Encyclopedia Astronautica
Orbcomm



orbcomm.jpg
Orbcomm
American communications technology satellite. 31 launches, 1991.07.17 (Orbcomm-X) to 2008.06.19 (Orbcomm FM36). Orbcomm was a commercial venture to provide global messaging services using a constellation of 26 low-Earth orbiting satellites.

The planned system was designed to handle up to 5 million messages from users utilizing small, portable terminals to transmit and receive messages directly to the satellites. T

The first two satellites of the constellation experienced communications problems after launch, but were recovered and placed into operational status. The nominal 26 satellite constellation was to be deployed by 1997, with the potential for an additional 8 satellite plane and two more polar orbiters depending on demands for increased coverage. The vehicles were controlled from a single control centre located in Dulles, Virginia. The cost per satellite was estimated at $1.2 million. A small forerunner vehicle, Orbcomm-X, was launched in 1991 as a feasibility demonstration. This vehicle had a different design than the operational vehicles and was not included in the operational system.

ORBCOMM provided global data services (similar to 2-way paging or email) via low-Earth orbit (LEO) Satellites and ground infrastructure. Subscriber Communicators (SC) transmitted data messages to the LEO Satellite, which relayed the message to the U.S. Gateway Earth Station (GES), or International Gateway Control Centers (GCC). The GES/GCC sent the message via satellite or dedicated terrestrial line to the ORBCOMM Network Control Centre (NCC). The network was packet data only. ORBCOMM satellite coverage was available world-wide. The message delivery time (or "latency") depended on the specific hardware set-up, message size and location of the remote unit. In the continental US, ORBCOMM was committed to providing 90% in 6 minutes or less, and 98% in 15 minutes or less for all message traffic.

ORBCOMM was ideal for short, daily messages and only required minimum amounts of power to operate. The ORBCOMM satellites constantly moved, so large obstructions did not prohibit communications and coverage was available in remote rural areas. In comparison, cellular telephone coverage depended on tower location, usually centered around major highways and cities, and could not reach remote areas. Geostationary satellites required large, costly and power intensive hardware. Large data files (such as graphics) or emergency response latencies would however not be appropriate applications for ORBCOMM.

The spacecraft was circular, disk shaped, with circular panels hinged from each side after launch to expose solar cells. These panels articulated in 1-axis to track the sun and provided 160 W. The deployed spacecraft measured 3.6 m from end to end with a 2.3 m span across the circular disks. VHF telemetry was at 57.6 kbps. The satellite had an on-board GPS navigation and timing system, and a 14 volt power system. Gravity gradient stabilization provided 5 degrees control with magnetic torquers for damping. Cold gas (nitrogen) propulsion system.

Each spacecraft carried 17 data processors and seven antennas. These were designed to handle 50,000 messages per hour. On a long boom was a 2.6 meter VHF/UHF gateway antenna. Receive: 2400 bps at 148 - 149.9 MHz. Transmit: 4800 bps at 137 - 138 MHz and 400.05 - 400.15 MHz. The system used X.400 (CCITT 1988) addressing. Message size was 6 to 250 bytes typical (no maximum).

The $ 330 million program consisted of a constellation of 3 planes x 8 satellites. The first satellite was lost but put back into operation on 22 May 1995. Satellite costs were $ 135 million for 26 units.

Gross mass: 22 kg (48 lb).
Height: 0.17 m (0.55 ft).
First Launch: 1991.07.17.
Last Launch: 2008.06.19.
Number: 31 .

More... - Chronology...


Associated Countries
See also
  • Ariane First successful European commercial launch vehicle, developed from L3S Europa launch vehicle replacement design. Development of the Ariane 1 was authorised in July 1973, took eight years, and cost 2 billion 1986 Euros. More...
  • Kosmos 3 In 1961 Isayev and Reshetnev developed the Voskhod space launch system on the basis of the R-14 IRBM. The initial version of the two stage rocket was designated Kosmos-1. The first 'Voskhod' launch complex was at Baikonur, a modification of one of the pads at the R-16 ICBM launch complex 41. More...
  • Pegasus Privately-funded, air-launched winged light satellite launcher. More...

