Encyclopedia Astronautica
Index


1 Crew Ballistic Re-entry Capsule.
  • American manned rescue spacecraft. Study 1960. One crew ballistic re-entry capsule. Orbital escape - no abort capability. Mass per crew 327 kg.

1 Crew Lifeboat.

  • American manned rescue spacecraft. Study 1959. One crew lifeboat capsule, separable, not re-entry capable, short duration. Mass per crew 266 kg.

1 Crew Lifeboat Long Term.

  • American manned rescue spacecraft. Study 1959. One crew lifeboat capsule, separable, not re-entry capable, long duration. For use on Mars/Venus expedition.

10 Crew Shelter.

  • American manned rescue spacecraft. Study 1963. Ten crew emergency shelter capsule, not separable, not re-entry capable, long duration. Mass per crew 301 kg.

11F35.

  • Article Number of Buran manned spaceplane.

11F36.

11F37.

  • Article Number of Kvant manned space station.

11F61.

  • Article Number of Zenit-2 military surveillance satellite.

11F610.

  • Article Number of the Strela-2 and Strela-2M military store-dump communications satellites.

11F611.

  • Russian military satellite. Unknown mission.

11F614.

  • Article Number of Meteor M earth weather satellite.

11F615.

11F615A12.

11F615A15.

  • Article Number of Progress logistics spacecraft.

11F615A55.

  • Article Number of Progress M logistics spacecraft.

11F615A75.

  • Alternate designation for Progress M2 logistics spacecraft.

11F615A77.

11F615A8.

11F615A9.

11F616.

  • Article Number of Tselina-O military naval signals reconnaisance satellite.

11F617.

  • Article Number of Tsiklon navigation satellite and Tselina-OM military naval signals reconnaisance satellite.

11F618.

  • Article Number of DS-P1-Yu military target satellite.

11F619.

  • Article Number of Tselina-D military naval signals reconnaisance satellite.

11F620.

  • Article Number of DS-P1-I military target satellite.

11F621.

  • Article Number of Sfera earth geodetic satellite.

11F622.

11F624.

  • Article Number of Yantar-2K military surveillance satellite.

11F625.

  • Article Number of Svetoch military communications satellite.

11F626.

  • Article Number of Forpost military communications satellite.

11F627.

  • Article Number of Parus navigation satellite.

11F628.

  • Article Number of Molniya-2 communications satellite.

11F629.

  • Article Number of Zenit-4MT military surveillance satellite.

11F630.

  • Article Number of Yantar-1KF military surveillance satellite.

11F631.

  • Article Number of Tyulpan military anti-satellite system target satellite.

11F632.

  • Article Number of Meteor-2 earth weather satellite.

11F633.

  • Article Number of Taifun-1 military target satellite.

11F634.

  • Article Number of Romb military target satellite.

11F635.

  • Article Number of Zenit-4MKT military surveillance satellite.

11F637.

  • Article Number of Molniya-3 communications satellite.

11F638.

  • Article Number of Raduga communications satellite.

11F639.

  • Article Number of Ekspress communications satellite.

11F642.

  • Article Number of Yantar-2K-M military surveillance satellite.

11F643.

  • Article Number of Tsikada navigation satellite.

11F644.

  • Article Number of Tselina-2 military naval signals reconnaisance satellite.

11F645.

  • Article Number of Zenit-6U military surveillance satellite.

11F647.

  • Article Number of Ekran communications satellite.

11F647M.

  • Article Number of Ekran-M communications satellite.

11F649.

  • Article Number of Yantar-3KF military surveillance satellite.

11F650.

  • Article Number of Yantar-6K military surveillance satellite.

11F651.

  • Article Number of Resurs-OE earth land resources satellite.

11F652.

  • Article Number of Elektro earth weather satellite.

11F653.

  • Article Number of Astrofizika earth geodetic satellite.

11F654.

  • Article Number of Glonass navigation satellite.

11F658.

  • Article Number of Molniya-1T military communications satellite.

11F660.

  • Article Number of Yantar-1KFT military surveillance satellite.

11F661.

  • Article Number of Yantar-6KS military surveillance satellite.

11F662.

  • Article Number of Gorizont communications satellite.

11F663.

  • Article Number of Potok military communications satellite.

11F664.

  • Article Number of Arkon-1 military surveillance satellite.

11F666.

  • Article Number of Geo-IK earth geodetic satellite.

11F668.

  • Article Number of Almaz-T civilian surveillance radar satellite.

11F669.

  • Article Number of Luch military communications satellite.

11F67.

  • Article Number of Molniya-1 military communications satellite.

11F69.

  • Article Number of Zenit-4 military surveillance satellite.

11F690.

  • Article Number of Zenit-2M military surveillance satellite.

11F691.

  • Article Number of Zenit-4M military surveillance satellite.

11F692M.

11F693.

  • Article Number of Yantar-4K1 military surveillance satellite.

11F694.

  • Article Number of Yantar-4KS1 military surveillance satellite.

11F695.

  • Article Number of Yantar-4K2 military surveillance satellite.

11F697.

  • Article Number of Resurs-O1 earth land resources satellite.

11F71.

11F71+111F74.

  • Article Number of Almaz APOS manned space station.

11F715.

11F72.

  • Article Number of TKS manned spacecraft.

11F73.

  • Article Number of the Soyuz VI manned combat spacecraft and replacment OPS + TKS manned space station.

11F732.

11F75.

  • Russian military satellite. Unknown mission.

11F76.

  • Article Number of KSI logistics spacecraft.

11F77.

11F77D.

  • Article Number of Kvant-2 manned space station.

11F77I.

  • Article Number of Priroda manned space station.

11F77O.

  • Article Number of Spektr manned space station.

11F77T.

  • Article Number of Kristall manned space station.

11F91.

  • Article Number of Soyuz 7K-L1 manned lunar flyby spacecraft.

11F92.

11F93.

11F94.

  • Article Number of LK manned lunar lander.

11K.

  • Manufacturer's designation for Soyuz V logistics spacecraft.

12KS.

  • Manufacturer's designation for Bion biology satellite.

13KS.

  • Manufacturer's designation for Energia sattelite.

14F10.

  • Article Number of IS-MU military anti-satellite system.

14F33.

  • Article Number of LO manned space station.

14F40.

14F43.

14F70.

  • Article Number of Zarya satellite.

1700.

  • Government designation of KH-8 military surveillance satellite.

17F114.

  • Article Number of Taifun-3 military target satellite.

17F115.

  • Article Number of Koltso military target satellite.

17F116.

  • Article Number of Zenit-8 military surveillance satellite.

17F118.

  • Article Number of Nadezhda navigation satellite.

17F12.

  • Article Number of Orlets-1 military naval signals reconnaisance satellite.

17F120.

  • Article Number of US-PU and Pirs-2 military naval signals reconnaisance satellites.

17F13.

  • Article Number of Strela-3 military store-dump communications satellite.

17F15.

  • Article Number of Raduga-1 communications satellite.

17F16.

  • Article Number of US-A military naval surveillance radar satellite.

17F17.

