Encyclopedia Astronautica
Star bus



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Starbus-C
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Starbus / N-Star
American communications satellite bus. Operational, first launch 1997.11.12 (Cakrawarta 1). The Orbital Star bus was designed for reliable and robust performance in a variety of LEO and GEO missions.

Orbital's turn-key approach included the GEO satellite, launch services, ground stations, user systems and business support. The STAR GEO platform was designed for a 15-year mission life. STAR GEO Payload options included: C-, Ku-, Ka-, S-, Hybrid-band frequencies; payload power from 500 to 4,500 W; up to 42 transponders; shaped beams or spots with up to two deployable and one deck-mounted antenna systems.

Orbital's Star 1 bus and had a launch mass of 1298 kg. It carried a Thiokol Star 30 solid apogee motor and a set of station-keeping thrusters with 200 kg of propellant. The improved Star 2 satellite bus had a dry mass around 800 kg . It used an Orbital hydrazine/nitrogen tetroxide liquid apogee propulsion system with a 500N thrust apogee engine developed by Japan's IHI.

The Orbital Star bus was a flight-proven design that could deliver reliable and robust performance for a variety of LEO and GEO missions. Orbital's turn-key approach included the GEO satellite, launch services, ground stations, user systems and business support. The STAR GEO platform was designed for a 15-year mission life. STAR GEO Payload options included: C-, Ku-, Ka-, S-, Hybrid-band frequencies; payload power from 500 to 4,500 W; up to 42 transponders; shaped beams or spots with up to two deployable and one deck-mounted antenna systems.

A new era for Orbital began in November 1997 when its first GEO satellite, IndoStar-1, was launched aboard an Ariane 4 rocket from Kourou, French Guiana. Orbital built the IndoStar-1 satellite for Media Citra Indovision to deliver the first direct-to-home (DTH) satellite television to Indonesia, the world's fourth most populous county.

IndoStar-1 was the world's first commercial communications satellite to use S-band frequencies, which efficiently penetrated the atmosphere and provided high-quality transmissions to small-diameter antennas in regions that experience heavy rainfall such as Indonesia. Similar performance was not economically feasible with comparable Ku- or C-band DTH satellite systems since more power was required in these bands to penetrate the moist atmosphere.

Under the $175 million contract, Orbital served as the prime contractor for the turn-key system, including the space, ground and user segments. Specifically, Orbital provided:

  • The complete INDOVISION satellite television broadcasting system, including total system engineering
  • Coordination of activities for the Ariane 4 launch
  • The ground station for spacecraft telemetry, tracking, control and monitoring
  • Design and engineering management of the integrated receiver and decoder units
  • Subscriber management and conditional access security systems
  • Complete program risk management, system operations and maintenance
  • Customer: Media Citra Indovision (MCI) - Jakarta, Indonesia
  • Mission: Provide direct broadcast television to Indonesia (high quality digital transmission, approximately 40 TV channels)
  • Performance: Launch mass - 1,350 kg
  • Mission life - 12 years
  • Status: Satellite was launched via Ariane (V102) in November 1997

In early 2001, Orbital firmly established itself as a major U.S. GEO satellite supplier with a contract from PanAmSat Corporation, which owned and operated one of the world's largest private fleets of commercial GEO communications satellites. Orbital was selected to supply one C-band GEO satellite designated Galaxy XII to be located at 72 W longitude. In late 2001 PanAmSat exercised an option for two additional C-band spacecraft. The satellites were to distribute entertainment and information to cable television systems, TV broadcast affiliates, direct-to-home TV operators, Internet service providers, telecommunications companies and corporations.

Characteristics of this version of the Star bus were:

  • Customer: PanAmSat Corporation - Greenwich, Connecticut
  • Mission: C-band communications for CONUS, Alaska and Hawaii
  • Performance: Repeater - two groups of 16:12 linearized traveling wave tube assemblies (TWTAs)
  • Transponder Power - 37 watts RF at saturation at EOL
  • Stabilization - 3-axis, zero momentum
  • Launch mass - 1,760 kg
  • Mission life - 15 years (>15 years of fuel)
  • Status: Galaxy XII launch expected in early 2003.