Associated Launch Vehicles
  • Kosmos 3 Russian orbital launch vehicle. In 1961 Isayev and Reshetnev developed the Voskhod space launch system on the basis of the R-14 IRBM. The initial version of the two stage rocket was designated Kosmos-1. The first 'Voskhod' launch complex was at Baikonur, a modification of one of the pads at the R-16 ICBM launch complex 41. More...
  • Kosmos 11K65M Russian orbital launch vehicle. Definitive and prolific production version of satellite launcher based on Yangel R-14 IRBM. After further development at NPO Polyot (Omsk, Chief Designer A S Klinishkov), the modified Kosmos-3M added a restartable second stage with an orientation system. This booster was launched form two 'Cusovaya' launch complexes from 1967. The second stage used low thrust rockets using gas generator output to adjust the final velocity of the stage More...
  • Ariane French orbital launch vehicle. First successful European commercial launch vehicle, developed from L3S Europa launch vehicle replacement design. Development of the Ariane 1 was authorised in July 1973, took eight years, and cost 2 billion 1986 Euros. More...
  • Ariane 4 French orbital launch vehicle. The ultimate Ariane development. Compared with the Ariane 2/3, the Ariane 4 featured stretched first (61%) and third stages, a strengthened structure, new propulsion bay layouts, new avionics, and the Spelda dual-payload carrier. The basic 40 version used no strap-on motors, while the Ariane 42L, 44L, 42P, 44P, and 44LP versions used varous combinations of solid and liquid propellant strap-on motors). Development was authorised in January 1982, with the objective of increasing payload by 90%. Total development cost 476 million 1986 ECU's. More...
  • Ariane 40 French orbital launch vehicle. 3 stage core vehicle with original Ariane H10 upper stage. A fully fueled Ariane core cannot lift off the ground without strap-on liquid or solid motors. When Ariane 4 is launched in this configuration, the propellant tanks of the first and second stages are not completely filled. More...
  • Pegasus American air-launched orbital launch vehicle. Privately-funded, air-launched winged light satellite launcher. More...
  • Pegasus XL American air-launched orbital launch vehicle. Uprated version of Pegasus air-launched winged light satellite launcher. 4 stage vehicle consisting of 1 x L-1011 + 1 x Pegasus XL stage 1 + 1 x Orion 50XL + 1 x Orion 38. More...
  • Pegasus XL/HAPS American air-launched orbital launch vehicle. Five stage version consisting of 1 x L-1011 + 1 x Pegasus XL stage 1 + 1 x Orion 50XL + 1 x Orion 38 + 1 x HAPS More...

Associated Manufacturers and Agencies
  • OSC American manufacturer of rockets, spacecraft, and rocket engines. Orbital Sciences Corporation, USA. More...
  • Orbcomm American agency overseeing development of spacecraft. Orbital Communications Corp, Dulles, USA. More...

Associated Programs
  • Orbcomm Orbcomm was a commercial venture to provide global messaging services using a constellation of 26 low-Earth orbiting satellites. More...

Bibliography
  • McDowell, Jonathan, Jonathan's Space Home Page (launch records), Harvard University, 1997-present. Web Address when accessed: here.
  • JPL Mission and Spacecraft Library, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 1997. Web Address when accessed: here.
  • McDowell, Jonathan, Launch Log, October 1998. Web Address when accessed: here.
  • NASA/GSFC Orbital Information Group Website, Web Address when accessed: here.
  • Space-Launcher.com, Orbital Report News Agency. Web Address when accessed: here.

