Encyclopedia Astronautica
Marine Observation Satellite


Japanese earth sea satellite. 2 launches, 1987.02.19 (MOS-1) to 1990.02.07 (MOS-1b). The MOS 1A and 1B satellites, also known as Momo 1A and 1B, were Japan's first Earth resources satellites.

The satellites were designed to monitor ocean currents, sea surface temperature, atmospheric water vapor, ocean chlorophyll levels, precipitation, and land vegetation. They also acted as relays for data from remote surface sensor platforms.

MOS 1B was upgraded for flight from the engineering model for MOS 1A. The spacecraft was nadir pointing, 3-axis stabilized with momentum wheels and hydrazine thrusters. Communications consisted of S-, X-band downlink, and S-band uplink. A single solar panel with 1-axis articulation provided power. The payload included:

  • Multispectral Electronic Self-Scanning Radiometer (MESSR) - covers 4 bands between 0.51 and 1.1 micron, 50 m resolution, 200 km swath. Designed to observe ice distribution, land use, snow cover, ocean chlorophyll.
  • Visible and Thermal Infrared Radiometer (VTIR) - covers 6 bands between 0.5 and 12.5 microns, 0.9 - 2.7 km resolution, 1500 km swath. Designed to monitor snow, cloud, ice coverage, sea surface temperatures.
  • Microwave Scanning Radiometer (MSR) - 2 frequency radiometer (23.8, 31.4 GHz) with 23-32 km resolution, 317 km swath. Monitored atmospheric water vapor content, snowfall, and rainfall.

Gross mass: 742 kg (1,635 lb).
Height: 2.40 m (7.80 ft).
Span: 11.50 m (37.70 ft).
First Launch: 1987.02.19.
Last Launch: 1990.02.07.
Number: 2 .

More... - Chronology...


Associated Countries
See also
  • Delta The Delta launch vehicle was America's longest-lived, most reliable, and lowest-cost space launch vehicle. Development began in 1955 and it continued in service in the 21st Century despite numerous candidate replacements. More...

Associated Launch Vehicles
  • Delta American orbital launch vehicle. The Delta launch vehicle was America's longest-lived, most reliable, and lowest-cost space launch vehicle. Delta began as Thor, a crash December 1955 program to produce an intermediate range ballistic missile using existing components, which flew thirteen months after go-ahead. Fifteen months after that, a space launch version flew, using an existing upper stage. The addition of solid rocket boosters allowed the Thor core and Able/Delta upper stages to be stretched. Costs were kept down by using first and second-stage rocket engines surplus to the Apollo program in the 1970's. Continuous introduction of new 'existing' technology over the years resulted in an incredible evolution - the payload into a geosynchronous transfer orbit increasing from 68 kg in 1962 to 3810 kg by 2002. Delta survived innumerable attempts to kill the program and replace it with 'more rationale' alternatives. By 2008 nearly 1,000 boosters had flown over a fifty-year career, and cancellation was again announced. More...
  • N-2 Licensed version of Delta built in Japan using both US and Japanese components. 4 stage vehicle. More...
  • H-1 Japanese license-built version of Delta launch vehicle, with Japanese-developed upper stages. More...

Associated Manufacturers and Agencies
  • NASDA Japanese agency overseeing development of rockets, spacecraft, and rocket engines. National Space Development Agency, Japan. More...
  • NEC Japanese manufacturer of spacecraft. Nippon Electric Corporation, Japan. More...

Bibliography
  • McDowell, Jonathan, Jonathan's Space Home Page (launch records), Harvard University, 1997-present. Web Address when accessed: here.
  • JPL Mission and Spacecraft Library, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 1997. Web Address when accessed: here.
  • McDowell, Jonathan, Launch Log, October 1998. Web Address when accessed: here.

Associated Launch Sites
  • Tanegashima Japan's main launch site for he larger N and H launch vehicles. In use for sounding rockets from 1967 and orbital launches from 1975. As of 2007 over 140 major launches had been made from the site. More...

Marine Observation Satellite Chronology


1987 February 19 - . 01:23 GMT - . Launch Site: Tanegashima. Launch Complex: Tanegashima N. LV Family: Delta. Launch Vehicle: N-2. LV Configuration: N-2 N-16(F).
  • MOS-1 - . Payload: Momo 1. Mass: 745 kg (1,642 lb). Nation: Japan. Agency: NASDA. Class: Earth. Type: Sea satellite. Spacecraft: Marine Observation Satellite. USAF Sat Cat: 17527 . COSPAR: 1987-018A. Apogee: 909 km (564 mi). Perigee: 907 km (563 mi). Inclination: 99.1000 deg. Period: 103.20 min. Summary: Ocean remote sensing. MOS-1 (Momo-1). Observation of marine phenomena such as sea color and temperature. Establishment of common technology necessary for Earth observation satellites. Launching organization NASDA. Launch time 0123 GMT..

1990 February 7 - . 01:33 GMT - . Launch Site: Tanegashima. Launch Complex: Tanegashima N. LV Family: Delta. Launch Vehicle: H-1. LV Configuration: H-1 H-21(F).
  • MOS-1b - . Payload: Momo 1B. Mass: 740 kg (1,630 lb). Nation: Japan. Agency: NASDA. Class: Earth. Type: Sea satellite. Spacecraft: Marine Observation Satellite. USAF Sat Cat: 20478 . COSPAR: 1990-013A. Apogee: 909 km (564 mi). Perigee: 908 km (564 mi). Inclination: 99.1000 deg. Period: 103.20 min. Summary: Marine observation. Continuation of Earth observation functions of MOS-1; establishment of common technology necessary for Earth-observation satellites. Launching organization NASDA. Name MOS-1b 'Momo-1b'. Launch time 0133 UT..

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