  • Article Number of US-P military naval signals reconnaisance satellite.

17F19DM.

  • Article Number of Polyus military anti-satellite system.

17F31.

  • Article Number of Taifun-2 military target satellite.

17F32.

  • Article Number of NPG manned space station.

17F41.

17F42.

  • Article Number of Resurs F2 earth land resources satellite.

17F43.

  • Article Number of Okean-O earth resources radar satellite.

17F45.

  • Article Number of Meteor-3 earth weather satellite.

17F45M.

  • Article Number of Meteor-3M earth weather satellite.

17F71.

  • Article Number of Gals communications satellite.

17K s/n 121.

  • Manufacturer's designation for Salyut 1 manned space station.

17K s/n 124.

  • Manufacturer's designation for Salyut 4 manned space station.

17K114.

  • Alternate designation for US-A military naval surveillance radar satellite.

17KS s/n 125.

  • Manufacturer's designation for Salyut 6 manned space station.

17KS s/n 126.

  • Manufacturer's designation for Salyut 7 manned space station.

1900.

  • Government designation of KH-9 military surveillance satellite.

1956 Von Braun Cargo Ship.

  • American manned Mars orbiter. Study 1956. Using the same basic systems as the Passenger Ship, the Cargo Ship would substitute a 177 metric ton Landing Boat for the surface expedition in place of the Passenger Sphere and propellant for the return home.

1956 Von Braun Landing Boat.

  • American manned Mars lander. Study 1956. The 1956 modification of Von Braun's Landing Boat design was reduced in mass by 12%, and the wingspan by 10%.

1956 Von Braun Passenger Ship.

  • American manned Mars orbiter. Study 1956. The 1956 version of Von Braun's Mars design was slashed by 50% in mass, while the number of passengers was increased from 10 to 12.

19K.

  • Manufacturer's designation for MKBS manned space station.

19KA30.

  • Manufacturer's designation for Gamma gamma ray astronomy satellite.

1A.

  • Manufacturer's designation for Astron x-ray astronomy satellite.

1AS.

  • Manufacturer's designation for Granat x-ray astronomy satellite.

1K, 1KP.

  • Alternate designation for Vostok manned spacecraft.

1M.

  • Manufacturer's designation for Mars 1M mars flyby probe.

1MS.

  • Russian technology satellite. 2 launches, 1962.04.06 (Cosmos 2) to 1962.10.25 (1MS). Early Kosmos launcher payloads of unknown purpose, possibly from Korolev OKB.

1V (V-67).

1VA.

  • Manufacturer's designation for Venera 1VA venus probe.

20.20.

  • American communications satellite. Design of 2008, provided greater digital communications capacity by integrating next-generation technologies with the proven reliability of traditional concepts and products of the FS 1300 series.

21KS.

  • Manufacturer's designation for SPK space suit.

27KS.

  • Manufacturer's designation for Mir complex manned space station.

2K.

  • Manufacturer's designation for Zenit-2 military surveillance satellite.

2KM.

  • Manufacturer's designation for Zenit-2M military surveillance satellite.

2MS.

  • Russian technology satellite. 2 launches, 1962.04.24 (Cosmos 3) to 1962.05.28 (Cosmos 5). Early Kosmos launcher payloads of unknown purpose, possibly from Korolev OKB.

2MV-1.

  • Manufacturer's designation for Mars 2MV-1 venus probe.

2MV-2.

  • Manufacturer's designation for Mars 2MV-2 venus probe.

2MV-3.

  • Manufacturer's designation for Mars 2MV-3 venus probe.

2MV-4.

  • Manufacturer's designation for Mars 2MV-4 mars flyby probe.

2V (V-69).

3 Crew Lifeboat.

  • American manned rescue spacecraft. Study 1959. Three crew bailout lifeboat separable, not re-entry capable, short duration. Mass per crew 239 kg.

3 Crew Lifeboat Long Term.

  • American manned rescue spacecraft. Study 1959. Three crew lifeboat capsule, separable, not re-entry capable, long duration. For use on Mars/Venus expedition. Mass per crew 511 kg.

3 Crew Lifting Re-Entry Concept.

  • American manned rescue spacecraft. Study 1960. Three crew lifting re-entry capsule. Orbital escape - no abort capability. Mass per crew 434 kg.

316GK SM.

31KS.

  • Manufacturer's designation for Nauka earth magnetosphere satellite.

346.

  • Russian manned rocketplane. 4 flights from 1946. Post-war Soviet version of the German supersonic DFS 8-346 rocket reconnaissance aircraft. Abandoned in 1951 after the prototype crashed.

36KS.

  • Manufacturer's designation for Efir earth magnetosphere satellite.

37KB.

  • Russian manned space station module. One launch, 1988.11.15. Carried in the payload bay of the Buran space shuttle. They could remain attached to the bay or (modified to the 37KBI configuration) be docked to the Mir-2 station.

37K-Mir.

  • Russian manned space station. Cancelled 1983. The basic 37K design consisted of a 4.2 m diameter pressurized cylinder with a docking port at the forward end. It was not equipped with its own propulsion system.

37KS.

  • Russian manned space station module. Cancelled 1983. Would have been launched by Proton and delivered and docked to the Mir station by a new lighter weight FGO tug.

3CSat.

  • American technology satellite. 2 launched, 2004.12.21. The Three-Corner Sat mission was to obtain stereo images of clouds and test artificial intelligence software.

3KA.

  • Manufacturer's designation for Vostok manned spacecraft.

3KD.

  • Manufacturer's designation for Voskhod manned spacecraft.

3KV.

  • Alternate designation for Voskhod manned spacecraft.

3KZh.

  • Manufacturer's designation for Vostok-Zh manned spacecraft.

3MV-1.

3MV-1A.

3MV-3.

3MV-4.

3MV-4A.

  • Manufacturer's designation for Mars 3MV-4A mars flyby probe.

3V (V-70).

3V (V-72).

4K.

  • Manufacturer's designation for Zenit-4 military surveillance satellite.

4KM.

  • Manufacturer's designation for Zenit-4M military surveillance satellite.

4KMK.

  • Manufacturer's designation for Zenit-4MK military surveillance satellite.

4KMKM.

  • Manufacturer's designation for Zenit-4MKM military surveillance satellite.

4KMT.

  • Manufacturer's designation for Zenit-4MKT military surveillance satellite.

4KT.

  • Manufacturer's designation for Zenit-4MT military surveillance satellite.

4NM.

  • Alternate designation for Mars 5NM mars lander.

4V-1.

  • Manufacturer's designation for Venera 4V-1 venus probe.

4V-2.

  • Manufacturer's designation for Venera 4V-2 venus probe.

4Ya11.

  • Article Number of IS-A military anti-satellite system.

5 Crew Lifeboat.

  • American manned rescue spacecraft. Study 1962. Five crew lifeboat capsule, separable, not re-entry capable, short duration. Mass per crew 284 kg.

5500.

  • Article Number of KH-11 military surveillance satellite.

5K.

  • Manufacturer's designation for Sever manned spacecraft.

5MV.

