Encyclopedia Astronautica
Soyuz 7K-S



soyviois.jpg
Soyuz VI / OIS
Mishin's version of Soyuz VI with OIS light space station (conceptual drawing based on description).
Credit: © Mark Wade
kos18688.jpg
Kosmos 186/188
Kosmos 186/188 docking. Soyuz-R and OIS would have had a similar appearance.
Credit: © Mark Wade
Russian manned spacecraft. 3 launches, 1974.08.06 (Cosmos 670) to 1976.11.29 (Cosmos 869). The Soyuz 7K-S had its genesis in military Soyuz designs of the 1960's.

These were cancelled, but the 7K-S continued in development as an improved version of Soyuz for solo and space station ferry missions. Unmanned tests were made of the 7K-S, but the solo version was cancelled. The design, after further extended development, evolved into the Soyuz T and Soyuz TM ferry vehicles flown to the Salyut 7, Mir, and ISS space stations.

The Soyuz 7K-S had its genesis in military Soyuz designs of the 1960's. These were cancelled in February 1970. The Soyuz 7K-S, however continued in two parallel designs - the base variant, which was for special-purpose military solo missions; and a space station transport variant 7K-ST. The revised designs for the 7K-S were completed on 11 August 1972. The initial Soyuz 7K-S program was to consist of four unmanned, followed by two manned test flights, then two operational launches. The draft design for 7K-ST space station transport version was completed in August 1974.

Following the fourth N1 launch failure, a major reorganization of Soviet space enterprises was undertaken. The 7K-S was cancelled; experiments planned for the solo flights were transferred to the Salyut program. However the first three test vehicles had been completed and were launched unmanned as technology tests. The Soyuz 7K-ST transport project continued, except now being redesigned for a crew of three. The 7K-ST, following extended development, would eventually fly as the Soyuz T and Soyuz TM ferry to the Salyut 7 and Mir space stations.

In December 1962 Sergei Korolev released his draft project for a versatile manned spacecraft to follow his 3K Vostok. The 7K Soyuz-A was primarily designed for manned circumlunar flight. However in order to obtain military support for the project he proposed two additional modifications: the Soyuz-P (Perekhvatchik, Interceptor) space interceptor and the Soyuz-R (Razvedki, intelligence) command-reconnaissance spacecraft. The VVS and the Strategic Rocket Forces supported these variants of the Soyuz. But Korolev had no time to work on what were to him Soyuz 'side-lines'. Therefore he decided that while OKB-1 Kaliningrad would concentrate on development of the Soyuz-A circumlunar spacecraft, the military projects would be 'subcontracted' to OKB-1 Filial Number 3 in Samara, headed by Chief Designer Dmitri Ilyich Kozlov. Both spacecraft would ultimately be cancelled and replaced by projects of Korolev's competitor, Chelomei. However Kozlov was entrusted with development of yet another military Soyuz, the 7K-VI 'Zvezda', in October 1965.

Initially Kozlov followed his instructions and the 7K-VI was not very different from the OKB-1 Soyuz 7K-OK. But in the beginning of 1967, in reaction to a huge number of failures on the first flights of the Soyuz, Kozlov decreed a complete revision of the design. The new version switched the positions of the Soyuz descent module and the orbital module. The descent module was now at the top of the spacecraft. Behind the seats a hatch went through the heat shield to the cylindrical orbital section. Nuclear radioisotope thermal generators (RTG's) replaced the solar panels.

Design was completed, construction was underway, and cosmonauts in training for 50 planned flights between 1968 and 1975. By August 1967 Kozlov was predicting first flight of the VI in 1968, with the first all-up operational flight in 1970. But the Chief Designer of OKB-1, Vasiliy Pavlovich Mishin, strongly disagreed with the Zvezda design. The USSR Defense Ministry issued a requirement for an "Orbital Research Station" (OIS) in March 1967. Using this as the basis, on 13 October 1967 Mishin began his efforts to take over Kozlov's VI program. His staff in Kaliningrad felt that Kozlov had insulted them by redesigning the VI to rectify the 'defects' of their Soyuz 7K-OK design. They were also fundamentally opposed to the use of radio-isotope power sources, and raised interminable objections about the hatch cut into the heat shield.

