Encyclopedia Astronautica
Ofeq 1-2



ofeq1.jpg
Ofeq-1
Israeli technology satellite. 2 launches, 1988.09.19 (Ofeq-1) to 1990.04.03 (Ofeq-2). Ofeq, meaning 'Horizon', was a technology demonstration satellite developed by IAI (Israel Aircraft Industries) for ISA (Israel Space Agency).

Israel became the eighth nation to launch an indigenous satellite when Ofeq 1 was placed into a unique retrograde low earth orbit. The full payload was not disclosed but included magnetometers and house-keeping / monitoring equipment. Later satellites with the same name would be operational optical surveillance satellites.

The only malfunction in Ofeq-1 was in telemetry memory; the computer switched to backup. Expected life was a few weeks but the satellite did not re-enter until January 14 because of a higher than expected orbit.

Announced functions of the satellite were: 1) Experimentation in generation of solar power; 2) Experimentation in transmission reception from space; 3) Verification of system's ability to withstand vacuum and weightless conditions; 4) Data collection on space environment conditions and Earth's magnetic field. The spacecraft was an irregular octagonal prism of conventional aluminum. Mass budget (kg): structure 33, power system 58, computer 7, communications 12, thermal control 5, wiring 9, instrumentation & balance masses 32. Ofeq was spin stabilized at 400 deg/sec, and the 16 solar panels provided 246 W and recharged a 7 Ah NiCd battery; typical consumption was 53 W. S-band telemetry was returned at 2.5 kbit/s from a 128 kbyte memory. Attitude sensing was provided by a 3-axis rate gyro, magnetometer and Sun sensor. Any payload was classified except for the magnetometers and housekeeping monitoring functions.

Gross mass: 157 kg (346 lb).
Height: 2.30 m (7.50 ft).
First Launch: 1988.09.19.
Last Launch: 1990.04.03.
Number: 2 .

More... - Chronology...


Associated Countries
See also
  • Shavit Satellite launcher derived from Jericho II MRBM, essentially identical to South African RSA-3. NEXT was a variant with an improved upper stage for proposed launch from Wallops Island, USA (launch from Israel is only possible into retrograde orbits since due East launch would be over territory of adjacent countries). More...

Associated Launch Vehicles
  • Shavit Israeli all-solid orbital launch vehicle. Satellite launcher derived from Jericho II MRBM, essentially identical to South African RSA-3. More...

Associated Manufacturers and Agencies
  • ISA Israeli agency overseeing development of spacecraft. Israeli Space Agency, Israel. More...
  • IAI Israeli manufacturer of rockets, spacecraft, and rocket engines. Israel Aircraft Industries, Israel. More...

Associated Programs
  • Offeq Israeli indigenous satellite series. Launching organization: Israel Aircraft Industries, Ltd (IAI) and Israeli Space Agency (ISA). Function of first Offeqs: 1) Experimentation in generation of solar power; 2) Experimentation in transmission reception from space; 3) Verification of system's ability to withstand vacuum and weightless conditions; 4) Data collection on space environment conditions and Earth's magnetic field. Later models provided military optical and electronic reconnaissance services. More...

Bibliography
  • McDowell, Jonathan, Jonathan's Space Home Page (launch records), Harvard University, 1997-present. Web Address when accessed: here.
  • Krebs, Gunter, Gunter's Space Page, University of Frankfurt, 1996. Web Address when accessed: here.
  • JPL Mission and Spacecraft Library, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 1997. Web Address when accessed: here.

Associated Launch Sites
  • Palmachim Israeli coastal missile test site from which the Shavit satellite launch vehicle is also launched. A due-west launch over the Mediterranean is required to avoid overflying Arab countries, resulting in unique orbital inclinations and directions.

    The site was known to have been used for 40 launches from 1987 to 2007. More...


Ofeq 1-2 Chronology


1988 September 19 - . 09:32 GMT - . Launch Site: Palmachim. LV Family: Shavit. Launch Vehicle: Shavit. LV Configuration: Shaviyt 1.
  • Ofeq-1 - . Mass: 155 kg (341 lb). Nation: Israel. Agency: ISA. Program: Offeq. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft: Ofeq 1-2. Decay Date: 1989-01-14 . USAF Sat Cat: 19519 . COSPAR: 1988-087A. Apogee: 1,149 km (713 mi). Perigee: 250 km (150 mi). Inclination: 142.9000 deg. Period: 98.80 min. First Israeli launch; possibly experimental surveillance mission. Experimental satellite 'Offeq-1'. Launch time 0934 GMT. Location: site on the coast south of Tel-Aviv. Launching organization: Israel Aircraft Industries, Ltd (IAI) and Israeli Space Agency (ISA). Function: 1) Experimentation in generation of solar power; 2) Experimentation in transmission reception from space; 3) Verification of system's ability to withstand vacuum and weightless conditions; 4) Data collection on space environment conditions and Earth's magnetic field.

1990 April 3 - . 12:02 GMT - . Launch Site: Palmachim. LV Family: Shavit. Launch Vehicle: Shavit. LV Configuration: Shaviyt 2.
  • Ofeq-2 - . Mass: 160 kg (350 lb). Nation: Israel. Agency: ISA. Program: Offeq. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft: Ofeq 1-2. Decay Date: 1990-07-09 . USAF Sat Cat: 20540 . COSPAR: 1990-027A. Apogee: 251 km (155 mi). Perigee: 149 km (92 mi). Inclination: 143.2000 deg. Period: 88.50 min. Summary: Communication experiments. .

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