  • Manufacturer's designation for Taifun-1 military target satellite.

5NM.

  • Manufacturer's designation for Mars 5NM mars lander.

5V91T.

  • Article Number of IS-P military anti-satellite system target satellite.

5VK.

  • Manufacturer's designation for Vega 5VK venus probe.

5VS.

  • Manufacturer's designation for Vega 5VS venus probe.

698BK.

  • Manufacturer's designation for Ferret military naval signals reconnaisance satellite.

6K.

  • Manufacturer's designation for Zenit-6U military surveillance satellite.

77KM.

  • Manufacturer's designation for ISS Zarya manned space station.

7K.

  • Manufacturer's designation for Soyuz A manned spacecraft.

7K-L1.

  • Manufacturer's designation for Soyuz 7K-L1 manned lunar flyby spacecraft.

7K-L1E.

  • Manufacturer's designation for Soyuz 7K-L1E manned lunar orbiter.

7K-L1S, 7K-L1T.

  • Manufacturer's designation for Soyuz 7K-L1A manned lunar orbiter.

7K-LOK.

  • Manufacturer's designation for Soyuz 7K-LOK manned lunar orbiter.

7K-MF6.

  • Manufacturer's designation for Soyuz 7K-MF6 manned spacecraft.

7K-OK.

  • Manufacturer's designation for Soyuz 7K-OK manned spacecraft.

7K-OKS.

  • Manufacturer's designation for Soyuz 7KT-OK manned spacecraft.

7K-P, 7K-PPK.

  • Manufacturer's designation for Soyuz P manned combat spacecraft.

7K-PPK.

  • Manufacturer's designation for Soyuz PPK manned combat spacecraft.

7K-R.

  • Manufacturer's designation for Soyuz R manned spacecraft.

7K-S.

  • Manufacturer's designation for Soyuz 7K-S manned spacecraft.

7K-ST.

  • Manufacturer's designation for Soyuz T manned spacecraft.

7K-STM.

  • Manufacturer's designation for Soyuz TM manned spacecraft.

7K-STMA.

  • Manufacturer's designation for Soyuz TMA manned spacecraft.

7K-T, 7K-T/AF/.

  • Manufacturer's designation for Soyuz 7K-T manned spacecraft.

7K-TA.

  • Manufacturer's designation for Soyuz 7K-T-A9 manned spacecraft.

7K-TG.

  • Manufacturer's designation for Progress logistics spacecraft.

7K-TGM.

  • Manufacturer's designation for Progress M logistics spacecraft.

7K-TGM2.

  • Manufacturer's designation for Progress M2 logistics spacecraft.

7K-TM/F/.

  • Manufacturer's designation for Soyuz 7K-TM manned spacecraft.

7K-VI.

  • Manufacturer's designation for Soyuz VI manned combat spacecraft.

8EK.

8F021.

  • Article Number of OGCh military orbital bombing system.

8K.

  • Manufacturer's designation for Zenit-8 military surveillance satellite.

90 Day Study.

  • American manned Mars expedition. Study 1989. Following the Ride Report, the Bush administration indicated a willingness to support a new manned space initiative after completion of the space station.

90 day study lunar outpost.

9K.

  • Manufacturer's designation for Soyuz B space tug.

A/P 22S-2.

  • American pressure suit, operational 1960. The David Clark XMC-2-DC prototype, although still in need of substantial development, evolved into the MC-2 suit and then into a standardized Air Force high altitude, full pressure garment known as the A/P 22S-2.

A/P 22S-3.

  • American pressure suit, operational 1960. USAF version of the USN Mark IV suit (B. F. Goodrich and Arrow Rubber Company). Full pressure, two layers, oxygen regulator exterior of helmet, 12 torso sizes, 7 gloves sizes, 2 helmet sizes.

A/P22S-4.

  • American pressure suit, operational 1967. Full pressure suit replacement for the A/P22S-2, 8 sizes for use in bomber and reconnaissance aircraft. Evolved from the original MC-2 design.

A/P22S-6.

  • American pressure suit, operational 1975. Full pressure suit replacement for the A/P22S-4. 12 sizes, for bomber, reconnaissance and fighter aircraft.

A/P22S-6A.

  • American pressure suit, operational 1975. Modified A/P22S-6 suit to add urine collection device with other material and hardware changes.

A1C.

  • American space suit, tested 1965. For the initial Block I Apollo missions a modification of the Gemini G4C suit was to have been flown. After the death of the Apollo 1 crew on the pad, Block I missions were cancelled and the suit never flew.

A2100.

  • Alternate designation for AS 2100 communications satellite.

A4H.

  • American space suit, tested 1963. ILC Dover and Hamilton Standard full pressure suit, Contained a secondary bladder and restraint with a wrist cuff/dam for NASA/HSD (1963-1964), modified A4H suit for NASA-AMES (1964-1965).

A7L.

  • American pressure suit, operational 1968. Hamilton Standard had overall development responsibility for the Apollo suit and associated portable life support system. A subcontract was awarded to International Latex Corporation for development of this suit.

A9.

  • German manned rocketplane. Study 1944. Manned, winged boost-glide version of the V-2 missile. It would have been capable of delivering express cargo 600 km from the launch point within 17 minutes.

A9L.

  • American space suit, tested 1969. Two hard-shell, constant-volume suits entered development for the Apollo Applications Program.

AAUSat.

  • Danish gamma ray astronomy satellite. One launch, 2008.04.28. University of Aalborg nanosat; carried a gamma ray burst detector for the Danish National Space Center.

Abort Stage.

  • Alternate designation for Dynasoar AS manned spacecraft module.

ABRIXAS.

  • German x-ray astronomy satellite. One launch, 1999.04.28. X-ray astronomy satellite with the mission to carry out an all-sky survey in the 1-10 keV band with 30 arcsecond resolution.

ACE.

  • American solar satellite. One launch, 1997.08.25.

ACES.

  • American space suit, operational 1995. The Shuttle Advanced Crew Escape Suit (ACES) replaced the Launch/Entry Suit (LES) from 1995 on. The ACES fulfilled the same functions as the LES.

ACRIMSAT.

  • American solar satellite. One launch, 1999.12.21. The NASA ACRIMSAT satellite was managed by JPL, and measured the integrated solar energy output from 0.2 to 2 microns. ACRIMSAT was built by Orbital Sciences.

ACTS.

  • American communications technology satellite. One launch, 1993.09.12. NASA experimental communications; Advanced Communications Technology Satellite.

Adam.

  • American manned spacecraft. Study 1957. In early 1958 Wernher von Braun proposed launching an American aboard an Army Redstone on a suborbital mission into space before the end of 1959 at a cost of under $12 million.

ADE.

  • American earth atmosphere satellite. 3 launches, 1963.12.19 (Explorer 19) to 1968.08.08 (Explorer 39). 12 foot diameter. balloon; identical to Explorer 9; atmospheric density studies.

ADEOS.

  • Japanese earth atmosphere satellite. 2 launches, 1996.08.17 (ADEOS) and 2002.12.14 (Adeos 2). The polar orbiting ADEOS spacecraft was to perform Earth, atmospheric, and oceanographic remote sensing.