Associated Launch Sites
  • Kapustin Yar Russia's first missile test range and used for satellite launches of smaller Kosmos vehicles. V-2's launched from here in 1946 were the first ballistic missiles fired on Soviet territory. It was greatly expanded as the test site for innumerable Soviet intermediate and short range missile projects in the 1950's.. Kapustin Year was also headquarters of the first operational R-1/R-2 units, 1950-1953, and later a base for 12 operational R-14 missile launchers. Kapustin Yar was known to have been used for over 3519 major launches from 1946 to 2007. More...
  • Kourou After the agreement with newly independent Algeria for France to evacuate their launch sites in that country, a location near Biscarosse was selected for French missile testing. However since only launches westwards across the Bay of Biscay could be made from this site, it was unsuitable for France's Diamant orbital launch vehicle. After reviewing 14 potential sites, a location in the South American French colony of Guiana was selected. This would allow over-water launches to a tremendous range of possible orbital inclinations -- from -100.5 deg to 1.5 deg. Being near the equator, it would provide the maximum assist from the earth's rotation for launches into equatorial orbits. The decision was formalized in April 1964 and in July 1966 ELDO chose the site for future launches of the Europa II launch vehicle. More...
  • Point Arguello WADZ Air-launched rocket drop zone known to have been used for 28 launches from 1990 to 2007, reaching up to 4539 kilometers altitude. More...
  • Wallops Island DZ Air-launched rocket drop zone known to have been used for 6 launches from 1996 to 1999, reaching up to 834 kilometers altitude. More...

Orbcomm Chronology


1991 July 17 - . 01:46 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA2. LV Family: Ariane. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 40. LV Configuration: Ariane 40 V44.
  • Orbcomm-X - . Payload: ERS 1 Orbcomm X. Mass: 22 kg (48 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: ESIEESPA. Class: Technology. Type: Communications technology satellite. Spacecraft: Orbcomm. USAF Sat Cat: 21576 . COSPAR: 1991-050C. Apogee: 771 km (479 mi). Perigee: 764 km (474 mi). Inclination: 98.5000 deg. Period: 100.20 min. Summary: Store and forward communication..

1993 April 25 - . 13:56 GMT - . Launch Site: Point Arguello WADZ. Launch Pad: 36.0 N x 123.0 W. Launch Platform: NB-52 008. LV Family: Pegasus. Launch Vehicle: Pegasus. LV Configuration: Pegasus 004/F4.
  • Orbcomm OXP-2 - . Payload: VSUM. Nation: USA. Agency: Orbcomm. Program: Orbcomm. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Orbcomm. USAF Sat Cat: 22639 . COSPAR: 1993-026B. Apogee: 843 km (524 mi). Perigee: 752 km (468 mi). Inclination: 69.9160 deg. Period: 100.74 min.