First Launch: 1997.11.12.
Last Launch: 2011.10.05.
Number: 26 .

More... - Chronology...


Associated Countries
See also
  • Ariane First successful European commercial launch vehicle, developed from L3S Europa launch vehicle replacement design. Development of the Ariane 1 was authorised in July 1973, took eight years, and cost 2 billion 1986 Euros. More...
  • Ariane 5 The Ariane 5 was a completely new design, unrelated to the earlier Ariane 1 to 4. It consisted of a single-engine Lox/LH2 core stage flanked by two solid rocket boosters. Preparatory work began in 1984. Full scale development began in 1988 and cost $ 8 billion. The design was sized for the Hermes manned spaceplane, later cancelled. This resulted in the booster being a bit too large for the main commercial payload, geosynchronous communications satellites. As a result, development of an uprated version capable of launching two such satellites at a time was funded in 2000. More...
  • Proton The Proton launch vehicle has been the medium-lift workhorse of the Soviet and Russian space programs for over forty years. Although constantly criticized within Russia for its use of toxic and ecologically-damaging storable liquid propellants, it has out-lasted all challengers, and no replacement is in sight. More...
  • Soyuz The Russian Soyuz spacecraft has been the longest-lived, most adaptable, and most successful manned spacecraft design. In production for fifty years, more than 240 have been built and flown on a wide range of missions. The design will remain in use with the international space station well into the 21st century, providing the only manned access to the station after the retirement of the shuttle in 2011. More...
  • Zenit Zenit was to be a modular new generation medium Soviet launch vehicle, replacing the various ICBM-derived launch vehicles in use since the 1960's (Tsiklon and Soyuz). A version of the first stage was used as strap-ons for the cancelled Energia heavy booster. But it was built by Yuzhnoye in the Ukraine; when the Soviet Union broke up planned large-scale production for the Soviet military was abandoned (Angara development was begun as an indigenous alternative). Launch pads were completed only at Baikonur; those at Plesetsk were never finished and are planned to be completed as Angara pads. However the vehicle found new life as a commercial launch vehicle, launched from a sea platform by an American/Ukrainian consortium. More...