Advanced Composition Explorer.

  • Alternate designation for ACE solar satellite.

Advanced Earth Observation Satellite.

  • Alternate designation for ADEOS earth atmosphere satellite.

Advanced Land Observing Satellite.

  • Alternate designation for Daichi civilian surveillance radar satellite.

Advanced Manned System 1961.

  • American manned rescue spacecraft. Study 1961. Six crew ballistic re-entry capsule. Orbital escape - abort capability. Mass per crew 548 kg.

Advanced Mariner.

  • American outer planets probe. need summary - see links

Advanced Orion.

  • American military naval signals intelligence and reconnaisance satellite. Highly classified, operational, first launch 1995.05.14.

Advanced Photovoltaic Experiment.

  • Alternate designation for APEX technology satellite.

Advanced Relay TEchnology MISsion.

  • Alternate designation for Artemis communications technology satellite.

Advanced Tiros N.

  • American earth weather satellite. 10 launches, 1983.03.28 (NOAA 8) to 2009.02.06.

Advanced Vela.

  • American nuclear detection surveillance satellite. 6 launches, 1967.04.28 (Vela 7) to 1970.04.08 (Vela 11).

Advanced X-Ray Astrophysics Facility.

  • Alternate designation for Chandra x-ray astronomy satellite.

AE.

  • American earth atmosphere satellite. 5 launches, 1963.04.03 (Explorer 17) to 1975.11.20 (Explorer 55). Atmospheric research.

AEHF.

  • The Advanced Extremely High Frequency (AEHF) satellite program was the next generation of global, highly secure, survivable communications system for all services of the US Department of Defense, replacing the Milstar series. The first was finally launched three years behind schedule at a cost that had doubled from the original $5 billion estimate.

Aelita.

  • Russian infrared astronomy satellite. Cancelled 1982. The Aelita infrared astronomical telescope spacecraft was derived from the Soyuz manned spacecraft and had an unusually long gestation.

AEM.

  • American earth atmosphere satellite. One launch, 1978.04.26, HCMM. Heat Capacity Mapping Mission; produced thermal maps of atmosphere. Studied dust, liquid droplets in upper atmosphere.

AERCam.

  • American logistics spacecraft. 2 launches, 1997.11.19 (AERCam/Sprint) and (AERCam/Sprint). Remotely guided maneuvering spacecraft to be released and later retrieved from Shuttle or ISS. Purpose: examination of external surface of space vehicles.

Aeronutronics Project 7969.

  • American manned spacecraft. Study 1958. Aeronutronics' proposal for the Air Force initial manned space project was a cone-shaped vehicle 2.1 m in diameter with a spherical tip of 30 cm radius. It does not seem to have been seriously considered.

AEROS.

  • German earth magnetosphere satellite. 2 launches, 1972.12.16 (Aeros 1) and 1974.07.16 (Aeros 2). Spacecraft engaged in research and exploration of the upper atmosphere or outer space.

Aerospike Test Vehicle.

  • American manned spacecraft. George Detko of NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center produced a design for a minimum SSTO VTOVL vehicle in 1972. The vehicle had a gross liftoff mass of only 22 metric tons, and could deliver a two-person crew to orbit.

AES Lunar Base.

  • American manned lunar base. Cancelled 1968. AES (Apollo Extension Systems) was planned as the first American lunar base. It would involve minimal modification of Apollo hardware. The Apollo CSM would be modified for long duration lunar orbit storage.

AES Series.

  • American space suit, tested 1965. Developmental suit hybrids using laminated fabrics, rolling convolutes, toroidal joints, sealed bearings, and modular sizing. Versions by both AiResearch and Litton.

AFP-43.

  • American military technology satellite. 4 launches, 1964.01.19 (OPS 3367A) to 1964.06.18 (OPS 4467B). Space craft engaged in investigation of spaceflight techniques and technology.

AFP-675.

  • American military technology satellite. One launch, 1991.04.28. US Air Force space craft engaged in investigation of spaceflight techniques and technology.

AFP-731.

  • Alternate designation for Misty nuclear detection surveillance satellite.

Agena B.

  • American space tug. 94 launches, (1960) to (1967). Upper stage / space tug - out of production. Launched by Atlas Agena B; Thor Agena B.

Agena D.

  • American space tug. 205 launches, (1963) to (1987). Upper stage / space tug - out of production. Launched by Atlas Agena D; Thor Agena D; Titan 3B; Titan 34B.

AGILE.

  • Italian gamma ray astronomy satellite. One launch, 2007.04.23. The Italian gamma-ray observatory satellite (Astrorivelatore Gamma ad Imagini Leggero) carried the GRID 0.

AHAFS.

  • American pressure suit, operational 1987. Advanced High Altitude Flight Suit. High pressure (0.40 bar) full pressure suit developed for the USAF to increase mobility at higher operating pressures.

Airlock Module.

  • Alternate designation for Skylab AM manned space station module.

AIRMAT.

  • American manned rescue spacecraft. Study 1968. Inflatable; space suits required; ejection seat; requires development of flexible heat shield and new materials. Mass per crew 570 kg.

Akari.

  • Japanese infrared astronomy satellite. One launch, 2006.02.21, Astro F (Akari). Carried a 0.67m-diameter liquid-helium-cooled infrared telescope with detectors ranging from the near infrared to 60 and 170 micron channels in the far IR.

Akatsuki.

  • Venus-orbiting weather satellite with visible, infrared and ultraviolet cameras. Launched 2010.05.20,

Albatros Raketoplan.

  • Russian manned spaceplane. Study 1974. Unique Russian space shuttle design of 1974. Hydrofoil-launched, winged recoverable first and second stages.

ALEXIS.

  • American x-ray astronomy satellite. One launch, 1993.04.25. ALEXIS was a small spacecraft built for the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Its mission was to provide high resolution maps of low-energy astronomical x-ray sources.

Alflex.

  • Japanese spaceplane. Study 2000. Unmanned glider to test technology for Japanese HOPE spaceplane. Wing area 9.45 square meters.

All-Terrain Hex-Limbed Extra Terrestrial Explorer.

  • Alternate designation for Athlete lunar rover.

Almaz.

  • Russian manned space station. 3 launches, 1973.04.03 (Salyut 2) to 1976.06.22 (Salyut 5). Chelomei's Almaz space station was designed to conduct orbital research into the usefulness of manned observation of the earth.

Almaz APOS.

  • Russian manned space station. Cancelled 1966. The initial Almaz program planned in 1965 consisted of two phases.

Almaz OPS.

  • Russian manned space station. 3 launches, 1973.04.03 (Salyut 2) to 1976.06.22 (Salyut 5). Vladimir Chelomei's Almaz OPS was the only manned military space station ever actually flown.

Almaz OPS-2.

  • Russian manned space station. Cancelled 1979. The initial Almaz military space station program planned in 1965 consisted of two phases.

Almaz-1B.

  • Russian civilian surveillance radar satellite. Study 1993.

Almaz-1V.