In the place of Kozlov's 7K-VI Mishin proposed an OIS consisting of a separately-launched orbital block and a transport Soyuz. This was the exact same concept as Kozlov's cancelled Soyuz-R system, but using Kaliningrad spacecraft in the place of Samara spacecraft. In a November 1967 meeting with Kozlov, Mishin demanded the abandonment of Kozlov's 7K-VI project. Kozlov rejected this and subsequently attempted to recruit Kamanin to his cause. It was all for naught; through various complex machinations Mishin seized control of the project on 8 December 1967. Mishin's revised project was reaffirmed in May 1968.

Mishin's 11F730 Soyuz VI consisted of on orbital block 11F731 OB-VI and a transport spacecraft 11F732 7K-S. The Soyuz would have a crew of two, a probe-drogue docking system and an internal transfer tunnel. It was proposed that two versions of the 7K-S could conduct autonomous flights for military projects. These versions were the 11F733 7K-S-I for short-term research and the 11F734 7K-S-II for longer flights. For resupply of the orbital stations a payload transport craft 7K-SG 11F735 was proposed (This was an ancestor of the Progress spacecraft used to resupply Salyut and Mir space stations).

Mishin's Soyuz VI would be launched for a 30 day mission into a 51.6 degree orbit at 250 x 270 km, and would use solar panels in the place of the nuclear power sources. The orbital block of the OB-VI would have 700 to 1,000 kg of specialized and scientific instruments. Chief Designer for the 11F730 was K D Bushuyev, with veteran spaceplane designer P V Tsybin assisting.

Using Kozlov's groundwork, the draft project OIS 11F730, was issued by TsKBEM and Filial 3 jointly on 21 June 1968. Design materials for the 11F732 7K-S spacecraft were issued on 14 October 1968. In 1969 complete drawings were released for the OIS project including those for the spacecraft 7K-S, 7K-S-I, and 7K-S-II.

It was singularly noticeable that relatively little effort was expended on the OIS by Mishin. Despite his desire to take the project from Kozlov, his bureau was too preoccupied with the L1 and N1-L3 lunar programs and improvement of the 7K-OK after the Soyuz 1 disaster. Nevertheless by 1968 the cosmonaut group in training for the OIS included Aleksei Gubarev, Yuri Glazkov, Vyacheslav Zudov, Eduard Stepanov, Gennadiy Sarafanov, Aleksandr Kramarenko, Leonid Kizim, Aleksandr Petrushenko, and Mikhail Lisun.

At the time of the cancellation of Kovlov's 7K-VI project Mishin promised that the first OIS would be launched in 1969. This was based solely on convincing the military that he could beat Kozlov's 1970 date. Yet by May 1969 Kamanin's diary indicates there was no chance of launching an Almaz or Soyuz VI until 1972. At best no more than seven solo military flights of the Soyuz 7K-S could be expected before 1972.

In December 1969 it was decided that Chelomei would hand over unfinished spaceframes of Almaz stations to Mishin for completion as Salyut DOS-7K space stations. The OIS was cancelled in February 1970 in recognition that it would be available no earlier than the more-capable Salyut or Almaz stations. The Soyuz-VI cosmonaut group was incorporated into the Almaz training group.

The Soyuz 7K-S, however continued in two parallel designs - the base variant, which was for special-purpose military solo missions; and a space station transport variant 7K-ST. The revised designs for the 7K-S were completed on 11 August 1972. The initial Soyuz 7K-S program was to consist of four unmanned, followed by two manned test flights, then two operational launches. Cosmonauts (among them Lyakhov and Voronov ) were assigned to the project in 1973. A State Commission was formed on 21 June 1974 to oversee the flight tests. Meanwhile the draft design for 7K-ST space station transport version was completed in August 1974.

Immediately thereafter, following the fourth N1 launch failure, a major reorganization of Soviet space enterprises was undertaken. Mishin was fired as head of the former OKB-1. After Kozlov turned down the job, Glushko was made head of a newly formed NPO Energia, combining OKB-1 and Glushko's Energomash engine OKB. The 7K-S was cancelled; experiments planned for the solo flights were transferred to the Salyut program. The launch escape system for 7K-S had completed development in 1968 - 1972 and was first used for Apollo-Soyuz Test Project flights.

At the time the Soyuz 7K-S was cancelled, the first test vehicle was already at Baikonur being prepared for launch. The first three were launched unmanned as technology tests - Cosmos 670 (7K-S No.1), Cosmos 772 (7K-S No.2), and Cosmos 869 (7K-S No.3). These were the first Soviet manned spacecraft designs to fly with a digital computer.

The Soyuz 7K-ST transport project continued, except now being redesigned for a crew of three. The 7K-ST would eventually fly as the Soyuz T and Soyuz TM ferry to the Salyut 7 and Mir space stations.