Associated Launch Vehicles
  • Soyuz Russian orbital launch vehicle. The world's first ICBM became the most often used and most reliable launch vehicle in history. The original core+four strap-on booster missile had a small third stage added to produce the Vostok launch vehicle, with a payload of 5 metric tons. Addition of a larger third stage produced the Voskhod/Soyuz vehicle, with a payload over 6 metric tons. Using this with a fourth stage, the resulting Molniya booster placed communications satellites and early lunar and planetary probes in higher energy trajectories. By the year 2000 over 1,628 had been launched with an unmatched success rate of 97.5% for production models. Improved models providing commercial launch services for international customers entered service in the new millenium, and a new launch pad at Kourou was to be inaugurated in 2009. It appeared that the R-7 could easily still be in service 70 years after its first launch. More...
  • Proton The Proton launch vehicle has been the medium-lift workhorse of the Soviet and Russian space programs for over forty years. Although constantly criticized within Russia for its use of toxic and ecologically-damaging storable liquid propellants, it has out-lasted all challengers, and no replacement is in sight. Development of the Proton began in 1962 as a two-stage vehicle that could be used to launch large military payloads or act as a ballistic missile with a 100 megaton nuclear warhead. The ICBM was cancelled in 1965, but development of a three-stage version for the crash program to send a Soviet man around the moon began in 1964. The hurried development caused severe reliability problems in early production. But these were eventually solved, and from the 1970's the Proton was used to launch all Russian space stations, medium- and geosynchronous orbit satellites, and lunar and planetary probes. More...
  • Ariane French orbital launch vehicle. First successful European commercial launch vehicle, developed from L3S Europa launch vehicle replacement design. Development of the Ariane 1 was authorised in July 1973, took eight years, and cost 2 billion 1986 Euros. More...
  • Ariane 44L French orbital launch vehicle. Ariane 4 with 4 liquid rocket strap-ons. More...
  • Ariane 5G French orbital launch vehicle. Initial version of the Ariane 5, a bit too large for the main commercial geosynchronous communications satellite payloads. More...
  • Ariane 5 French orbital launch vehicle. The Ariane 5 was a completely new design, unrelated to the earlier Ariane 1 to 4. It consisted of a single-engine Lox/LH2 core stage flanked by two solid rocket boosters. Preparatory work began in 1984. Full scale development began in 1988 and cost $ 8 billion. The design was sized for the Hermes manned spaceplane, later cancelled. This resulted in the booster being a bit too large for the main commercial payload, geosynchronous communications satellites. As a result, development of an uprated version capable of launching two such satellites at a time was funded in 2000. More...
  • Proton/Briz M Improved Proton orbital launch vehicle. Improvements in lower stages to reduce structural mass, increase thrust, and fully utilize propellants (reducing release of toxic chemicals in stage impact areas). Briz M storable propellant upper stage replaces Block D cyrogenic stage. More...
  • Proton/Briz M Improved Proton orbital launch vehicle. Improvements in lower stages to reduce structural mass, increase thrust, and fully utilize propellants (reducing release of toxic chemicals in stage impact areas). Briz M storable propellant upper stage replaces Block D cyrogenic stage. More...
  • Soyuz FG Uprated Soyuz booster designed for high performance Russian government missions and delivery of Soyuz and Progress spacecraft to the International Space Station. Upgraded engines, modern avionics, reduced non-Russian content. Unknown differences to Soyuz ST. More...
  • Ariane 5ECA French orbital launch vehicle, first version of the evolved Ariane 5. The solid booster motors propellant load was increased by 2.43 tonnes and the case was welded, for a weight saving in dry mass of 1.9 tonnes. The core was powered by an improved Vulcain 2 engine. The oxygen-rich cycle of the engine allowed the oxygen bulkhead to be moved within the stage, resulting in a 15.2 tonne increase in propellant in the core. A new Lox/LH2 upper stage, using the HM7B engine and oxygen tank from the Ariane 4 series, replaced the storable propellant EPS stage of earlier models. The result was an increase in payload to geoscynchronous transfer orbit from 6 tonnes to 10.5 tonnes. More...
  • Zenit-3SLB Ukrainian orbital launch vehicle. Version of the Zenit-3SL modified for launch from existing ground facilities at Baikonur, using the common Zenit-2SB core vehicle with an upper stage Block DM-SLB designed by RSC Energia (Russia) and a new payload fairing designed by NPO Lavochkin (Russia). More...

Associated Manufacturers and Agencies
  • OSC American manufacturer of rockets, spacecraft, and rocket engines. Orbital Sciences Corporation, USA. More...
  • Indostar Indonesian agency overseeing development of spacecraft. PT Media Citra Indostar, Jakarta, Indonesia. More...

Associated Programs
  • Intelsat Intelsat operated the world's first commercial communications satellite. It has provided the scheduled transoceanic television and voice and data communications service ever since. More...

Bibliography
  • McDowell, Jonathan, Jonathan's Space Home Page (launch records), Harvard University, 1997-present. Web Address when accessed: here.
  • McDowell, Jonathan, Jonathan's Space Report (Internet Newsletter), Harvard University, Weekly, 1989 to Present. Web Address when accessed: here.
  • National Space Science Center Planetary Page, As of 19 February 1999.. Web Address when accessed: here.
  • NASA/GSFC Orbital Information Group Website, Web Address when accessed: here.
  • Space-Launcher.com, Orbital Report News Agency. Web Address when accessed: here.

