Encyclopedia Astronautica
TOPO


American earth geodetic satellite. One launch, 1970.04.08. US Army topographic / geodesic satellite launched in 1970.

Gross mass: 18 kg (39 lb).
First Launch: 1970.04.08.
Number: 1 .

More... - Chronology...


Associated Countries
See also
  • Delta The Delta launch vehicle was America's longest-lived, most reliable, and lowest-cost space launch vehicle. Development began in 1955 and it continued in service in the 21st Century despite numerous candidate replacements. More...

Associated Launch Vehicles
  • Delta American orbital launch vehicle. The Delta launch vehicle was America's longest-lived, most reliable, and lowest-cost space launch vehicle. Delta began as Thor, a crash December 1955 program to produce an intermediate range ballistic missile using existing components, which flew thirteen months after go-ahead. Fifteen months after that, a space launch version flew, using an existing upper stage. The addition of solid rocket boosters allowed the Thor core and Able/Delta upper stages to be stretched. Costs were kept down by using first and second-stage rocket engines surplus to the Apollo program in the 1970's. Continuous introduction of new 'existing' technology over the years resulted in an incredible evolution - the payload into a geosynchronous transfer orbit increasing from 68 kg in 1962 to 3810 kg by 2002. Delta survived innumerable attempts to kill the program and replace it with 'more rationale' alternatives. By 2008 nearly 1,000 boosters had flown over a fifty-year career, and cancellation was again announced. More...

Associated Manufacturers and Agencies
  • US Army American agency overseeing development of spacecraft. US Army, USA. More...

Bibliography
  • McDowell, Jonathan, Jonathan's Space Home Page (launch records), Harvard University, 1997-present. Web Address when accessed: here.
  • JPL Mission and Spacecraft Library, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 1997. Web Address when accessed: here.
  • McDowell, Jonathan, Launch Log, October 1998. Web Address when accessed: here.

Associated Launch Sites
  • Vandenberg Vandenberg Air Force Base is located on the Central Coast of California about 240 km northwest of Los Angeles. It is used for launches of unmanned government and commercial satellites into polar orbit and intercontinental ballistic missile test launches toward the Kwajalein Atoll. More...
  • Vandenberg SLC2E Delta launch complex. Originally a Thor 75 SMS launch pad. Upgraded to a space launch complex in 1966. More...

TOPO Chronology


1970 April 8 - . 08:17 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC2E. LV Family: Delta. Launch Vehicle: Thorad Agena D SLV-2G. LV Configuration: Thorad SLV-2G Agena D 553 (TA13) / Agena D 6223 (T.
  • TOPO 1 - . Payload: Topo A. Mass: 18 kg (39 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: USA TOPO. Class: Earth. Type: Geodetic satellite. Spacecraft: TOPO. USAF Sat Cat: 4363 . COSPAR: 1970-025B. Apogee: 1,087 km (675 mi). Perigee: 1,084 km (673 mi). Inclination: 100.0000 deg. Period: 107.00 min. Summary: Spacecraft engaged in practical applications and uses of space technology such as weather or communication (US Cat C). .

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