Characteristics

Crew Size: 2. Habitable Volume: 9.00 m3.

AKA: 11F732.
Gross mass: 6,800 kg (14,900 lb).
Height: 7.48 m (24.54 ft).
Span: 10.00 m (32.00 ft).
Thrust: 3.92 kN (881 lbf).
Specific impulse: 305 s.
First Launch: 1974.08.06.
Last Launch: 1976.11.29.
Number: 3 .

More... - Chronology...


Associated Countries
Associated Spacecraft
  • Soyuz OB-VI Russian manned space station. Cancelled 1970. In December 1967 OKB-1 chief designer Mishin managed to have Kozlov's Soyuz VI project killed. In its place he proposed to build a manned military station based on his own Soyuz 7K-OK design. More...

See also
  • Soyuz The Russian Soyuz spacecraft has been the longest-lived, most adaptable, and most successful manned spacecraft design. In production for fifty years, more than 240 have been built and flown on a wide range of missions. The design will remain in use with the international space station well into the 21st century, providing the only manned access to the station after the retirement of the shuttle in 2011. More...

Associated Launch Vehicles
  • Soyuz Russian orbital launch vehicle. The world's first ICBM became the most often used and most reliable launch vehicle in history. The original core+four strap-on booster missile had a small third stage added to produce the Vostok launch vehicle, with a payload of 5 metric tons. Addition of a larger third stage produced the Voskhod/Soyuz vehicle, with a payload over 6 metric tons. Using this with a fourth stage, the resulting Molniya booster placed communications satellites and early lunar and planetary probes in higher energy trajectories. By the year 2000 over 1,628 had been launched with an unmatched success rate of 97.5% for production models. Improved models providing commercial launch services for international customers entered service in the new millenium, and a new launch pad at Kourou was to be inaugurated in 2009. It appeared that the R-7 could easily still be in service 70 years after its first launch. More...
  • Soyuz 11A511U Russian standardised man-rated orbital launch vehicle derived from the original R-7 ICBM of 1957. It has been launched in greater numbers than any orbital launch vehicle in history. Not coincidentally, it has been the most reliable as well. After over 40 years service in Russia, ESA built a new launch pad at Kourou which will keep it in service from three launch sites in three countries well into the mid-21st Century. More...

Associated Manufacturers and Agencies
  • Korolev Russian manufacturer of rockets, spacecraft, and rocket engines. Korolev Design Bureau, Kaliningrad, Russia. More...
  • MOM Russian agency overseeing development of spacecraft. Ministry of General Machine Building (Moskva, Russia), Moscow, Russia. More...

Associated Programs
  • Salyut The world's first space station, developed in one year by the Soviet Union on the basis of Chelomei's Almaz station, in an attempt to upstage the American Skylab after the loss of the moon landing race to the Americans. More...
  • Salyut 6 Mishin was authorised in December 1973 to build an improved design DOS-5 version of the Salyut station using Almaz facilities. Mishin's bureau borrowed the two docking port configuration of Chelomei's Almaz OPS-2 This station's second docking port would allow rotation of crews and resupply/refueling using unmanned Progress spacecraft. More...

Associated Propellants
  • N2O4/UDMH Nitrogen tetroxide became the storable liquid propellant of choice from the late 1950's. Unsymmetrical Dimethylhydrazine ((CH3)2NNH2) became the storable liquid fuel of choice by the mid-1950's. Development of UDMH in the Soviet Union began in 1949. It is used in virtually all storable liquid rocket engines except for some orbital manoeuvring engines in the United States, where MMH has been preferred due to a slightly higher density and performance. More...

Bibliography
  • McDowell, Jonathan, Jonathan's Space Home Page (launch records), Harvard University, 1997-present. Web Address when accessed: here.
  • JPL Mission and Spacecraft Library, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 1997. Web Address when accessed: here.
  • Semenov, Yuri P Editor, Raketno-kosmicheskaya korporatsiya 'Energia' imeni S P Koroleva, Moscow, Russia, 1996.
  • Pauw, H, "New Facts About Soviet Space Stations", Spaceflight, 1994, Volume 36, page 89.
  • Voevodin, Sergey A, "Sergey A. Voevodin's Reports", VSA072 - Space Apparatus, Web Address when accessed: here.
  • Lantratov, K., "'Zvezda' Dmitriya Kozlova", Novosti Kosmonavtiki, 1997, Issues 3 to 6 (four part article).
  • Chertok, Boris Yevseyevich, Raketi i lyudi, Mashinostroenie, Moscow, 1994-1999.. Web Address when accessed: here.
  • Kamanin, N P, Skritiy kosmos, Infortext, Moscow, 1995.