Associated Launch Sites
  • Baikonur Russia's largest cosmodrome, the only one used for manned launches and with facilities for the larger Proton, N1, and Energia launch vehicles. The spaceport ended up on foreign soil after the break-up of Soviet Union. The official designations NIIP-5 and GIK-5 are used in official Soviet histories. It was also universally referred to as Tyuratam by both Soviet military staff and engineers, and the US intelligence agencies. Since the dissolution of the Soviet Union the Russian Federation has insisted on continued use of the old Soviet 'public' name of Baikonur. In its Kazakh (Kazak) version this is rendered Baykonur. More...
  • Kourou After the agreement with newly independent Algeria for France to evacuate their launch sites in that country, a location near Biscarosse was selected for French missile testing. However since only launches westwards across the Bay of Biscay could be made from this site, it was unsuitable for France's Diamant orbital launch vehicle. After reviewing 14 potential sites, a location in the South American French colony of Guiana was selected. This would allow over-water launches to a tremendous range of possible orbital inclinations -- from -100.5 deg to 1.5 deg. Being near the equator, it would provide the maximum assist from the earth's rotation for launches into equatorial orbits. The decision was formalized in April 1964 and in July 1966 ELDO chose the site for future launches of the Europa II launch vehicle. More...

Star bus Chronology


1997 November 12 - . 21:48 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA2. LV Family: Ariane. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 44L. LV Configuration: Ariane 44L V102.
  • Cakrawarta 1 - . Payload: Indostar 1. Nation: Indonesia. Agency: Indostar. Manufacturer: McLean. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Star bus. USAF Sat Cat: 25050 . COSPAR: 1997-071B. Apogee: 35,812 km (22,252 mi). Perigee: 35,761 km (22,220 mi). Inclination: 0.1000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min. Summary: Geosynchronous. Stationed over 100.6E Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 107 deg E in 1997-1999 As of 4 September 2001 located at 107.71 deg E drifting at 0.006 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 11 located at 107.62E drifting at 0.005W degrees per day..

2001 March 8 - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA3. LV Family: Ariane 5. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 5G. LV Configuration: Ariane 5G V140 509.
  • BSAT-2a - . Mass: 3,050 kg (6,720 lb). Nation: Japan. Agency: BSAT. Manufacturer: Cannes. Program: BSAT. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Star bus. USAF Sat Cat: 26720 . COSPAR: 2001-011B. Apogee: 35,807 km (22,249 mi). Perigee: 35,764 km (22,222 mi). Inclination: 0.1000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min. BSAT-2a was a Japanese geosynchronous communications spacecraft and the second Orbital STAR-class television broadcasting satellite. Its launch mass was 1317 kg; dry mass was 535 kg. The satellite had a Thiokol Star 30CBP solid apogee motor. The new BSTAR STAR-class satellites are a new design replacing the earlier Starbus type satellite of which only one (Cakrawarta 1) was launched. BSAT Corp. (Broadcasting Satellite System Corp.) earlier launched HS-376 satellites BSAT 1a and 1b, replacing the government's BS series which began Japanese direct broadcast services in 1978. The satellite was to be parked over 110 deg-E longitude to provide direct-to-home voice, video and internet communications. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 110 deg E in 2001 As of 5 September 2001 located at 109.82 deg E drifting at 0.018 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 11 located at 109.92E drifting at 0.009W degrees per day.