1998 August 2 - . 16:24 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island DZ. Launch Pad: 37.0 N x 72.0 W. Launch Platform: L-1011. LV Family: Pegasus. Launch Vehicle: Pegasus XL/HAPS. LV Configuration: Pegasus XL/HAPS F22.
  • Orbcomm B5 - . Payload: Orbcomm s/n FM17. Nation: USA. Agency: Orbcomm. Manufacturer: Germantown. Program: Orbcomm. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Orbcomm. USAF Sat Cat: 25413 . COSPAR: 1998-046A. Apogee: 824 km (512 mi). Perigee: 813 km (505 mi). Inclination: 45.0000 deg. Period: 101.28 min. Summary: Plane B. Ascending node 61 degrees..
  • Orbcomm B2 - . Payload: Orbcomm s/n FM14. Nation: USA. Agency: Orbcomm. Manufacturer: Germantown. Program: Orbcomm. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Orbcomm. USAF Sat Cat: 25419 . COSPAR: 1998-046G. Apogee: 826 km (513 mi). Perigee: 811 km (503 mi). Inclination: 45.0000 deg. Period: 101.28 min. Summary: Plane B. Ascending node 60.4 degrees..
  • Orbcomm B6 - . Payload: Orbcomm s/n FM18. Nation: USA. Agency: Orbcomm. Manufacturer: Germantown. Program: Orbcomm. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Orbcomm. USAF Sat Cat: 25414 . COSPAR: 1998-046B. Apogee: 827 km (513 mi). Perigee: 810 km (500 mi). Inclination: 45.0000 deg. Period: 101.28 min. Summary: Plane B. Ascending node 59.7 degrees..
  • Orbcomm B1 - . Payload: Orbcomm s/n FM13. Nation: USA. Agency: Orbcomm. Manufacturer: Germantown. Program: Orbcomm. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Orbcomm. USAF Sat Cat: 25420 . COSPAR: 1998-046H. Apogee: 824 km (512 mi). Perigee: 813 km (505 mi). Inclination: 45.0000 deg. Period: 101.27 min. Summary: Plane B. Ascending node 60.4 degrees..
  • Orbcomm B4 - . Payload: Orbcomm s/n FM16. Nation: USA. Agency: Orbcomm. Manufacturer: Germantown. Program: Orbcomm. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Orbcomm. USAF Sat Cat: 25417 . COSPAR: 1998-046E. Apogee: 825 km (512 mi). Perigee: 812 km (504 mi). Inclination: 45.0000 deg. Period: 101.28 min. Summary: Plane B. Ascending node 59.9 degrees..
  • Orbcomm B7 - . Payload: Orbcomm s/n FM19. Nation: USA. Agency: Orbcomm. Manufacturer: Germantown. Program: Orbcomm. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Orbcomm. USAF Sat Cat: 25415 . COSPAR: 1998-046C. Apogee: 828 km (514 mi). Perigee: 809 km (502 mi). Inclination: 45.0000 deg. Period: 101.28 min. Summary: Plane B. Ascending node 61.1 degrees..
  • Orbcomm B8 - . Payload: Orbcomm s/n FM20. Nation: USA. Agency: Orbcomm. Manufacturer: Germantown. Program: Orbcomm. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Orbcomm. USAF Sat Cat: 25416 . COSPAR: 1998-046D. Apogee: 826 km (513 mi). Perigee: 811 km (503 mi). Inclination: 45.0000 deg. Period: 101.28 min. Summary: Plane B. Ascending node 61.2 degrees..
  • Orbcomm B3 - . Payload: Orbcomm s/n FM15. Nation: USA. Agency: Orbcomm. Manufacturer: Germantown. Program: Orbcomm. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Orbcomm. USAF Sat Cat: 25418 . COSPAR: 1998-046F. Apogee: 825 km (512 mi). Perigee: 812 km (504 mi). Inclination: 45.0100 deg. Period: 101.28 min. Summary: Plane B. Ascending node 60 degrees..