Associated Launch Sites
  • Baikonur Russia's largest cosmodrome, the only one used for manned launches and with facilities for the larger Proton, N1, and Energia launch vehicles. The spaceport ended up on foreign soil after the break-up of Soviet Union. The official designations NIIP-5 and GIK-5 are used in official Soviet histories. It was also universally referred to as Tyuratam by both Soviet military staff and engineers, and the US intelligence agencies. Since the dissolution of the Soviet Union the Russian Federation has insisted on continued use of the old Soviet 'public' name of Baikonur. In its Kazakh (Kazak) version this is rendered Baykonur. More...

Soyuz 7K-S Chronology


1967 March - .
  • USSR Defence Ministry issued a requirement for an "Orbital Research Station" (OIS) - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Kozlov; Mishin. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-S; Soyuz VI. The Chief Designer of OKB-1, Vasiliy Pavlovich Mishin, strongly disagreed with the Zvezda design. In the place of Kozlovís 7K-VI Mishin proposed an OIS consisting of a separately-launched orbital block and a transport Soyuz. This was the exact same concept as Kozlovís cancelled Soyuz-R system, but using Kaliningrad spacecraft in the place of Samara spacecraft.

1967 December 8 - .
  • TsKBEM confirms Mishin's decision to cancel Soyuz VI - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Mishin; Bushuyev; Okhapkin; Feoktistov; Karas; Shcheulov; Gaidukov; Chelomei; Kerimov. Program: Almaz. Spacecraft: Soyuz VI; LK-1; Almaz OPS; Soyuz 7K-S; Soyuz OB-VI. Mishin is away on 'cure' for his drinking problem. A 'Podlipki Soviet' is held at TsKBEM. The issue is cancellation of Kozlov's 7K-VI military Soyuz. Bushuyev, Chertok, Okhapkin, Feoktistov are in favour of cancelling it. Opposed are Karas, Shcheulov, Kostonin, Gaidukov, and the various military representatives at the meeting. It was now six years since OKB-1 was required to put a military manned spacecraft into space - and, factually speaking, nothing has been done. Military experiments proposed for each manned flight by OKB-1 to date had been rejected on various grounds - no weight, no space aboard the spacecraft. Good progress has been made with Kozlov's VI and Chelomei's Almaz - now they've managed to kill the VI, and Mishin and Kerimov are constantly denigrating Almaz (saying it is too heavy, and unsuited for the purpose). The whole thing is a replay of the LK-1 situation. In 1963, a resolution was issued to send a Soviet man around the moon. Instead, after two years of development, Korolev managed to get Chelomei's LK-1 lunar spacecraft cancelled, and started all over with his own L1. Additional Details: here....

1968 June 21 - .
  • Soyuz S Project Completed - . Nation: USSR. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-S; Soyuz OB-VI. Summary: The draft project OIS 11F730 was issued jointly by TsKBEM and Filial 3 on 21 June 1968..

1968 October 14 - .
  • Soyuz S drawings released - . Nation: USSR. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-S; Soyuz OB-VI. Summary: Design materials for the 11F732 7K-S spacecraft were issued. In 1969 complete drawings were released for the OIS project including those for the spacecraft 7K-S, 7K-S-I, and 7K-S-II..

1968 December 26 - .
  • Heated arguments over technical approach of Soviet space systems - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Shatalov; Beregovoi; Severin; Mnatsakanian; Mishin. Program: Lunar L1; Soyuz; Almaz. Flight: Apollo 8. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-OK; Soyuz 7K-L1; Soyuz 7K-LOK; Soyuz 7K-S; Almaz OPS; Soyuz OB-VI; Soyuz VI. The training for the Soyuz 4 and 5 flights was completed last night. Today the crews undergo medical tests and start preparation of their flight logs/flight plans. On the return flight to Moscow Shatalov, Beregovoi, Severin, Kamanin, and Mnatsakanian get into a heated argument. The cosmonauts attack Mnatsakanian's Igla automated docking system. It limits docking manoeuvres to periods when the spacecraft are flying over the Soviet Union due to the requirement for ground stations to receive live television. The Americans worked only on the Apollo spacecraft for the last two to three years, while the Soviets have divided their efforts on no less than five spacecraft types: the L1, L3, Soyuz, Soyuz VI, and Almaz. This is all Mishin's fault...