  • Alternate designation for Almaz-1B civilian surveillance radar satellite.

Almaz-2.

  • Russian civilian surveillance radar satellite. Study 1995. Plans for an even more sophisticated and capable civilian Almaz 2 spacecraft were made in the early 1990's. Almaz 2's payload mass of 6.

Almaz-K.

  • Alternate designation for Almaz-T civilian surveillance radar satellite.

Almaz-T.

  • Russian civilian surveillance radar satellite. 3 launches, 1986.11.29 (Almaz-T s/n 303 Failure) to 1991.03.31 (Almaz 1). The results of the manned Almaz flights showed that manned reconnaissance from space was not worth the expense.

ALOS.

  • Code name for Daichi civilian surveillance radar satellite.

Alouette.

  • Canadian earth magnetosphere satellite. 2 launches, 1962.09.29 (Alouette 1) and 1965.11.29 (Alouette 2). Ionospheric research.

Alpex.

  • Japanese spaceplane. Study 2000. Kawasaki unmanned glider to test technologies for HOPE spaceplane. Wing area 7.57 square meters.

Alpha Lifeboat.

  • Russian manned rescue spacecraft. Study 1995. 1995 joint Energia-Rockwell-Khrunichev design for space station Alpha lifeboat based on the Zarya reentry vehicle with a solid retrofire motor, cold gas thruster package. Five years on-orbit storage.

Alpha-FGB.

  • Alternate designation for ISS Zarya manned space station.

Alpha-SM.

  • Alternate designation for ISS Zvezda manned space station.

ALSS Lunar Base.

  • American manned lunar base. Cancelled 1968. The ALSS (Apollo Logistics Support System) Lunar Base would require a new development, the LM Truck, to allow delivery of up to 4100 kg in payload to the lunar surface.

Altair.

  • Code name for Luch military communications satellite.

Altairis.

  • American manned spacecraft. Study 2026. Rocket utilizing liquid oxygen / kerosene propulsion, launched vertically and with the planned capability of sending seven tourists on a suborbital space trip.

Altitude Sounder.

  • Russian earth atmosphere satellite. Study 1969. Used the KAUR-1 bus, which consisted of a 2.035 m diameter cylindrical spacecraft body, with solar cells and radiators of the thermostatic temperature regulating system mounted on the exterior.

Ames Mach 10 Demonstrator.

  • American manned spaceplane. Study 1957. Ames proposed in 1957 to air-launch a high-wing designed hypersonic glider from a B-36 bomber. Early versions would use an XLR-99-powered booster stage and be capable of reaching Mach 6.

AMOS.

  • Israeli communications satellite. 3 launches, 1996.05.16 (AMOS) to 2008.04.28 (Amos-2). 7 Ku-band transponders. Israeli indigenous communications satellite program.

AMPTE.

  • American earth magnetosphere satellite. 4 launches, 1984.08.16 (CCE-1) to (Solar Cell Experiment). Charge Composition Explorer; detected tracer ions released into magnetosphere by IRM.

Amsat Echo.

  • American military communications satellite. One launch, 2004.06.29.

AMSS - Austere Modular Space Station.

  • American manned space station. Study 1975. North American Rockwell's 'Austere Modular Space Station' was in contrast to more grandious schemes in the mid-1970's.

Angara Briz M.

  • Russian space tug. Study 2004. Upper stage / space tug - in development 2004. Launched by Angara launch vehicle family.. 8 restarts. Propellant ration 2.0:1.

Anik.

  • Canadian communications satellite. 2 launches, 1978.12.15 (Anik B1 (Telesat 4)) and (DRIMS). Function - telecommunications. Operating entity - Telesat Canada.

Anna.

  • American earth geodetic satellite. 2 launches, 1962.05.10 (Anna 1A) and 1962.10.31 (Anna 1B).

ANS.

  • Dutch visible astronomy satellite. One launch, 1974.08.30. Astronomical Netherlands Satellite; lower than planned orbit.

Anusat.

  • 40 kg imaging satellite from Anna University, Chennai, India. Launched 2009.04.20,

APEX.

  • American technology satellite. One launch, 1994.08.03, P90-6 APEX.

Apex RV.

  • American logistics spacecraft. Study 2005. Spacehab's Apex design provided a family of launcher-neutral maneuverable spacecraft that could be used for resupply of the ISS and return of payloads to earth.

APL.

  • American earth magnetosphere satellite. 3 launches, 1963.09.28 (APL SN 39) to 1964.12.13 (APL SN 43). Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory built several satellites for the Air Force in the 1960's.

Apollo 120 in Telescope.

  • American manned space station. Study 1968. Concept for use of a Saturn V-launched Apollo CSM with an enormous 10 m diameter space laboratory equipped with a 3 m diameter astronomical telescope.

Apollo A.

  • American manned space station. Study 1961. Apollo A was a lighter-weight July 1961 version of the Apollo spacecraft.

Apollo A7L Space Suit.

  • Alternate designation for A7L space suit.

Apollo ALSEP.

  • American lunar lander. 7 launches, 1969.07.16 (EASEP) to 1972.12.07 (ALSEP). ALSEP (Apollo Lunar Surface Experiment Package) was the array of connected scientific instruments left behind on the lunar surface by each Apollo expedition.

Apollo Applications A9L Space Suit.

  • Alternate designation for A9L space suit.

Apollo ASTP Docking Module.

  • American manned space station module. One launch, 1975.07.15, Docking Module 2. The ASTP docking module was basically an airlock with docking facilities on each end to allow crew transfer between the Apollo and Soyuz spacecraft.

Apollo ATM.

  • American manned space station. Study 1966. The Apollo Telescope Mount began as a solar telescope built into the spaceframe of an Apollo lunar module.

Apollo CM.

  • American manned spacecraft module. 22 launches, 1964.05.28 (Saturn 6) to 1975.07.15 (Apollo (ASTP)).

Apollo CM Escape Concept.

  • American manned rescue spacecraft. Study 1976. Escape capsule using Apollo command module studied by Rockwell for NASA for use with the shuttle in the 1970's-80's. Mass per crew: 750 kg.

Apollo CMLS.

  • American manned lunar habitat. Study 1966.

Apollo CSM.

  • American manned lunar orbiter. 22 launches, 1964.05.28 (Saturn 6) to 1975.07.15 (Apollo (ASTP)). The Apollo Command Service Module was the spacecraft developed by NASA in the 1960's as a standard spacecraft for earth and lunar orbit missions.

Apollo CSM Block I.

  • American manned spacecraft. The Apollo Command Service Module was the spacecraft developed by NASA in the 1960's as a standard spacecraft for earth and lunar orbit missions.

Apollo CSM Boilerplate.

  • American manned spacecraft. Boilerplate structural Apollo CSM's were used for various systems and booster tests, especially proving of the LES (launch escape system).

Apollo D-2.

  • American manned lunar orbiter. Study 1962. The General Electric design for Apollo put all systems and space not necessary for re-entry and recovery into a separate jettisonable 'mission module', joined to the re-entry vehicle by a hatch.

Apollo Direct 2-Man.

