Encyclopedia Astronautica
Sirio


Italian communications technology satellite. 2 launches, 1977.08.25 (Sirio 1) and 1982.09.09 (Sirio 2). SIRIO was a spin stabilized geostationary experimental communications satellite with a nominal life of two years.

Characteristics of satellite: Weight at launch 398 kg, in orbit 218 kg. Configuration - cylindrical, height 1.981m, diameter 1.433m,

AKA: Satellite Italiano Ricerca Industriale Orientata.
Gross mass: 220 kg (480 lb).
First Launch: 1977.08.25.
Last Launch: 1982.09.09.
Number: 2 .

More... - Chronology...


Associated Countries
See also
  • Ariane First successful European commercial launch vehicle, developed from L3S Europa launch vehicle replacement design. Development of the Ariane 1 was authorised in July 1973, took eight years, and cost 2 billion 1986 Euros. More...
  • Delta The Delta launch vehicle was America's longest-lived, most reliable, and lowest-cost space launch vehicle. Development began in 1955 and it continued in service in the 21st Century despite numerous candidate replacements. More...

Associated Launch Vehicles
  • Delta American orbital launch vehicle. The Delta launch vehicle was America's longest-lived, most reliable, and lowest-cost space launch vehicle. Delta began as Thor, a crash December 1955 program to produce an intermediate range ballistic missile using existing components, which flew thirteen months after go-ahead. Fifteen months after that, a space launch version flew, using an existing upper stage. The addition of solid rocket boosters allowed the Thor core and Able/Delta upper stages to be stretched. Costs were kept down by using first and second-stage rocket engines surplus to the Apollo program in the 1970's. Continuous introduction of new 'existing' technology over the years resulted in an incredible evolution - the payload into a geosynchronous transfer orbit increasing from 68 kg in 1962 to 3810 kg by 2002. Delta survived innumerable attempts to kill the program and replace it with 'more rationale' alternatives. By 2008 nearly 1,000 boosters had flown over a fifty-year career, and cancellation was again announced. More...
  • Delta 2313 American orbital launch vehicle. Three stage vehicle consisting of 3 x Castor 2 + 1 x ELT Thor/RS-27 + 1 x Delta P /TR-201 + 1 x Star 37D More...
  • Ariane 1 French orbital launch vehicle. First version of the Ariane launch vehicle. More...
  • Ariane French orbital launch vehicle. First successful European commercial launch vehicle, developed from L3S Europa launch vehicle replacement design. Development of the Ariane 1 was authorised in July 1973, took eight years, and cost 2 billion 1986 Euros. More...
  • Delta 2000 American orbital launch vehicle. The Delta 2000 series used Castor 2 strap-ons together with an Extended Long Tank core equipped with the more powerful RS-27 engine. This engine was derived from surplus H-1 engines intended for the Saturn IB booster of the Apollo programme. The Delta P upper stage was built by Douglas and used surplus Apollo lunar module engines from TRW. More...

Associated Manufacturers and Agencies
  • CNR Italian agency overseeing development of spacecraft. CNR, Italy. More...

Associated Programs
  • MARECS Geostationary maritime communications satellites, which form part of INMARSAT's world-wide maritime communications satellite network. The program began as the experimental Maritime Orbital Test Satellite (Marots) in 1973, but was subsequently changed to an operational system resulting in a name change, a satellite redesign, and delayed development. Marecs is operated by ESA for Inmarsat. More...

Bibliography
  • McDowell, Jonathan, Jonathan's Space Home Page (launch records), Harvard University, 1997-present. Web Address when accessed: here.
  • JPL Mission and Spacecraft Library, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 1997. Web Address when accessed: here.
  • McDowell, Jonathan, Launch Log, October 1998. Web Address when accessed: here.

Associated Launch Sites
  • Cape Canaveral America's largest launch center, used for all manned launches. Today only six of the 40 launch complexes built here remain in use. Located at or near Cape Canaveral are the Kennedy Space Center on Merritt Island, used by NASA for Saturn V and Space Shuttle launches; Patrick AFB on Cape Canaveral itself, operated the US Department of Defense and handling most other launches; the commercial Spaceport Florida; the air-launched launch vehicle and missile Drop Zone off Mayport, Florida, located at 29.00 N 79.00 W, and an offshore submarine-launched ballistic missile launch area. All of these take advantage of the extensive down-range tracking facilities that once extended from the Cape, through the Caribbean, South Atlantic, and to South Africa and the Indian Ocean. More...
  • Kourou After the agreement with newly independent Algeria for France to evacuate their launch sites in that country, a location near Biscarosse was selected for French missile testing. However since only launches westwards across the Bay of Biscay could be made from this site, it was unsuitable for France's Diamant orbital launch vehicle. After reviewing 14 potential sites, a location in the South American French colony of Guiana was selected. This would allow over-water launches to a tremendous range of possible orbital inclinations -- from -100.5 deg to 1.5 deg. Being near the equator, it would provide the maximum assist from the earth's rotation for launches into equatorial orbits. The decision was formalized in April 1964 and in July 1966 ELDO chose the site for future launches of the Europa II launch vehicle. More...
  • Cape Canaveral LC17B Delta launch complex. Part of a dual launch pad complex built for the Thor ballistic missile program in 1956. Upgraded over the decades for use with Thor, Delta, Delta II, and Delta III launch vehicles, it remained in use for over half a century. More...

Sirio Chronology


1977 August 25 - . 23:49 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC17B. LV Family: Delta. Launch Vehicle: Delta 2313. LV Configuration: Delta 2313 615/D133.
  • Sirio 1 - . Mass: 220 kg (480 lb). Nation: Italy. Agency: CNR. Class: Technology. Type: Communications technology satellite. Spacecraft: Sirio. Completed Operations Date: 1989-09-28 . USAF Sat Cat: 10294 . COSPAR: 1977-080A. Apogee: 35,869 km (22,287 mi). Perigee: 35,755 km (22,217 mi). Inclination: 9.6000 deg. Period: 1,437.40 min. Experimental commsat. SIRIO (Satellite Italiano Ricerca Industriale Orientata). Launch time 2350:00 GMT. Geographical longitude of geostationary orbit 15 deg W. SIRIO is a spin stabilized geostationary experimental communications satellite. Characteristics of satellite: Weight at launch 398 kg, in orbit 218 kg. Configuration - cylindrical, height 1.981m, diameter 1.433 m, nominal life two years. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit over the Atlantic Ocean at 15 deg W in 1977-1981; over the Atlantic Ocean 25 deg W in 1981-1983; over the Indian Ocean 65 deg E in 1983-1985 As of 4 September 2001 located at 86.65 deg E drifting at 0.265 deg E per day. As of 2007 Mar 11 located at 75.38E drifting at 0.003E degrees per day.

1982 September 9 - . 02:12 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA1. LV Family: Ariane. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 1. LV Configuration: Ariane 1 L5. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Sirio 2 - . Payload: Sirio 2. Nation: Europe. Agency: ESA. Program: MARECS. Spacecraft: SIRIO. COSPAR: F820909B.

Home - Browse - Contact
© / Conditions for Use