Encyclopedia Astronautica
Lacrosse


American military side-looking radar all-weather surveillance radar satellite. Operational, first launch 1988.12.02.

Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver (formerly Martin Marietta)

First Launch: 1988.12.02.
Last Launch: 2010.09.21.
Number: 6 .

More... - Chronology...


Associated Countries
See also
  • Shuttle The manned reusable space system which was designed to slash the cost of space transport and replace all expendable launch vehicles. It did neither, but did keep NASA in the manned space flight business for 30 years. More...
  • Titan The Titan launch vehicle family was developed by the United States Air Force to meet its medium lift requirements in the 1960's. The designs finally put into production were derived from the Titan II ICBM. Titan outlived the competing NASA Saturn I launch vehicle and the Space Shuttle for military launches. It was finally replaced by the USAF's EELV boosters, the Atlas V and Delta IV. Although conceived as a low-cost, quick-reaction system, Titan was not successful as a commercial launch vehicle. Air Force requirements growth over the years drove its costs up - the Ariane using similar technology provided lower-cost access to space. More...

Associated Launch Vehicles
  • Titan American orbital launch vehicle. The Titan launch vehicle family was developed by the United States Air Force to meet its medium lift requirements in the 1960's. The designs finally put into production were derived from the Titan II ICBM. Titan outlived the competing NASA Saturn I launch vehicle and the Space Shuttle for military launches. It was finally replaced by the USAF's EELV boosters, the Atlas V and Delta IV. Although conceived as a low-cost, quick-reaction system, Titan was not successful as a commercial launch vehicle. Air Force requirements growth over the years drove its costs up - the Ariane using similar technology provided lower-cost access to space. More...
  • Shuttle American winged orbital launch vehicle. The manned reusable space system which was designed to slash the cost of space transport and replace all expendable launch vehicles. It did neither, but did keep NASA in the manned space flight business for 30 years. Redesign of the shuttle with reliability in mind after the Challenger disaster reduced maximum payload to low earth orbit from 27,850 kg to 24,400 kg. More...
  • Titan 4 American orbital launch vehicle. Developed to handle military payloads designed for launch on Shuttle from Vandenberg before the USAF pulled out of the Shuttle program after the Challenger disaster. Further stretch of core from Titan 34, 7-segment solid rocket motors (developed for MOL but not used until 25 years later). Enlarged Centaur G used as upper stage (variant of stage designed for Shuttle but prohibited for flight safety reasons after Challenger). Completely revised electronics. All the changes resulted in major increase in cost of launch vehicle and launch operations. More...
  • Titan 4B American orbital launch vehicle. Titan 4 with Upgraded Solid Rocket Motors replacing UA1207. Developed to improve performance for certain missions, and reduce number of field joints in motor after Challenger and Titan 34D explosions involving segmented motors. More...
  • Titan 403A American orbital launch vehicle. Version of Titan 4 with no upper stage, configured for launch of lower-mass, higher-orbit Lacrosse, SDS and NOSS-2 payloads from Vandenberg. More...
  • Titan 403B American orbital launch vehicle. Version of Titan 4B with no upper stage, configured for launch from Vandenberg. More...

Associated Manufacturers and Agencies
  • NRO American agency overseeing development of spacecraft. National Reconnaissance Office, USA. More...
  • Martin American manufacturer of rockets, spacecraft, and rocket engines. Martin Marietta Astronautics Group (1956), Denver, CO, USA. More...

Bibliography
  • McDowell, Jonathan, Jonathan's Space Home Page (launch records), Harvard University, 1997-present. Web Address when accessed: here.
  • McDowell, Jonathan, Jonathan's Space Report (Internet Newsletter), Harvard University, Weekly, 1989 to Present. Web Address when accessed: here.
  • JPL Mission and Spacecraft Library, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 1997. Web Address when accessed: here.
  • Sorokin, Vladislav, "'Yantarnaya istoriya'", Novosti Kosmonavtiki, 1997, Issue 17, page 57.
  • NASA/GSFC Orbital Information Group Website, Web Address when accessed: here.
  • Space-Launcher.com, Orbital Report News Agency. Web Address when accessed: here.

Associated Launch Sites
  • Cape Canaveral America's largest launch center, used for all manned launches. Today only six of the 40 launch complexes built here remain in use. Located at or near Cape Canaveral are the Kennedy Space Center on Merritt Island, used by NASA for Saturn V and Space Shuttle launches; Patrick AFB on Cape Canaveral itself, operated the US Department of Defense and handling most other launches; the commercial Spaceport Florida; the air-launched launch vehicle and missile Drop Zone off Mayport, Florida, located at 29.00 N 79.00 W, and an offshore submarine-launched ballistic missile launch area. All of these take advantage of the extensive down-range tracking facilities that once extended from the Cape, through the Caribbean, South Atlantic, and to South Africa and the Indian Ocean. More...
  • Vandenberg Vandenberg Air Force Base is located on the Central Coast of California about 240 km northwest of Los Angeles. It is used for launches of unmanned government and commercial satellites into polar orbit and intercontinental ballistic missile test launches toward the Kwajalein Atoll. More...
  • Cape Canaveral LC40 Titan launch complex. Constructed as part of the Titan Integrate-Transfer-Launch (ITL) facility at the north end of Cape Canaveral in the early 1960s. Supported a wide variety of military space missions involving Titan IIIC, Titan 34D and Titan IV vehicles. More...
  • Vandenberg SLC4E Titan, Atlas launch complex. First designated PALC2-4 and used to launch Atlas Agena D with KH-7 spysats. Rebuilt after MOL cancellation in 1970 to handle Titan 3D with KH-9 and KH-11 spysats. Upgraded in 1989-1990 for Titan 4. More...
  • Cape Canaveral LC39B Shuttle, Saturn V, Saturn I launch complex. LC39A and LC39B, part of the Kennedy Space Center, were built on Merritt Island (north/northwest of the Cape) to support the Saturn V/Apollo lunar landing program in 1963-1966. The sites were modified in the last half of the 1970s to support the manned Space Shuttle program. More...