  • American manned lunar lander. Study 1961. A direct lunar lander design of 1961, capable of being launched to the moon in a single Saturn V launch through use of a 75% scale 2-man Apollo command module.

Apollo Direct CM.

  • American manned spacecraft module. Study 1961. Conventional spacecraft structures were employed, following the proven materials and concepts demonstrated in the Mercury and Gemini designs.

Apollo Direct RM.

  • American manned spacecraft module. Study 1961. The retrograde module supplied the velocity increments required during the translunar portion of the mission up to a staging point approximately 1800 m above the lunar surface.

Apollo Direct SM.

  • American manned spacecraft module. Study 1961. The Service Module housed the fuel cells, environmental control, and other major equipment items required for the mission.

Apollo Direct TLM.

  • American manned spacecraft module. Study 1961. Final letdown, translation hover and landing on the lunar surface from 1800 m above the surface was performed by the terminal landing module. Engine thrust could be throttled down to 1546 kgf.

Apollo ELS.

  • American manned lunar habitat. Cancelled 1968. The capabilities of a lunar shelter not derived from Apollo hardware were surveyed in the Early Lunar Shelter Study (ELS), completed in February 1967 by AiResearch.

Apollo Experiments Pallet.

  • American manned lunar orbiter. Study 1965. The Apollo Experiments Pallet was a sophisticated instrument payload that would have been installed in the Apollo CSM for dedicated lunar or earth orbital resource assessment missions.

Apollo Extension Systems.

Apollo L-2C.

  • American manned spacecraft. Study 1962. Martin's L-2C design was the basis for the Apollo spacecraft that ultimately emerged. The 2590 kg command module was a flat-bottomed cone, 3. 91 m in diameter, 2.67 m high, with a rounded apex.

Apollo LASS.

  • American manned lunar habitat. Cancelled 1968. In the LASS (LM Adapter Surface Station) lunar shelter concept, the LM ascent stage was replaced by an SLA 'mini-base' and the position of the Apollo Service Module (SM) was reversed.

Apollo LASS S-IVB.

  • American lunar logistics spacecraft. Study 1966. The Douglas Company (DAC) proposed the "Lunar Application of a Spent S-IVB Stage (LASS)". The LASS concept required a landing gear on a S-IVB Stage.

Apollo Lenticular.

  • American manned spacecraft. Study 1962. The Convair/Astronautics alternate Lenticular Apollo was a flying saucer configuration with the highest hypersonic lift to drag ratio (4.4) of any proposed design.

Apollo LLRF.

  • American manned lunar lander test vehicle. Study 1964. The Lunar Landing Research Facility. The huge structure (76.2 m high and 121.9 m long) was used to explore techniques and to forecast various problems of landing on the moon.

Apollo LLRV.

  • American manned lunar lander test vehicle. Study 1964. Bell Aerosystems initially built two manned lunar landing research vehicles (LLRV) for NASA to assess the handling characteristics of Apollo LM-type vehicles on earth.

Apollo LLTV.

  • Alternate designation for Apollo LLRV manned lunar lander test vehicle.

Apollo LM.

  • American manned lunar lander. 10 launches, 1968.01.22 (Apollo 5) to 1972.12.07 (Apollo 17).

Apollo LM AS.

  • American manned spacecraft module. 10 launches, 1968.01.22 (Apollo 5) to 1972.12.07 (Apollo 17).

Apollo LM CSD.

  • American manned combat spacecraft. Study 1965. The Apollo Lunar Module was considered for military use in the Covert Space Denial role in 1964.

Apollo LM DS.

  • American manned spacecraft module. 10 launches, 1968.01.22 (Apollo 5) to 1972.12.07 (Apollo 17).

Apollo LM Lab.

  • American manned space station. Study 1965. Use of the Apollo LM as an earth-orbiting laboratory was proposed for Apollo Applications Program missions.

Apollo LM Shelter.

  • American manned lunar habitat. Cancelled 1968. The LM Shelter was essentially an Apollo LM lunar module with ascent stage engine and fuel tanks removed and replaced with consumables and scientific equipment for 14 days extended lunar exploration.

Apollo LM Taxi.

  • American manned lunar lander. Cancelled 1968. The LM Taxi was essentially the basic Apollo LM modified for extended lunar surface stays.

Apollo LM Truck.

  • American lunar logistics spacecraft. Cancelled 1968. The LM Truck was an LM Descent stage adapted for unmanned delivery of payloads of up to 5,000 kg to the lunar surface in support of a lunar base using Apollo technology.

Apollo LMAL.

  • American manned space station. Study 1968.

Apollo LMSS.

  • American manned space station. Cancelled 1967. Under the Apollo Applications Program NASA began hardware and software procurement, development, and testing for a Lunar Mapping and Survey System. The system would be mounted in an Apollo CSM.

Apollo Logistics Support System.

Apollo LPM.

  • American lunar logistics spacecraft. Study 1968. The unmanned portion of the Lunar Surface Rendezvous and Exploration Phase of Apollo envisioned in 1969 was the Lunar Payload Module (LPM).

Apollo LRM.

  • American manned lunar orbiter. Study 1969. Grumman proposed to use the LM as a lunar reconnaissance module. But NASA had already considered this and many other possibilities (Apollo MSS, Apollo LMSS); and there was no budget available for any of them.

Apollo LRV.

  • American manned lunar rover. 3 launches, 1971.07.26 (LRV-1) to 1972.12.07 (LRV-3).

Apollo LTA.

  • American technology satellite. 3 launches, 1967.11.09 (LTA-10R) to 1968.12.21 (LTA-B). Apollo Lunar module Test Articles were simple mass/structural models of the Lunar Module.

Apollo Lunar Landing.

  • American manned lunar expedition. Begun in 1962; first landing on the moon 1969; sixth and final lunar landing 1972. The project that succeeded in putting a man on the moon.

Apollo M-1.

  • American manned spacecraft. Study 1962. Convair/Astronautics preferred M-1 Apollo design was a three-module lunar-orbiting spacecraft.

Apollo Martin 410.

  • American manned lunar lander. Study 1961. The Model 410 was Martin's preferred design for the Apollo spacecraft.

Apollo MET.

  • American lunar hand cart. Flown 1971. NASA designed the MET lunar hand cart to help with problems such as the Apollo 12 astronauts had in carrying hand tools, sample boxes and bags, a stereo camera, and other equipment on the lunar surface.

Apollo MSS.

  • American manned lunar orbiter. Study 1965. The Apollo Mapping and Survey System was a kit of photographic equipment that was at one time part of the basic Apollo Block II configuration.

Apollo R-3.

  • American manned spacecraft. Study 1962. General Electric's Apollo horizontal-landing alternative to the ballistic D-2 capsule was the R-3 lifting body. This modified lenticular shape provided a lift-to-drag ratio of just 0.

Apollo Rescue CSM.

  • American manned rescue spacecraft. Study 1970. Influenced by the stranded Skylab crew portrayed in the book and movie 'Marooned', NASA provided a crew rescue capability for the first time in its history.

Apollo RM.