2001 July 12 - . 21:58 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA3. LV Family: Ariane 5. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 5G. LV Configuration: Ariane 5G V142 510.
  • BSAT-2b - . Mass: 3,105 kg (6,845 lb). Nation: Japan. Agency: BSAT. Manufacturer: Alenia. Program: BSAT. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Star bus. USAF Sat Cat: 26864 . COSPAR: 2001-029B. Apogee: 17,400 km (10,800 mi). Perigee: 659 km (409 mi). Inclination: 2.9000 deg. Period: 317.20 min. BSAT-2b was planned as a geosynchronous television broadcast satellite for the Japanese B-SAT company. It used Orbital's Star 1 bus and had a launch mass of 1298 kg. It carried a Thiokol Star 30 solid apogee motor and a set of station-keeping thrusters with 200 kg of propellant. A propulsion problem in the final stage of rocket stranded the satellite at a much lower altitude than planned. Since BSAT 2B carried only a soild propellant apogee kick motor, it was unable to maneuver itself to a useful orbit.

2002 July 5 - . 23:22 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA3. LV Family: Ariane 5. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 5G. LV Configuration: Ariane 5G s/n V153 "Ville de Charleroi".
  • NStar c - . Mass: 4,050 kg (8,920 lb). Nation: Japan. Agency: Stellat. Manufacturer: Cannes. Program: N-STAR. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Star bus. USAF Sat Cat: 27461 . COSPAR: 2002-035B. Apogee: 35,801 km (22,245 mi). Perigee: 35,772 km (22,227 mi). Inclination: 0.0000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min. Launch delayed from late June. The N-Star c satellite was an S-band satellite for mobile telephone communications for NTT DoCoMo of Japan. N-Star c had a communications payload built by Lockheed Martin and used the Star 2 bus from Orbital. The small Star 2 satellite had a dry mass around 800 kg and was the first flight of a new Orbital hydrazine/nitrogen tetroxide liquid apogee propulsion system with a 500N thrust apogee engine developed by Japan's IHI. As of 2007 Mar 9 located at 135.92E drifting at 0.012W degrees per day.

2003 April 9 - . 22:52 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA3. LV Family: Ariane 5. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 5G. LV Configuration: Ariane 5G V160 Ville de Bordeaux-Cita diColleferro.
  • Galaxy 12 - . Mass: 1,792 kg (3,950 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: PanAmSat. Manufacturer: OSC. Program: Galaxy. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Star bus. USAF Sat Cat: 27715 . COSPAR: 2003-013B. Apogee: 35,791 km (22,239 mi). Perigee: 35,784 km (22,235 mi). Inclination: 0.1000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min. Summary: As of 2007 Mar 11 located at 125.09W drifting at 0.001W degrees per day..

2003 June 11 - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA3. LV Family: Ariane 5. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 5G. LV Configuration: Ariane 5G V161.
  • BSAT-2c - . Payload: Star 1. Mass: 1,298 kg (2,861 lb). Nation: Japan. Agency: BSAT. Manufacturer: OSC. Program: BSAT. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Star bus. USAF Sat Cat: 27831 . COSPAR: 2003-028B. Apogee: 35,802 km (22,246 mi). Perigee: 35,771 km (22,227 mi). Inclination: 0.0000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min. Summary: As of 2007 Mar 9 located at 155.98E drifting at 0.008W degrees per day..

2005 August 13 - . 23:28 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz FG. LV Configuration: Soyuz-FG Zh15000-011 / Fregat ST-13 sn 007.
  • Galaxy 14 - . Mass: 2,087 kg (4,601 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: PanAmSat. Manufacturer: OSC. Program: Galaxy. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Star bus. USAF Sat Cat: 28790 . COSPAR: 2005-030A. Apogee: 35,790 km (22,230 mi). Perigee: 35,782 km (22,233 mi). Inclination: 0.0000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min. Summary: Payload swapped from Ariane 5. Launch delayed from December 2004; February 25, March 16 and 25, April 25, June 17, July 10 and 28, August 1, 6 and 12, 2005. As of 2007 Mar 9 located at 125.05W drifting at 0.008W degrees per day..

