Kvant 2 Cutaway
Kvant 2 was the second addition to the Mir core module. The module has is divided into three pressurised compartments: instrumentation/cargo, science instruments and an airlock.
Credit: © Mark Wade
Kvant 2 Large
Credit: © Mark Wade
Credit: © Mark Wade
Competing concepts for Mir space station modules. From top: Chelomei's TKS module from Almaz, consisting of the FGB tug, VA re-entry capsule, and abort rocket; 37K Kvant laboratory module, with FGB tug as used to dock with aft port of Mir; 37K Kvant laboratory after docking; NPO Energia design for follow-on 37K modules (cancelled); FGB-derived modules actually used.
Credit: © Mark Wade
Russian manned space station. One launch, 1989.11.26, Kvant 2. Kvant-2 was a utility module launched to the Mir station. It provided an airlock, additional electric power, and additional gyrodynes for orienting the station.
Originally the modules attached to the Mir base block were to be of the NPO Energia 37KS design. Design and fabrication reached an advanced phase when it was decided that the separate tug concept resulted in too low a net scientific payload (3 metric tons). Integrating the tug with the module was expected to increase this to 5 metric tons and provide some reserve engine capability at Mir and additional pressurized volume. Accordingly the 37KS modules for Mir were cancelled in 1983. Competitive designs for integrated space station modules were submitted by KB Salyut and NPO Energia. The KB Salyut 77K modules were derived from the cancelled TKS manned ferry. The competing proposal from NPO Energia combined the 37KS module with the engine unit of Mir. In June 1984 the KB Salyut design was selected. The revised Mir program plan was to assemble the station over a three year period, and operate it for ten years (versus the original one year/five years).
Kvant-2, which provided an airlock, additional electric power, and additional gyrodynes for orienting the station, was the first completed. It was to have been launched in March 1989, but the Kurs automatic rendezvous and docking system had suffered four failures in recent flights due to faulty microcircuits from PO Elektronika in Voronezh. Launch was delayed until October 1989 while the chips were replaced and the revised system fully tested. This caused a corresponding disruption in the Mir flight schedule. The spacecraft was finally launched on 26 November 1989 and docked on December 6 at the forward axial port of the Mir base block. It was transferred by a small manipulator arm on Mir to its permanent location at a radial port of the Mir Base Block's transfer compartment on December 8. Kvant-2 also delivered the Salyut-5B digital computer that would be used for control of the space station (this computer was originally to have been launched with Mir, then on Kvant).
Kvant 2 was designed to host life science, materials science, and Earth observation experiments. It also carried a substantial amount of equipment to improve living conditions and operations of the Mir complex, including the Elektron electrolysis system to provide oxygen from recycled water, a water supply system, two water regeneration systems, sanitation facilities, a shower, and an airlock compartment
The module was divided into three pressurized compartments: instrumentation/cargo, science instrument, and airlock. The total pressurized volume was 61 cubic meters. The airlock provided EVA capability and also contained a cosmonaut maneuvering unit that increased the range and complexity of tasks that could be accomplished during EVA. The large EVA hatch was 1 meter in diameter.
Propulsion consisted of two 3.9 kN main engines and several 400N attitude control thruster clusters used for initial docking maneuvers (N2O4/UDMH propellants). The Kurs guidance system allowed the module to automatically rendezvous and dock with the forward port of the Mir base block. Two 26 sq. m solar arrays provided 6.9 kW. 360 A-hr of energy storage was provided by a NiCd battery system. Star sensors and six Gyrodyne momentum wheels were used to reduce propellant required for station pointing.
Scientific payloads included:
- MKF-6MA Earth resources film camera - 6 spectral bands. Provided by East Germany.
- KAP-350 topographic camera
- ASPG-M scan platform carrying ITS-7D IR spectrometer (using the Czech sensor platform first used on Vega spacecraft).
- ARIZ X-ray spectrometer
- MKS-M2 optical spectrometer
- TV cameras
- Gamma 2 spectrometer package
- Sprut 5 charged particle spectrometer (installed 1991).
- Phaza AFM-2 spectrometer
- Spektr-256 spectrometer
- Volna 2 propellant tank demonstration (250kg)
- Inkubator 2 - bird egg incubator
- Cosmic dust detectors
- Icarus EVA unit
Habitable Volume: 59.00 m3. Electric System: 6.90 average kW.
AKA: Dmitri; TsM-D 77KSD-17101; 11F77D.
More... - Chronology...
Gross mass: 19,565 kg (43,133 lb).
Unfuelled mass: 18,465 kg (40,708 lb).
Payload: 5,000 kg (11,000 lb).
Height: 13.73 m (45.04 ft).
First Launch: 1989.11.26.
Number: 1 .
Mir complex Russian manned space station. Assembled 1986 to 1996. Designation given to the entire Mir space station. More...
KRD-442 Isayev N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. 4.38 / 0.17 kN. Orbital propulsion for FGB-derived modules for Mir and ISS. In Production. Main and low-thrust mode. Operation of turbopump without chamber used to pump propellants into tanks from Progress tankers. More...
Proton The Proton launch vehicle has been the medium-lift workhorse of the Soviet and Russian space programs for over forty years. Although constantly criticized within Russia for its use of toxic and ecologically-damaging storable liquid propellants, it has out-lasted all challengers, and no replacement is in sight. More...
