home Page (launch records), Harvard University, 1997-present. Web Address when accessed: here.
McDowell, Jonathan, Jonathan's Space Report (Internet Newsletter), Harvard University, Weekly, 1989 to Present. Web Address when accessed: here.
Associated Launch Sites
Baikonur Russia's largest cosmodrome, the only one used for manned launches and with facilities for the larger Proton, N1, and Energia launch vehicles. The spaceport ended up on foreign soil after the break-up of Soviet Union. The official designations NIIP-5 and GIK-5 are used in official Soviet histories. It was also universally referred to as Tyuratam by both Soviet military staff and engineers, and the US intelligence agencies. Since the dissolution of the Soviet Union the Russian Federation has insisted on continued use of the old Soviet 'public' name of Baikonur. In its Kazakh (Kazak) version this is rendered Baykonur. More...
Kourou After the agreement with newly independent Algeria for France to evacuate their launch sites in that country, a location near Biscarosse was selected for French missile testing. However since only launches westwards across the Bay of Biscay could be made from this site, it was unsuitable for France's Diamant orbital launch vehicle. After reviewing 14 potential sites, a location in the South American French colony of Guiana was selected. This would allow over-water launches to a tremendous range of possible orbital inclinations -- from -100.5 deg to 1.5 deg. Being near the equator, it would provide the maximum assist from the earth's rotation for launches into equatorial orbits. The decision was formalized in April 1964 and in July 1966 ELDO chose the site for future launches of the Europa II launch vehicle. More...
1997 October 30 -
13:43 GMT - .
. Launch Complex
: Kourou ELA3
. LV Family
: Ariane 5
. Launch Vehicle
: Ariane 5G
. LV Configuration
: Ariane 5G V101 (502).
- YES - .
Payload: Young Engineers Satellite. Nation: Europe. Agency: ESA. Manufacturer: ESTEC. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft: YES. USAF Sat Cat: 25025 . COSPAR: 1997-066C. Apogee: 26,604 km (16,530 mi). Perigee: 558 km (346 mi). Inclination: 7.6000 deg. Period: 467.70 min. Summary: Young Engineers Satellite with several technology experiments. Ejected from MAQSAT-H/TEAMSAT..
2007 September 14 -
11:00 GMT - .
. Launch Complex
: Baikonur LC1
. LV Family
. Launch Vehicle
: Soyuz 11A511U
. LV Configuration
: Soyuz-U 098.
- YES-2 - .
Payload: Young Engineers Satellite. Mass: 5.00 kg (11.00 lb). Nation: Europe. Agency: ESA. Manufacturer: ESTEC. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft: YES. COSPAR: 2007-040x. YES-2/Fotino space tether for re-entry experiment. The YES-2 tether was deployed from the Nauka module at the front end of Foton at 04:47 on 25 September, and releaed at 07:20 after reaching only 8.5 km of the planned 30 km tether length. The 5 kg Fotino reentry capsule separated from the MASS data support system at the end of the tether at around 07:30. The idea was to toss the Fotino against the direction of orbital motion to push it into a lower orbit and re-entry without the need for a retrorocket. Unfortunately the final outcome of the experiment remained unknown.
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