Lacrosse Chronology


1988 December 2 - . 14:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39B. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. LV Configuration: Space Shuttle STS-27R.
  • USA 34 - . Payload: Lacrosse 1. Nation: USA. Agency: NRO; CIA. Manufacturer: Martin. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance radar satellite. Spacecraft: Lacrosse. Decay Date: 1997-03-25 . USAF Sat Cat: 19671 . COSPAR: 1988-106B. Apogee: 447 km (277 mi). Perigee: 437 km (271 mi). Inclination: 57.0000 deg. Period: 93.40 min. Summary: Deployed from STS-27. Operations completed March 1997..

1991 March 8 - . 12:03 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC4E. LV Family: Titan. Launch Vehicle: Titan 403A. LV Configuration: Titan 403A K-5 (45F-1).
  • USA 69 - . Payload: Lacrosse 2. Nation: USA. Agency: NRO; CIA. Manufacturer: Martin. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance radar satellite. Spacecraft: Lacrosse. USAF Sat Cat: 21147 . COSPAR: 1991-017A. Apogee: 662 km (411 mi). Perigee: 420 km (260 mi). Inclination: 68.0000 deg. Period: 95.50 min. Summary: Still operating December 1997. First West Coast launch of a Titan 4..

1997 October 24 - . 02:32 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC4E. LV Family: Titan. Launch Vehicle: Titan 403A. LV Configuration: Titan 403A 4A-18 (K-18, 45F-3).
  • USA 133 - . Payload: Lacrosse 3. Nation: USA. Agency: NRO; CIA. Manufacturer: Martin. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance radar satellite. Spacecraft: Lacrosse. USAF Sat Cat: 25017 . COSPAR: 1997-064A. Apogee: 679 km (421 mi). Perigee: 666 km (413 mi). Inclination: 57.0000 deg. Summary: Still operating December 1997..

2000 August 17 - . 23:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC4E. LV Family: Titan. Launch Vehicle: Titan 403B. LV Configuration: Titan 403B 4B-28 / K-25.
  • USA 152 - . Payload: Onyx F1. Mass: 14,500 kg (31,900 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NRO. Manufacturer: Martin. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance radar satellite. Spacecraft: Lacrosse. USAF Sat Cat: 26473 . COSPAR: 2000-047A. Apogee: 695 km (432 mi). Perigee: 689 km (428 mi). Inclination: 67.9970 deg. Period: 98.53 min. The National Reconnaissance Office satellite was reported to be an Onyx (formerly Lacrosse) radar imaging spacecraft built by Lockheed Martin. The Titan second stage reached a 572 x 675 km x 68.0 deg orbit and separated from the payload. Amateur observers reported the payload has made two small maneuvers and by Aug 23 was in a 681 x 695 km x 68.1 deg orbit.

2005 April 30 - . 00:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC40. Launch Pad: SLC40. LV Family: Titan. Launch Vehicle: Titan 403B. LV Configuration: Titan 405B 4B-30.
  • USA 182 - . Mass: 14,500 kg (31,900 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NRO. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance radar satellite. Spacecraft: Lacrosse. USAF Sat Cat: 28646 . COSPAR: 2005-016A. Apogee: 705 km (438 mi). Perigee: 481 km (298 mi). Inclination: 57.0000 deg. Summary: Last East Coast Titan launch. Delayed from December 18, 2001; July 3, 2002; October 2004; February 20, April 6, 10 and 11, 2005. Amateur observors believed this to be the fifth in the Lacrosse/Onyx radar spy satellite series built by Lockheed Martin..

2010 September 21 - . 04:03 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC3E. LV Family: Atlas V. Launch Vehicle: Atlas V 501. LV Configuration: Atlas AV-025.
  • USA 215 - . Payload: NROL-41. Nation: USA. Agency: Martin. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance radar satellite. Spacecraft: Lacrosse. USAF Sat Cat: 37162 . COSPAR: 2010-046A. Apogee: 1,105 km (686 mi). Perigee: 1,102 km (684 mi). Inclination: 123.0000 deg. Summary: Believed to be a surveillance radarsat, in an unusual retrograde, higher altitude orbit than previous versions..

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