Associated Launch Vehicles
Proton The Proton launch vehicle has been the medium-lift workhorse of the Soviet and Russian space programs for over forty years. Although constantly criticized within Russia for its use of toxic and ecologically-damaging storable liquid propellants, it has out-lasted all challengers, and no replacement is in sight. Development of the Proton began in 1962 as a two-stage vehicle that could be used to launch large military payloads or act as a ballistic missile with a 100 megaton nuclear warhead. The ICBM was cancelled in 1965, but development of a three-stage version for the crash program to send a Soviet man around the moon began in 1964. The hurried development caused severe reliability problems in early production. But these were eventually solved, and from the 1970's the Proton was used to launch all Russian space stations, medium- and geosynchronous orbit satellites, and lunar and planetary probes. More...
Proton-K Russian orbital launch vehicle. Development of a three-stage version of the UR-500 was authorised in the decree of 3 August 1964. Decrees of 12 October and 11 November 1964 authorised development of the Almaz manned military space station and the manned circumlunar spacecraft LK-1 as payloads for the UR-500K. Remarkably, due to continuing failures, the 8K82K did not satisfactorily complete its state trials until its 61st launch (Salyut 6 / serial number 29501 / 29 September 1977). Thereafter it reached a level of launch reliability comparable to that of other world launch vehicles. More...
Associated Manufacturers and Agencies
Chelomei Russian manufacturer of rockets, spacecraft, and rocket engines. Chelomei Design Bureau, Reutov, Russia. More...
MOM Russian agency overseeing development of spacecraft. Ministry of General Machine Building (Moskva, Russia), Moscow, Russia. More...
Mir The Mir space station was the last remnant of the once mighty Soviet space programme. It was built to last only five years, and was to have been composed of modules launched by Proton and Buran/Energia launch vehicles. These modules were derived from those originally designed by Chelomei in the 1960's for the Almaz military station programme. As the Soviet Union collapsed Mir stayed in orbit, but the final modules were years late and could only be completed with American financial assistance. Kept flying over a decade beyond its rated life, Mir proved a source of pride to the Russian people and proved the ability of their cosmonauts and engineers to improvise and keep operations going despite all manner of challenges and mishaps. More...
McDowell, Jonathan, Jonathan's Space Home Page (launch records), Harvard University, 1997-present. Web Address when accessed: here.
JPL Mission and Spacecraft Library, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 1997. Web Address when accessed: here.
NASA Shuttle-Mir Web, NASA, 1997. Web Address when accessed: here.
Matson, Dr Wayne R, Editor, Cosmonautics - A Colorful History, Cosmos Books, Washington DC, 1994.
Kaesmann, Ferdinand, et. al., "Proton - Development of A Russian Launch Vehicle", Journal of the British Interplanetary Society, 1998, Volume 51, page 3.
Portree, David S. F., Mir Hardware Heritage, NASA Reference Publication 1357, March 1995.
Vladimirov, A, "Tablitsa zapuskov RN 'Proton' i 'Proton K'", Novosti kosmonavtiki, 1998, Issue 10, page 25.
Hendrickx, Bart, "The Origins and Evolution of Mir and Its Modules", Journal of the British Interplanetary Society, Vol. 51, P. 203-222, 1998..
Associated Launch Sites
Baikonur Russia's largest cosmodrome, the only one used for manned launches and with facilities for the larger Proton, N1, and Energia launch vehicles. The spaceport ended up on foreign soil after the break-up of Soviet Union. The official designations NIIP-5 and GIK-5 are used in official Soviet histories. It was also universally referred to as Tyuratam by both Soviet military staff and engineers, and the US intelligence agencies. Since the dissolution of the Soviet Union the Russian Federation has insisted on continued use of the old Soviet 'public' name of Baikonur. In its Kazakh (Kazak) version this is rendered Baykonur. More...
1983 November -
- 37KS Modules for Mir cancelled, replaced by FGB modules. - .
Nation: USSR. Spacecraft: 37KS; Kvant; Spektr; Priroda; Kristall; Kvant-2; Mir. Design and fabrication reached an advanced phase when it was decided that the separate tug concept resulted in too low a net scientific payload (3 tonnes). Integrating the tug with the module was expected to increase this to 5 tonnes and provide some reserve engine capability at Mir and additional pressurised volume. Accordingly the 37KS modules for Mir were cancelled. Work on the 37KE experimental module (Kvant) and the 37KB Buran modules continued. The function of the 37KS modules was taken up by modules by KB Salyut derived from the FGB. A competing proposal from NPO Energia for a unified spacecraft that combined the 37KS module with the engine unit of Mir was rejected.
1989 November 26 -
13:01 GMT - .
. Launch Complex
: Baikonur LC200/39
. LV Family
. Launch Vehicle
. LV Configuration
: Proton-K 354-01.
- Kvant 2 - .
Payload: 77KSD s/n 17101. Mass: 19,565 kg (43,133 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space station. Flight: Mir EO-5. Spacecraft: Kvant-2. Duration: 1,615.45 days. Decay Date: 2001-03-23 . USAF Sat Cat: 20335 . COSPAR: 1989-093A. Apogee: 397 km (246 mi). Perigee: 388 km (241 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 92.40 min. Mir expansion module. Scheduled docking 2 December delayed due to failure of solar panel to extend and failure of automatic rendezvous system. Faults corrected by ground control and docked with Mir December 6, 1989 at 12:21 GMT. Transferred to lateral port December 8.
Officially: Delivery to the Mir orbital station of additional equipment and apparatus for the purpose of expanding the research and experiments conducted in the interests of science and the national economy.
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