2005 October 13 - . 22:32 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA3. LV Family: Ariane 5. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 5GS. LV Configuration: Ariane 5GS V168 (524).
  • Galaxy 15 - . Mass: 2,033 kg (4,481 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: PanAmSat. Manufacturer: OSC. Program: Galaxy. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Star bus. USAF Sat Cat: 28884 . COSPAR: 2005-041A. Apogee: 35,796 km (22,242 mi). Perigee: 35,776 km (22,230 mi). Inclination: 0.1000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min. Summary: Slated to provide satellite television services to the United States market. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 132.99W drifting at 0.009W degrees per day..

2005 November 16 - . 23:46 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA3. LV Family: Ariane 5. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 5ECA. LV Configuration: Ariane 5ECA V167 (522).
  • Telkom 2 - . Mass: 1,975 kg (4,354 lb). Nation: Indonesia. Agency: PT Telkom. Program: Palapa. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Star bus. USAF Sat Cat: 28902 . COSPAR: 2005-046A. Apogee: 35,794 km (22,241 mi). Perigee: 35,781 km (22,233 mi). Inclination: 0.1000 deg. Period: 1,436.20 min. Summary: Satellite's launch delayed from April 14, May 31, October 27, November 10 and 12, 2005, for technical problems. As of 2007 Mar 11 located at 118.00E drifting at 0.013W degrees per day..

2006 October 13 - . 20:56 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA3. LV Family: Ariane 5. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 5ECA. LV Configuration: Ariane 5ECA V173 (533).
  • Optus D1 - . Payload: Star-2. Nation: Australia. Agency: Optus. Manufacturer: OSC. Program: Aussat. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Star bus. USAF Sat Cat: 29495 . COSPAR: 2006-043B. Apogee: 35,797 km (22,243 mi). Perigee: 35,775 km (22,229 mi). Inclination: 0.0400 deg. Period: 1,436.09 min. Summary: Direct television broadcast to the Australian market. As of 2007 Mar 7 located at 159.99E drifting at 0.005W degrees per day..

2007 October 5 - . 22:02 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA3. LV Family: Ariane 5. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 5GS. LV Configuration: Ariane 5GS V178 (526).
  • Optus D-2 - . Mass: 2,400 kg (5,200 lb). Nation: Australia. Agency: Optus. Manufacturer: OSC. Program: Aussat. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Star bus. USAF Sat Cat: 32252 . COSPAR: 2007-044A. Apogee: 35,889 km (22,300 mi). Perigee: 35,862 km (22,283 mi). Inclination: 0.0000 deg. Period: 1,440.70 min. Ku-band satellite designed to deliver television, internet, communications, and data services to Australia and New Zealand. After deployment of the two satellites, the EPS third stage made a brief burn at 23:28 GMT to make the first in-flight test the Aestus engine's restart capability. This was to be used in 2008 in the first launch of the ATV ISS resupply spacecraft.
  • Intelsat IS-11 - . Mass: 2,400 kg (5,200 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: Intelsat. Manufacturer: OSC. Program: Intelsat. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Star bus. USAF Sat Cat: 32253 . COSPAR: 2007-044B. Apogee: 35,797 km (22,243 mi). Perigee: 35,778 km (22,231 mi). Inclination: 0.1000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min. Summary: C and Ku-band satellite designed to provide Atlantic region communications services..

2007 December 21 - . 21:41 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA3. LV Family: Ariane 5. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 5GS. LV Configuration: Ariane 5GS V180 (530).
  • Horizons 2 - . Payload: Star-2. Mass: 2,350 kg (5,180 lb). Nation: Bermuda. Agency: Intelsat; JSAT. Manufacturer: OSC. Program: Horizons. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Star bus. USAF Sat Cat: 32388 . COSPAR: 2007-063D. Apogee: 35,816 km (22,254 mi). Perigee: 35,815 km (22,254 mi). Inclination: 0.0000 deg. Period: 1,437.50 min. Launched by Horizons Satellite Holdings LLC, a joint venture of Intelsat and the Japanese JSAT company. To be placed at 74 deg W to serve United States, eastern Canada, and the Caribbean with communication services using its 16-transmitter Ku-band communications payload.