1969 June 21 - .
  • Design issued for OIS military space station. - . Nation: USSR. Program: Almaz. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-S; Soyuz OB-VI. Summary: Draft project OIS 11F730, was issued by TsKBEM and filial 3 jointly. In the course of 1969 complete drawings were released for the OIS project including modules for the spacecraft 7K-S, 7K-S-I, and 7K-S-II..

1969 December 6 - .
  • The DOS Conspiracy in the open - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Mishin; Afanasyev, Sergei; Pilyugin; Ryazanskiy; Kuznetsov, Viktor; Chelomei; Ustinov. Program: Almaz; Salyut. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-S; Almaz OPS; Salyut 1; Soyuz 7KT-OK. Afanasyev met with the Chief Designers - Pilyugin, Ryazanskiy, V Kuznetsov, and Chelomei's Deputy, Eydis. Mishin was 'sick' and Chelomei had sent his deputy, as usual, to avoid having to meet Mishin. Afanasyev started with the demand that an Almaz flight take place within less than two years, before the end of the Eighth Five Year Plan. He asked Eydis to install an Igla passive docking system to permit docking with the station of the existing Soyuz 7K-OK as opposed to the planned 7K-S. If Chelomei's bureau could not meet this requirement, then the 'conspirator's' DOS project could be authorised in its place. Additional Details: here....

1970 January 19 - .
  • Soviet leadership interest in manned spaceflight has collapsed. - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Belyayev; Brezhnev; Mishin; Chelomei; Popovich; Bykovsky. Program: Salyut; Almaz; Skylab. Spacecraft: Almaz OPS; Salyut 1; Soyuz 7K-S. Kamanin notes that interest of the leadership in manned spaceflight has collapsed with the end of the moon race. Brezhnev has declared that his primary interest is in earth orbital space stations. Both Mishin and Chelomei have stations in development, but the work is progressing slowly. There will be no launch of either of their projects until 1972 - which means the Soviets will be beaten by the US Skylab. Kamanin believes the Americans can never be beaten in space unless all space projects are guided firmly by a single Ministry of Defence and Civilian Space office. Meanwhile the Hong Kong flu epidemic is hitting many at the cosmodrome - Moroz, Popovich, and Bykovsky are all seriously ill.

1970 February 1 - . LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K. LV Configuration: Proton 8K82K.
  • Space station programs rationalised. - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Chelomei; Mishin. Program: Almaz. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space station. Spacecraft: Almaz OPS; Soyuz 7K-S; Soyuz OB-VI; Salyut 1. Brezhnev orders a cooperative crash program to build a civilian space station to beat Skylab into orbit. The civilian station (later named Salyut) will use the Almaz spaceframe fitted out with Soyuz functional equipment. Mishin's OIS military station was cancelled and Chelomei's Almaz would continue, but as second priority to the civilian station. The Soyuz 7K-S station ferry, the 7K-ST, would be revised to be a more conservative modification of the Soyuz 7K-OK. The OIS cosmonaut group was incorporated into the Almaz group.

1970 July 16 - .
  • Soyuz 9 crew presses for new Soyuz series. - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Nikolayev; Sevastyanov; Karas; Maksimov. Program: Soyuz. Flight: Soyuz 9. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-OK; Soyuz 7K-S. Summary: Sevastyanov and Nikolayev visit GUKOS, and press for construction of a new Soyuz series. Karas and Maksimov say it would interrupt development of the 7K-S. The cosmonauts argue that the Soyuz 7K-OK is now proven, while the 7K-S exists only on paper..

1972 January 1 - . LV Family: N1; RT-2.
  • TsKBEM reorganised - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Mishin; Dorofeyev; Bushuyev; Semenov; Shabarov. Program: Lunar L3; Soyuz; Almaz. Spacecraft: LK; Soyuz 7K-LOK; Soyuz 7K-TM; Soyuz 7K-T; Soyuz 7K-S; Soyuz 7K-OK; MKBS; Mars 5NM. TsKBEM was given a completely new structure as a result of the findings of the expert commissions on the disasters for the previous year, Mishin remained as the Chief Designer for the organisation, but each programme now had its own chief designer:

    • N1: Boris Dorofeyev
    • 8K98P solid propellant ICBM: Igor Sadovskiy
    • N1 payloads: Vladimir Brorov [check]
    • Soyuz 7K-TM, or Soyuz M, for Soyuz-Apollo: Konstantin Bushuyev
    • Soyuz 7K-T: Yuri Semenov
    • Soyuz 7K-S or Soyuz VI: Yevgeni Shabarov
    Additional Details: here....