1998 September 23 - . 05:06 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island DZ. Launch Pad: 37.0 N x 72.0 W. Launch Platform: L-1011. LV Family: Pegasus. Launch Vehicle: Pegasus XL/HAPS. LV Configuration: Pegasus XL/HAPS F23.
  • Orbcomm C1 - . Payload: Orbcomm s/n FM21. Nation: USA. Agency: Orbcomm. Manufacturer: Germantown. Program: Orbcomm. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Orbcomm. USAF Sat Cat: 25475 . COSPAR: 1998-053A. Apogee: 825 km (512 mi). Perigee: 811 km (503 mi). Inclination: 45.0100 deg. Period: 101.27 min. Summary: Plane C. Ascending node 181.6 degrees..
  • Orbcomm C2 - . Payload: Orbcomm s/n FM22. Nation: USA. Agency: Orbcomm. Manufacturer: Germantown. Program: Orbcomm. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Orbcomm. USAF Sat Cat: 25476 . COSPAR: 1998-053B. Apogee: 823 km (511 mi). Perigee: 814 km (505 mi). Inclination: 45.0200 deg. Period: 101.27 min. Summary: Plane C. Ascending node 178 degrees..
  • Orbcomm C3 - . Payload: Orbcomm s/n FM23. Nation: USA. Agency: Orbcomm. Manufacturer: Germantown. Program: Orbcomm. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Orbcomm. USAF Sat Cat: 25477 . COSPAR: 1998-053C. Apogee: 823 km (511 mi). Perigee: 813 km (505 mi). Inclination: 45.0200 deg. Period: 101.27 min. Summary: Plane C. Ascending node 181.8 degrees..
  • Orbcomm C4 - . Payload: Orbcomm s/n FM24. Nation: USA. Agency: Orbcomm. Manufacturer: Germantown. Program: Orbcomm. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Orbcomm. USAF Sat Cat: 25478 . COSPAR: 1998-053D. Apogee: 822 km (510 mi). Perigee: 814 km (505 mi). Inclination: 45.0100 deg. Period: 101.27 min. Summary: Plane C. Ascending node 181.7 degrees..
  • Orbcomm C5 - . Payload: Orbcomm s/n FM25. Nation: USA. Agency: Orbcomm. Manufacturer: Germantown. Program: Orbcomm. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Orbcomm. USAF Sat Cat: 25479 . COSPAR: 1998-053E. Apogee: 824 km (512 mi). Perigee: 813 km (505 mi). Inclination: 45.0100 deg. Period: 101.27 min. Summary: Plane C. Ascending node 181.5 degrees..
  • Orbcomm C6 - . Payload: Orbcomm s/n FM26. Nation: USA. Agency: Orbcomm. Manufacturer: Germantown. Program: Orbcomm. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Orbcomm. USAF Sat Cat: 25480 . COSPAR: 1998-053F. Apogee: 825 km (512 mi). Perigee: 811 km (503 mi). Inclination: 45.0100 deg. Period: 101.27 min. Summary: Plane C. Ascending node 181.5 degrees..
  • Orbcomm C7 - . Payload: Orbcomm s/n FM27. Nation: USA. Agency: Orbcomm. Manufacturer: Germantown. Program: Orbcomm. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Orbcomm. USAF Sat Cat: 25481 . COSPAR: 1998-053G. Apogee: 823 km (511 mi). Perigee: 813 km (505 mi). Inclination: 45.0200 deg. Period: 101.27 min. Summary: Plane C. Ascending node 181.6 degrees..
  • Orbcomm C8 - . Payload: Orbcomm s/n FM28. Nation: USA. Agency: Orbcomm. Manufacturer: Germantown. Program: Orbcomm. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Orbcomm. USAF Sat Cat: 25482 . COSPAR: 1998-053H. Apogee: 824 km (512 mi). Perigee: 813 km (505 mi). Inclination: 45.0300 deg. Period: 101.27 min. Summary: Plane C. Ascending node 181.7 degrees..