2008 February 11 - . 11:34 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton/Briz M.
  • Thor 5 - . Mass: 1,940 kg (4,270 lb). Nation: Norway. Agency: ILS. Program: Thor Comsat. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Star bus. USAF Sat Cat: 32487 . COSPAR: 2008-006A. Apogee: 35,796 km (22,242 mi). Perigee: 35,777 km (22,230 mi). Inclination: 0.1000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min. Summary: Ku-band light geostationary satellite operated by Telenor Satellite Broadcasting..

2008 August 14 - . 20:44 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA3. LV Family: Ariane 5. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 5ECA.
  • AMC 21 - . Mass: 2,500 kg (5,500 lb). Nation: France. Agency: Arianespace. Program: Americom. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Star bus. USAF Sat Cat: 33277 . COSPAR: 2008-038D. Apogee: 35,677 km (22,168 mi). Perigee: 276 km (171 mi). Inclination: 2.1000 deg. Period: 630.40 min. Summary: Ku-band satellite for SES Americom's North American services, using an Orbital Star 2 bus and a Thales Alenia communications payload..

2009 February 11 - . 22:09 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA3. LV Family: Ariane 5. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 5ECA.
  • NSS 9 - . Mass: 2,400 kg (5,200 lb). Nation: Netherlands. Agency: Arianespace. Program: Intelsat. Spacecraft: Star bus. USAF Sat Cat: 33749 . COSPAR: 2009-008A. Apogee: 35,793 km (22,240 mi). Perigee: 35,780 km (22,230 mi). Inclination: 0.0000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min.

2009 June 21 - . 21:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC45/1. LV Family: Zenit. Launch Vehicle: Zenit-3SLB. LV Configuration: Zenit-3SLB s/n LL3.
  • Measat 3A - . Mass: 2,370 kg (5,220 lb). Nation: Malaysia. Agency: SIS. Program: Measat. Spacecraft: Star bus. USAF Sat Cat: 35362 . COSPAR: 2009-032A. Apogee: 35,788 km (22,237 mi). Perigee: 35,784 km (22,235 mi). Inclination: 0.1000 deg. Period: 1,436.00 min.

2009 August 21 - . 22:09 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA3. LV Family: Ariane 5. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 5ECA.
  • Optus D3 - . Payload: Star-2.4. Nation: France. Agency: Arianespace. Program: Aussat. Class: Communications. Type: Communications satellite. Spacecraft: Star bus. USAF Sat Cat: 35756 . COSPAR: 2009-044B. Apogee: 35,800 km (22,200 mi). Perigee: 35,773 km (22,228 mi). Inclination: 0.0000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min.

2009 November 30 - . 21:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: Zenit. Launch Vehicle: Zenit-3SLB. LV Configuration: Zenit-3SLB s/n LL4.
  • Intelsat IS-15 - . Payload: Star-2. Mass: 2,484 kg (5,476 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: SIS. Program: Intelsat. Spacecraft: Star bus. USAF Sat Cat: 36106 . COSPAR: 2009-067A. Apogee: 35,789 km (22,238 mi). Perigee: 35,785 km (22,235 mi). Inclination: 0.1000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min. Summary: Communications satellite, providing services to Russia, the Middle East and the Indian Ocean area..

2010 February 12 - . 00:39 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/39. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton/Briz M. LV Configuration: Proton/Briz M s/n P353.
  • Intelsat 16 - . Payload: Intelsat IS-16 Star-2.4. Mass: 2,060 kg (4,540 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: ILS. Program: Intelsat. Spacecraft: Star bus. USAF Sat Cat: 36397 . COSPAR: 2010-006A. Apogee: 35,797 km (22,243 mi). Perigee: 35,777 km (22,230 mi). Inclination: 0.0000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min. Summary: Ku-band satellite providing backup for Sky Latin America service..