  • American logistics spacecraft. Study 1967. In 1967 it was planned that Saturn IB-launched Orbital Workshops would be supplied by Apollo CSM spacecraft and Resupply Modules (RM) with up to three metric tons of supplies and instruments.

Apollo SM.

  • American manned spacecraft module. 22 launches, 1964.05.28 (Saturn 6) to 1975.07.15 (Apollo (ASTP)).

Apollo SMLL.

  • American lunar logistics spacecraft. Study 1966. North American Aviation (NAA) proposed use of the SM as a lunar logistics vehicle (LLV) in 1966. The configuration, simply stated, put a landing gear on the SM.

Apollo Telescope Mount.

  • Alternate designation for Skylab ATM manned space station module or Apollo ATM manned space station.

Apollo ULS.

  • American lunar logistics spacecraft. Study 1962. An Apollo unmanned logistic system to aid astronauts on a lunar landing mission was studied.

Apollo W-1.

  • American manned spacecraft. Study 1962. Martin's W-1 design for the Apollo spacecraft was an alternative to the preferred L-2C configuration. The 2652 kg command module was a blunt cone lifting body re-entry vehicle, 3.45 m in diameter, 3.61 m long.

Apollo X.

  • American manned space station. Study 1963.

Apollo-I.

  • Manufacturer's designation for Apollo RM logistics spacecraft.

APOS.

  • Manufacturer's designation for Almaz APOS manned space station.

Applications Technology Satellite.

  • Alternate designation for ATS-1 communications technology satellite.

AprizeSat.

  • American civilian store-dump communications satellite. 6 launches, 2002.12.20 (LatinSat 1) to 2009.07.29. Aprize's satellites were miniature spacecraft designed and optimized for data relay with very low power consumption.

APS.

  • American pressure suit, tested 1989. The Advanced Pressure Suit (APS) was a bladder type partial pressure suit designed and developed by Northrop and ILC Dover for the F-23 Advanced Tactical Fighter.

Aqua.

  • American earth sea satellite. One launch, 2002.05.04. Aqua was also designated the EOS-PM Earth Observing System satellite, joining EOS-AM/Terra. The CERES and MODIS instruments aboard Aqua were also carried on the Terra satellite.

Aquacade.

  • Code name for Rhyolite military naval signals reconnaisance satellite.

Araks.

  • Alternate designation for Arkon-1 military surveillance satellite.

ARD.

  • French re-entry vehicle technology satellite. One launch, 1998.10.21. The ARD was an 80 percent scale model of the Apollo Command Module, and a technology test for a possible International Space Station Crew Rescue Vehicle.

Ares.

  • French spaceplane. Study 1998. Small 7-meter long delta wing spaceplane, proposed by Aerospatiale, weighing 2,000 kg. Launched 2009.10.28,

Argon.

  • Code name for Zenit-6U military surveillance satellite.

Argon.

  • Code name for KH-5 military surveillance satellite.

ARGOS.

  • American ion engine technology satellite. One launch, 1999.02.23. ARGOS was the USAF Space Test Program P91-1 technology satellite by Boeing/Seal Beach.

Ariane 5 EPS L10.

  • German space tug. Study 2003. Upper stage / space tug - in production. Launched by Ariane 5V. 250 kg additional propellant compared to Ariane 5G version.

Ariane 5 ESC B.

  • German space tug. Study 2006. Upper stage / space tug - in production. New upper stage for Ariane 5.

Ariel.

  • American earth magnetosphere satellite. 6 launches, 1962.04.26 (Ariel 1) to 1979.06.02 (Ariel 6). Ionospheric studies; returned X-ray, ionospheric, cosmic ray data.

Arirang.

  • South Korean civilian surveillance satellite. Study 2015. South Korean indigenously-designed, multipurpose 1500 kg sun-synchronous orbit satellite, to be lofted by KSLV-III by 2015.

Arkon-1.

  • Russian military surveillance satellite. 2 launches, 1997.06.06 (Cosmos 2344) to 2002.07.25 (Cosmos 2392).

Arkos.

  • Russian communications satellite. Study 1996. Applied Mechanics' Arkos satellite was to have served as the geosynchronous anchor of the Marathon telecommunications network, while the highly elliptical Mayak spacecraft completed the system.

Armstrong Whitworth Waverider.

  • British manned spaceplane. Study 1960. The Armstrong Whitworth Waverider study of the 1950`s called for a two-crew waverider spacecraft powered by a second stage atop a British Blue Streak rocket.

Army-Navy-NASA.

  • Alternate designation for Anna earth geodetic satellite.

Array of Low-Energy X-ray Imaging Sensors.

  • Alternate designation for ALEXIS x-ray astronomy satellite.

Artemis.

  • European communications technology satellite. One launch, 2001.07.12. Artemis was a European Space Agency satellite to test new communications technologies.

Article 105.

  • Manufacturer's designation for Spiral OS manned spaceplane.

Article 50.

  • Alternate designation for Spiral OS manned spaceplane.

ARTV.

  • American re-entry vehicle technology satellite. 3 launches, 1958.04.24 (ARTV 1) to 1958.07.23 (ARTV 3). Suborbital advanced reentry test vehicle.

Aryabhata.

  • Indian earth atmosphere satellite. One launch, 1975.04.19. The Soviet Union assisted India in development of Aryabhata, its first satellite, named for the Indian astronomer. The satellite conducted scientific experiments on atmospheric research.

AS 1000.

  • American communications satellite. 3 launches, 1975.12.13 (Satcom 1) to 1979.12.07 (RCA Satcom 3).

AS 2100.

  • American communications satellite. Operational, first launch 1996.09.08 (GE 1). Cost per satellite $100 million for the spacecraft including ground support equipment, but not including launch costs. 3-axis stabilized.

AS 3000.

  • American communications satellite. 25 launches, 1981.11.20 (RCA Satcom 4; RCA Satcom 3R) to 1996.01.14 (Koreasat 2).

AS 4000.

  • Manufacturer's designation for GPS Block 2R navigation satellite.

AS 4000.

  • American communications satellite. 8 launches, 1985.11.27 (Satcom K2) to 1998.02.04 (Inmarsat 3 F5). 3-axis stabilization with momentum wheels, magnetic torquers, Earth sensors and 16 blowdown monopropellant hydrazine thrusters.

AS 5000.

  • American communications satellite. 4 launches, 1991.03.02 (Astra 1B) to 1992.06.10 (Intelsat K). 3-axis stabilization with momentum wheels, magnetic torquers, Earth sensors and 20 blowdown monopropellant hydrazine thrusters.

AS 7000.

  • American communications satellite. 13 launches, 1993.12.16 (Telstar 401) to 1998.06.18 (Intelsat 805). 3-axis stabilized. Two large solar panels with 1-axis articulation.

ASC.

  • British military communications satellite. 3 launches, 1985.08.27 (ASC-1) to 1991.04.13 (ASC-2 / Spacenet F4).

ASCA.

  • Japanese x-ray astronomy satellite. Study 2005. The Advanced Satellite for Cosmology and Astrophysics was a high throughput spectroscopic observatory.

