Encyclopedia Astronautica
Luna E-6LS



luna10.jpg
Luna 10 / E-6S
E-6S lunar orbiter spacecraft. The E-6LF and E-6LS spacecraft may have been similar.
Credit: NASA
Russian lunar orbiter. 3 launches, 1967.05.17 (Cosmos 159) to 1968.04.07 (Luna 14). The E-6LS was a radio-equipped version of the E-6 used to test tracking and communications networks for the Soviet manned lunar program.

Otherwise the spacecraft instrumentation was similar to that of the E-6LF and provided data for studies of the interaction of the earth and lunar masses, the lunar gravitational field, the propagation and stability of radio communications to the spacecraft at different orbital positions, solar charged particles and cosmic rays, and the motion of the Moon.

Gross mass: 1,700 kg (3,700 lb).
First Launch: 1967.05.16.
Last Launch: 1968.04.07.
Number: 3 .

More... - Chronology...


Associated Countries
Associated Engines
  • KTDU-5A Isayev Nitric acid/Amine rocket engine. 45.5 kN. Used on Luna E-6 probes. Out of Production. Isp=287s. First turbopump engine with surface tension propellant management devices in tanks, allowing re-ignition in zero-G. More...

See also
  • Soyuz The Russian Soyuz spacecraft has been the longest-lived, most adaptable, and most successful manned spacecraft design. In production for fifty years, more than 240 have been built and flown on a wide range of missions. The design will remain in use with the international space station well into the 21st century, providing the only manned access to the station after the retirement of the shuttle in 2011. More...

Associated Launch Vehicles
  • Soyuz Russian orbital launch vehicle. The world's first ICBM became the most often used and most reliable launch vehicle in history. The original core+four strap-on booster missile had a small third stage added to produce the Vostok launch vehicle, with a payload of 5 metric tons. Addition of a larger third stage produced the Voskhod/Soyuz vehicle, with a payload over 6 metric tons. Using this with a fourth stage, the resulting Molniya booster placed communications satellites and early lunar and planetary probes in higher energy trajectories. By the year 2000 over 1,628 had been launched with an unmatched success rate of 97.5% for production models. Improved models providing commercial launch services for international customers entered service in the new millenium, and a new launch pad at Kourou was to be inaugurated in 2009. It appeared that the R-7 could easily still be in service 70 years after its first launch. More...
  • Molniya 8K78M Russian orbital launch vehicle. Improved Molniya, in variants with Blocks ML, 2BL, or SO-L third stages according to payload. More...

Associated Manufacturers and Agencies
  • Korolev Russian manufacturer of rockets, spacecraft, and rocket engines. Korolev Design Bureau, Kaliningrad, Russia. More...
  • MOM Russian agency overseeing development of spacecraft. Ministry of General Machine Building (Moskva, Russia), Moscow, Russia. More...

Associated Programs
  • Lunar L3 The Soviet program to land a man on the moon and return him safely to earth. More...
  • Lunar L1 The Soviet program to put a man on a circumlunar flight around the moon. More...

Bibliography
  • McDowell, Jonathan, Jonathan's Space Home Page (launch records), Harvard University, 1997-present. Web Address when accessed: here.
  • JPL Mission and Spacecraft Library, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 1997. Web Address when accessed: here.
  • Varfolomyev, Timothy, "Soviet Rocketry that Conquered Space - Part 5", Spaceflight, 1998, Volume 40, page 85.
  • "Otmenenniy Start "Molniya-M"", Novosti Kosmonavtiki, 1997, Issue 1, page 29.
  • National Space Science Center Planetary Page, As of 19 February 1999.. Web Address when accessed: here.

Associated Launch Sites
  • Baikonur Russia's largest cosmodrome, the only one used for manned launches and with facilities for the larger Proton, N1, and Energia launch vehicles. The spaceport ended up on foreign soil after the break-up of Soviet Union. The official designations NIIP-5 and GIK-5 are used in official Soviet histories. It was also universally referred to as Tyuratam by both Soviet military staff and engineers, and the US intelligence agencies. Since the dissolution of the Soviet Union the Russian Federation has insisted on continued use of the old Soviet 'public' name of Baikonur. In its Kazakh (Kazak) version this is rendered Baykonur. More...

Luna E-6LS Chronology


1967 May 16 - . 21:43 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M. LV Configuration: Molniya 8K78M Ya716-56.
  • Cosmos 159 - . Payload: E-6LS s/n 111. Mass: 4,490 kg (9,890 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Lunar L1. Class: Moon. Type: Lunar probe. Flight: Soyuz 7K-L1 mission 1. Spacecraft: Luna E-6LS. Decay Date: 1977-11-11 . USAF Sat Cat: 2805 . COSPAR: 1967-046A. Apogee: 60,637 km (37,678 mi). Perigee: 350 km (210 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 1,174.20 min. Summary: The E-6LS was a radio-equipped version of the E-6 used to test tracking and communications networks for the Soviet manned lunar program. The payload entered the desired orbit as Kosmos-159..

1968 February 7 - . 10:43 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M. LV Configuration: Molniya 8K78M Ya716-57. FAILURE: At T+524.6 sec Stage 3's engine 11D55 cut off prematurely because it ran out of fuel due to an excessive fuel consumption rate through the gas-generator.. Failed Stage: 3.
  • E-6LS s/n 112 - . Payload: E-6LS s/n 112. Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Program: Lunar L1. Class: Moon. Type: Lunar probe. Flight: Soyuz 7K-L1 mission 1. Spacecraft: Luna E-6LS. Decay Date: 1968-02-07 . COSPAR: F680207A. Failed launch of an E-6LS radio-equipped version of the E-6 used to test tracking and communications networks for the Soviet manned lunar program. Suggestions for the abnormal consumption included the seizing up of a pintle valve for controlling fuel supply into the regulator or the seizing up of the fuel inlet control. The upper stages broke up in the atmosphere.

1968 April 7 - . 10:09 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M. LV Configuration: Molniya 8K78M Ya716-58.
  • Luna 14 - . Payload: E-6LS s/n 113. Mass: 1,700 kg (3,700 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Lunar L3. Class: Moon. Type: Lunar probe. Spacecraft: Luna E-6LS. USAF Sat Cat: 3178 . COSPAR: 1968-027A. Lunar Orbiter; studied lunar gravitational field, Earth-Moon gravitational relationship, and conducted further scientific experiments in circumlunar space. Not revealed until years later was that the E-6LS was primarily intended to test tracking and communications networks for the Soviet manned lunar program. The Luna 14 spacecraft entered a 140 x 870 km x 42 degree lunar orbit on April 10, 1966. The spacecraft instrumentation was similar to that of Luna 10 and provided data for studies of the interaction of the earth and lunar masses, the lunar gravitational field, the propagation and stability of radio communications to the spacecraft at different orbital positions, solar charged particles and cosmic rays, and the motion of the Moon. This flight was the final flight of the second generation of the Luna series.

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