1999 December 4 - . 18:53 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island DZ. Launch Pad: 37.0 N x 72.0 W. Launch Platform: L-1011. LV Family: Pegasus. Launch Vehicle: Pegasus XL/HAPS. LV Configuration: Pegasus XL/HAPS F28.
  • Orbcomm FM30 - . Mass: 45 kg (99 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: Orbcomm. Manufacturer: Germantown. Program: Orbcomm. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Orbcomm. USAF Sat Cat: 25980 . COSPAR: 1999-065A. Apogee: 798 km (495 mi). Perigee: 790 km (490 mi). Inclination: 45.0000 deg. Period: 100.70 min. Summary: Seven Orbcomms launched, rather than eight as on previous flights..
  • Orbcomm FM36 - . Mass: 45 kg (99 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: Orbcomm. Manufacturer: Germantown. Program: Orbcomm. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Orbcomm. USAF Sat Cat: 25986 . COSPAR: 1999-065G. Apogee: 797 km (495 mi). Perigee: 790 km (490 mi). Inclination: 45.0000 deg. Period: 100.70 min.
  • Orbcomm FM35 - . Mass: 45 kg (99 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: Orbcomm. Manufacturer: Germantown. Program: Orbcomm. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Orbcomm. USAF Sat Cat: 25985 . COSPAR: 1999-065F. Apogee: 797 km (495 mi). Perigee: 791 km (491 mi). Inclination: 45.0000 deg. Period: 100.70 min.
  • Orbcomm FM33 - . Mass: 45 kg (99 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: Orbcomm. Manufacturer: Germantown. Program: Orbcomm. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Orbcomm. USAF Sat Cat: 25983 . COSPAR: 1999-065D. Apogee: 793 km (492 mi). Perigee: 780 km (480 mi). Inclination: 45.0000 deg. Period: 100.60 min.
  • Orbcomm FM32 - . Mass: 45 kg (99 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: Orbcomm. Manufacturer: Germantown. Program: Orbcomm. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Orbcomm. USAF Sat Cat: 25982 . COSPAR: 1999-065C. Apogee: 798 km (495 mi). Perigee: 788 km (489 mi). Inclination: 45.0000 deg. Period: 100.70 min.
  • Orbcomm FM31 - . Mass: 45 kg (99 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: Orbcomm. Manufacturer: Germantown. Program: Orbcomm. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Orbcomm. USAF Sat Cat: 25981 . COSPAR: 1999-065B. Apogee: 798 km (495 mi). Perigee: 790 km (490 mi). Inclination: 45.0000 deg. Period: 100.70 min.
  • Orbcomm FM34 - . Mass: 45 kg (99 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: Orbcomm. Manufacturer: Germantown. Program: Orbcomm. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Orbcomm. USAF Sat Cat: 25984 . COSPAR: 1999-065E. Apogee: 795 km (493 mi). Perigee: 792 km (492 mi). Inclination: 45.0000 deg. Period: 100.70 min.

2008 June 19 - . 06:36 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar LC107/1. LV Family: Kosmos 3. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M.
  • Orbcomm FM 38 - . Nation: USA. Agency: Orbcomm. Program: Orbcomm. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Orbcomm. USAF Sat Cat: 33060 . COSPAR: 2008-031A. Apogee: 672 km (417 mi). Perigee: 660 km (410 mi). Inclination: 48.5000 deg. Period: 98.10 min.
  • Orbcomm FM 41 - . Payload: Star bus. Nation: USA. Agency: Orbcomm. Program: Orbcomm. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Orbcomm. USAF Sat Cat: 33061 . COSPAR: 2008-031B. Apogee: 672 km (417 mi). Perigee: 661 km (410 mi). Inclination: 48.4000 deg. Period: 98.10 min.
  • Orbcomm FM 29 - . Nation: USA. Agency: Orbcomm. Program: Orbcomm. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Orbcomm. USAF Sat Cat: 33062 . COSPAR: 2008-031C. Apogee: 672 km (417 mi). Perigee: 661 km (410 mi). Inclination: 48.4000 deg. Period: 98.10 min.
  • Orbcomm FM 39 - . Nation: USA. Agency: Orbcomm. Program: Orbcomm. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Orbcomm. USAF Sat Cat: 33063 . COSPAR: 2008-031D. Apogee: 672 km (417 mi). Perigee: 661 km (410 mi). Inclination: 48.4000 deg. Period: 98.10 min.
  • Orbcomm FM 37 - . Nation: USA. Agency: Orbcomm. Program: Orbcomm. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Orbcomm. USAF Sat Cat: 33064 . COSPAR: 2008-031E. Apogee: 672 km (417 mi). Perigee: 661 km (410 mi). Inclination: 48.5000 deg. Period: 98.10 min.
  • Orbcomm FM 40 - . Nation: USA. Agency: Orbcomm. Program: Orbcomm. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Orbcomm. USAF Sat Cat: 33065 . COSPAR: 2008-031F. Apogee: 672 km (417 mi). Perigee: 661 km (410 mi). Inclination: 48.5000 deg. Period: 98.10 min.

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