2010 April 24 - . 11:19 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton/Briz M. LV Configuration: Proton/Briz M s/n P356.
  • SES 1 - . Payload: Star-2.4. Mass: 2,560 kg (5,640 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: ILS. Class: Communications. Type: Communications satellite. Spacecraft: Star bus. USAF Sat Cat: 36516 . COSPAR: 2010-016A. Apogee: 35,793 km (22,240 mi). Perigee: 35,780 km (22,230 mi). Inclination: 0.0000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min. Summary: Communications satellite. Replaced AMC-2 and AMC-4 with Ku and C band services to the United States from 101 deg W..

2010 December 29 - . 21:27 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA3. LV Family: Ariane 5. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 5ECA. LV Configuration: Ariane 5ECA s/n V199.
  • Koreasat 6 - . Payload: Star-2. Mass: 2,850 kg (6,280 lb). Nation: Korea South. Program: Koreasat. Class: Communications. Type: Communications satellite. Spacecraft: Star bus. USAF Sat Cat: 37265 . COSPAR: 2010-070B. Apogee: 35,827 km (22,261 mi). Perigee: 35,783 km (22,234 mi). Inclination: 0.0000 deg. Period: 1,437.00 min. Summary: Ku band communications; 2850 kg loaded / 1150 kg unfuelled..

2011 April 22 - . 21:37 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA3. LV Family: Ariane 5. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 5ECA.
  • Intelsat New Dawn - . Nation: USA. Program: Intelsat. Class: Communications. Type: Communications satellite. Spacecraft: Star bus. USAF Sat Cat: 37392 . COSPAR: 2011-016A. Apogee: 35,786 km (22,236 mi). Perigee: 35,782 km (22,233 mi). Inclination: 0.1000 deg. Period: 1,436.00 min. Communications satellite with C/Ku hybrid payload, and, to have been stationed at 32.8 deg E for coverage of Africa. New Dawn Satellite Co. Ltd. was a joint venture of Intelsat and Convergence Partners, Johannesburg, South Africa. Couldn't deploy its C-band antenna, although the Ku-band deployed and was functional.

2011 July 15 - . 23:16 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/39. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton/Briz M. LV Configuration: Proton-M/Briz-M.
  • SES 3 - . Payload: Orbital Star-2.4E. Mass: 3,112 kg (6,860 lb). Nation: USA. Class: Communications. Type: Communications satellite. Spacecraft: Star Bus. USAF Sat Cat: 37748 . COSPAR: 2011-035A. Apogee: 35,798 km (22,243 mi). Perigee: 35,775 km (22,229 mi). Inclination: 0.0000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min. Summary: C/Ku band communications payload..

2011 September 21 - . 21:38 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA3. LV Family: Ariane 5. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 5ECA.
  • SES 2 - . Payload: Orbital Star 2.4. Nation: USA. Class: Communications. Type: Communications satellite. Spacecraft: Star bus. USAF Sat Cat: 37809 . COSPAR: 2011-049A. Apogee: 35,796 km (22,242 mi). Perigee: 35,777 km (22,230 mi). Inclination: 0.0000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min. Summary: Communications satellite with 24 C-band and 24 Ku-band transponders, and a US Air Force infrared surveillance sensor experiment..

2011 October 5 - . 21:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC45/1. LV Family: Zenit. Launch Vehicle: Zenit-3SLB.
  • Intelsat 18 - . Payload: Orbital Star-2.4E. Mass: 3,200 kg (7,000 lb). Nation: USA. Program: Intelsat. Class: Communications. Type: Communications satellite. Spacecraft: Star bus. USAF Sat Cat: 37834 . COSPAR: 2011-056A. Apogee: 35,736 km (22,205 mi). Perigee: 35,725 km (22,198 mi). Inclination: 0.1000 deg. Period: 1,433.20 min. Summary: Ku and C band communications satellite for Pacific Ocean communications, including special coverage for French Polynesia..

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