LM Television Development Diary
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LM Television Chronology
1963 April -
- Grumman studies on common usage of Apollo CSM/LM communications - .
Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo LM; CSM Television; LM Communications; LM Television. Summary: Grumman reported to MSC the results of studies on common usage of communications. Television cameras for the two spacecraft would be identical; the LEM transponder would be as similar as possible to that in the CSM..
1963 May 2 -
- CM television camera made compatible with that in the Apollo LEM - .
Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo LM; CSM Television; LM Television. NASA, North American, Grumman, and RCA representatives determined the alterations needed to make the CM television camera compatible with that in the LEM: an additional oscillator to provide synchronization, conversion of operating voltage from 115 AC to 28 DC, and reduction of the lines per frame from 400 to 320.
1963 December -
- Apollo television cameras for the LEM to be government-furnished - .
Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo LM; LM Descent Propulsion; LM Television. MSC decided to supply television cameras for the LEM as government-furnished items. Grumman was ordered to cease its effort on this component.
Resizing of the LEM propulsion tanks was completed by Grumman. The cylindrical section of the descent tank was extended 34.04 millimeters (1.34 inches), for a total of 36.27 centimeters (14.28 inches) between the spherical end bells. The ascent tanks (two-tank series) were 1240.54 centimeters (48.84 inches) in diameter.
1965 August 2 -
- Plans to install Apollo Unified S-Band System equipment at Corpus Christi tracking station - .
Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo LM; CSM Television; LM Communications; LM Television. NASA announced plans to install Apollo Unified S-Band System equipment at its Corpus Christi, Tex., tracking station. The Unified S-Band equipment included a 9-m (30-ft) diameter parabolic antenna and would enable handling of seven different types of communications with two different vehicles, the CM and the LEM. The communications would: track the spacecraft; command its operations and confirm that the command had been executed; provide two-way voice conversation with three astronauts; keep a continuous check on the astronauts' health; make continuous checks on the spacecraft and its functions; supply a continuous flow of information from the Apollo onboard experiments; and transmit television of the astronauts and the exploration of the moon.
1966 June 6 -
- Query on needs for or objections to an Apollo spacecraft TV system - .
Nation: USA. Related Persons: Slayton. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo LM; CSM Block II; LM Television. In response to a query on needs for or objections to an Apollo spacecraft TV system, MSC Assistant Director for Flight Crew Operations Donald K. Slayton informed the Flight Control Division that FCOD had no operational requirements for a TV capability in either the Block I or the Block II CSM or LM. He added that his Directorate would object to interference caused by checkout, crew training, and inflight time requirements.
1967 January 23 -
- Apollo Lunar Mission Planning Board - .
Nation: USA. Related Persons: Faget. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo LM; LM Television. The Lunar Mission Planning Board held its first meeting at MSC. Present, in addition to Chairman Robert R. Gilruth, were Charles A. Berry, Maxime A. Faget, George M. Low, Robert O. Piland, Wesley L. Hjornevik, and acting secretary William E. Stoney, Jr., all of MSC. Principal subject of discussion was the photography obtained by Lunar Orbiter I and Lunar Orbiter II and application of this photography to Apollo site selection. The material was presented by John Eggleston and Owen Maynard, both of MSC. Orbiter I had obtained medium-resolution photography of sites on the southern half of the Apollo area of interest; Orbiter II had obtained both medium- and high-resolution photographs of sites toward the northern half of the area. Several action items were assigned, with progress to be reported at the next meeting, including a definition of requirements for a TV landing aid for the lunar module and a report on landing-site-selection restraints based on data available from Lunar Orbiter I and II only, and another on data from Lunar Orbiter I, II, and III.
1967 December 22 -
- First fire-in-the-hole Apollo LM test - .
Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo LM; LM Television. The first fire-in-the-hole test was successfully completed at the White Sands Test Facility (WSTF). The vehicle test configuration was that of LM-2 and the test cell pressure immediately before the test was equivalent to a 68,850-meter altitude. All test objectives were satisfied and video tapes of TV monitors were acquired. Test firing duration was 650 milliseconds with zero stage separation.
1968 September 6 -
- Proposed revisions of the first Apollo lunar landing mission plan - .
Nation: USA. Related Persons: Slayton. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo LM; LM ECS; LM Television. In response to a letter from Apollo Program Director Samuel C. Phillips concerning proposed revisions of the first lunar landing mission plan, MSC Director Robert R. Gilruth presented MSC's position on the three major topics:
Additional Details: here....
- deletion of the lunar geology investigation (LGI) and the Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Package (ALSEP),
- television coverage, and
- extravehicular excursion.
1968 September 11 -
- Extravehicular activities during the first Apollo lunar landing missions - .
Nation: USA. Related Persons: Webb. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo LM; LM Television. At a meeting of the MSF Management Council, Apollo Program Director Samuel C. Phillips put forth a number of recommendations regarding planning for extravehicular and scientific activities during the first lunar landing missions:
The Management Council approved Phillips' recommendations and carried them to Administrator James E. Webb for final approval. In Houston, ASPO Manager George M. Low ordered his organization to begin planning for the first landing mission in accordance with these recommendations.
- During the first mission, extravehicular activities (EVA) should be limited to three hours, with the spacecraft manned by one of the two crewmen at all times.
- The Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Package should be deleted from the earliest missions (although the present preliminary sample must be improved scientifically).
- Television must be carried aboard the LM, for benefits both for operational and public information.
- To realize the maximum scientific return on the second and subsequent flights, MSC must, during the first landing mission, assess the astronauts' capabilities to conduct lunar surface activities. Also, MSC should study and recommend changes in LM hardware that would lengthen EVA time available for scientific investigations during future Apollo missions.
1968 December 16 -
- Potential uses for television aboard Apollo CSM and LM - .
Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Flight: Apollo 9. Spacecraft: Apollo LM; CSM Block II; LM Television. Summary: NASA Apollo Program Director Samuel C. Phillips asked ASPO Manager George M. Low for comments on potential uses for television aboard all Apollo spacecraft (both CMs and LMs). . Additional Details: here....
1968 December 24 -
- Plans for television cameras aboard remaining Apollo missions - .
Nation: USA. Related Persons: Low, George. Program: Apollo. Flight: Apollo 13; Apollo 9. Spacecraft: Apollo LM; CSM Block II; LM Television. ASPO Manager George M. Low apprised Program Director Samuel C. Phillips of MSC's plans for television cameras aboard remaining Apollo missions. With the exception of spacecraft 104 (scheduled for flight as Apollo 9), television cameras were to be flown in all CMs. Also, cameras would be included in all manned LMs (LM-3 through LM-14).
1971 January 18 -
- Real-time television coverage of Apollo lunar surface activities planned - .
Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo LM; LM Television. NASA was considering several methods for providing real-time television coverage of lunar surface activities with scientific commentary to the news media during future Apollo flights. A recommended approach would place scientific personnel from within NASA, including Apollo Program principal investigators, in the MSC news center briefing room with a panel representing the news media. The scientific personnel would supplement the normal air-to-ground communications, public affairs commentary, and TV transmissions from the moon with spontaneous commentary on surface activities in progress.
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