1972 August 11 - .
  • Soyuz 7K-S designs completed - . Nation: USSR. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-S; Soyuz OB-VI. The Soyuz 7K-S had two parallel designs - the base variant, which was for special-purpose military solo missions; and a space station transport variant 7K-ST. The Soyuz 7K-S program was to consist of four unmanned, followed by two manned test flights, then two operational launches.

1974 June 21 - .
  • State Commission formed to oversee Soyuz-S flight tests - . Nation: USSR. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-S; Soyuz OB-VI. Military-Industrial Commission (VPK) Decree 'On establishment of the State Commission for testing the Soyuz-T' was issued. A State Commission was formed to oversee the flight tests of the solo mission 7K-S. The draft design for 7K-ST space station transport version was completed in August 1974.

1974 July - .
  • Soyuz 7K-S cancelled; Soyuz 7K-ST continued - . Nation: USSR. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-S; Soyuz OB-VI; Soyuz T. The 7K-S was cancelled at the same time as the N1 and the reorganisation of the space industry. Experiments planned for the solo flights were transferred to the Salyut program. The first test vehicle was already at Baikonur being prepared for launch. It was decided to launch the first three unmanned as technology tests - Cosmos 670 (7K-S No.1), Cosmos 772 (7K-S No.2), and Cosmos 869 (7K-S No.3). The Soyuz 7K-ST transport project continued, except now being redesigned for a crew of three. The 7K-ST would eventually fly as the Soyuz T and Soyuz TM ferry to the Salyut 7 and Mir space stations.

1974 August 6 - . 00:02 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 670 - . Payload: Soyuz 7K-S s/n 1L. Mass: 6,700 kg (14,700 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-S. Duration: 2.99 days. Decay Date: 1974-08-09 . USAF Sat Cat: 7405 . COSPAR: 1974-061A. Apogee: 294 km (182 mi). Perigee: 211 km (131 mi). Inclination: 50.6000 deg. Period: 89.50 min. Summary: Unmanned Soyuz 7K-S test flight. Recovered August 8, 1974 23:59 GMT..

1975 September 29 - . 04:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 772 - . Payload: Soyuz 7K-S s/n 2L. Mass: 6,750 kg (14,880 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut 6. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-S. Duration: 3.99 days. Decay Date: 1975-10-02 . USAF Sat Cat: 8338 . COSPAR: 1975-093A. Apogee: 245 km (152 mi). Perigee: 154 km (95 mi). Inclination: 51.8000 deg. Period: 88.40 min. Unmanned military Soyuz 7K-S test flight. Recovered October 3, 1975 4:10 GMT. Unsuccessful mission. Transmitted only on 166 MHz frequency, at none of the other usual Soyuz wavelengths.
    Maneuver Summary:
    193 km X 270 km orbit to 195 km X 300 km orbit. Delta V: 8 m/s
    196 km X 300 km orbit to 196 km X 328 km orbit. Delta V: 8 m/s
    Total Delta V: 16 m/s

1976 November 29 - . 16:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 869 - . Payload: Soyuz 7K-S s/n 3L. Mass: 6,800 kg (14,900 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut 6. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-S. Duration: 17.77 days. Decay Date: 1976-12-17 . USAF Sat Cat: 9564 . COSPAR: 1976-114A. Apogee: 289 km (179 mi). Perigee: 209 km (129 mi). Inclination: 51.7000 deg. Period: 89.40 min. Unmanned military Soyuz 7K-S test flight. Recovered December 17, 1976 10:31 GMT. Transmitted only on 20.008 MHz and 166 MHz frequencies, at none of the other usual Soyuz wavelengths.
    Maneuver Summary:
    196 km X 290 km orbit to 187 km X 335 km orbit. Delta V: 15 m/s
    187 km X 335 km orbit to 259 km X 335 km orbit. Delta V: 21 m/s
    259 km X 335 km orbit to 260 km X 345 km orbit. Delta V: 2 m/s
    260 km X 345 km orbit to 265 km X 368 km orbit. Delta V: 7 m/s
    265 km X 368 km orbit to 267 km X 391 km orbit. Delta V: 6 m/s
    267 km X 391 km orbit to 300 km X 310 km orbit. Delta V: 32 m/s
    Total Delta V: 83 m/s

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