Ascender.

  • British manned rocketplane. Study 1992. The Bristol Spaceplanes Ascender of the 1990's was a sub-orbital manned spaceplane concept proposed by David Ashford.

Ascent Module.

Ascent Stage.

  • Alternate designation for Apollo LM AS manned spacecraft module.

Asset.

  • American manned spaceplane. 6 launches, 1963.09.18 (ASSET 1) to 1965.02.23 (ASSET 6). One part of the Dynasoar manned spaceplane project was ASSET ( 'Aerothermodynamic Elastic Structural Systems Environmental Tests') .

Asterix.

  • French technology satellite. One launch, 1965.11.26. First French satellite. Launched from Hammaguir (Algeria) in order to test the "Diamant" launching vehicle for the first time.

ASTEX.

  • American technology satellite. One launch, 1971.10.17. Space Test Program; technology experiments.

Astrid.

  • Swedish earth magnetosphere satellite. One launch, 1995.01.24. Sweden's third scientific satellite and first microsatellite, ASTRID carries an Energetic Neutral Atom analyzer, an Electron Spectrometer and two UV imagers for imaging the Earth's aurora.

Astrid-2.

  • Swedish earth magnetosphere satellite. One launch, 1998.12.10. Swedish Space Corporation's second microsatellite (based on Astrid-1) was slated to perform high resolution E-field and B-filed measurements in the Earth's auroral regions.

Astro.

Astro.

  • Japanese x-ray astronomy satellite. 4 launches, 1981.02.21 (SS-07 Hinotori) to 1993.02.20 (Asuka). X-ray experiments. Launching organization: ISAS (Institute of Space and Astronautical Science).

ASTRO E.

  • Japanese x-ray astronomy satellite. 2 launches, 2000.02.10 (ASTRO E) and 2005.07.10 (Suzaku). ASTRO-E was to be fifth in a series of Japanese astronomy satellites devoted to observations of celestial X-ray sources.

Astrocommuter.

  • American manned spaceplane. Study 1963. The Lockheed Astrocommuter was a 1963 design for a manned space shuttle that would use the Saturn 1B as a first stage.

Astrofizika.

  • Russian earth geodetic satellite. One launch, 1978.12.23, Cosmos 1066. Based on the Meteor-1 bus but carried special optical instruments for the observation of lasers on Earth.

Astroliner.

  • American manned rocketplane. Study 2002. The Kelly Space & Technology Astroliner Space Launch System was a two-stage-to-orbit, towed space launch concept.

Astron.

  • Russian x-ray astronomy satellite. One launch, 1983.03.23. Astrophysics satellite based on the Venera 4V-2 bus design. Electrophysical research of galactic and extragalactic sources of ultraviolet ray and X-ray emission.

Astrophysics Module.

  • Alternate designation for Kvant AM manned space station module.

Astrorivelatore Gamma ad Imagini Leggero.

  • Alternate designation for AGILE gamma ray astronomy satellite.

Astrozond.

  • Soviet earth magnetosphere satellite. One launch, 1982.09.18.

ASUSAT.

  • American technology satellite. One launch, 2000.01.27. Arizona State University satellite with an Earth imager and an amateur radio transponder.

ASV-3.

  • Alternate designation for Asset manned spaceplane.

Athena.

  • American manned Mars flyby. Study 1996. In 1996 Robert Zubrin proposed a new version of a manned Mars flyby mission, dubbed Athena.

Athlete.

  • American lunar rover. Study 2005. Athlete was a Habot-inspired mobility system for doing cargo handling, assembly, maintenance, and servicing tasks on the moon. Each of the six limbs had a 6-degree-of-freedom manipulator with a wheel at the end.

Atlantis.

  • American manned spaceplane. 33 launches, 1985.10.03 to 2011.07.08. The space shuttle Atlantis was the fourth orbiter to become operational at Kennedy Space Center, and the last of the original production run.

Atlas Target Docking Adapter.

  • American logistics spacecraft. One launch, 1966.06.01, Gemini 9 ATDA. An unpowered Gemini docking collar less the Agena rocket stage, launched one time by an Atlas when the Agena stage was not available. Fairing separation failed.

Atmosphere Explorer.

  • Alternate designation for AE earth atmosphere satellite.

Atmospheric Reentry Demonstrator.

  • Alternate designation for ARD re-entry vehicle technology satellite.

ATS-1.

  • American communications technology satellite. One launch, 1966.12.07, ATS 1. During its 18 year lifetime, ATS-1 examined spin stabilization techniques, investigated the geostationary environment, and performed several communications experiments.

ATS-2.

  • American communications technology satellite. One launch, 1967.04.06, ATS 2. ATS-2 was placed into an undesirable orbit due to a launch vehicle failure.

ATS-3.

  • American communications technology satellite. One launch, 1967.11.05, ATS 3. The goals for ATS-3 included investigations of spin stabilization techniques and VHF and C-band communications experiments.

ATS-4.

  • American communications technology satellite. One launch, 1968.08.10, ATS 4. A launch vehicle failure stranded ATS-4 in a much lower than planned orbit, making the satellite nearly useless.

ATS-5.

  • American communications technology satellite. One launch, 1969.08.12, ATS 5.

ATS-6.

  • American communications technology satellite. One launch, 1974.05.30, ATS 6. In addition to its technology experiments, ATS-6 became the world's first educational satellite.

ATV.

ATV.

  • European logistics spacecraft and space tug. The Automated Transfer Vehicle was first proposed in the mid-1980s as a way to transport unmanned cargo to a Space Station. Operational in that role, first launch 2008.03.09. Studies for a manned version with a re-entry capsule conducted, but no funding for development.

ATV ICC.

  • European space tug. Study 1985. The Integrated Cargo Carrier was located at the forward end of the ATV. It represented 60% of the total ATV volume and carried all of the cargo for resupplying the Station.

ATV SM.

  • European space tug. Study 1985. The unpressurized ATV Service Module included propulsion systems, electrical power (including solar arrays), computers, communications and most of the avionics.

AUOS.

  • Ukrainian technology satellite. 14 launches, 1976.06.19 (Intercosmos 15) to 2009.01.30 (Koronas-F). Standardized bus for low earth orbit scientific studies and testing of new systems and components of satellite under space flight conditions.

Aura.

  • American earth atmosphere satellite. One launch, 2004.07.15. Earth Observing System (EOS) Aura was a NASA mission to study the Earth's ozone, air quality and climate.

Aureole.

  • Alternate designation for DS-U2-GKA earth magnetosphere satellite.

Aurora.

  • American earth magnetosphere satellite. One launch, 1967.06.29. Investigated aurora borealis.

Aurora X-Prize.

  • American manned spaceplane. Study 2004. X-Prize suborbital spaceplane concept of Fundamental Technology Systems, Orlando, Florida.

Aussenstation.

  • German manned space station. Study 1951. H. H. Koelle's Aussenstation was a large circular structure consisting of 36 separate 5-m spheres arranged around a central hub, the whole structure rotating to provide an artificial gravity environment.

Auto Landing Flight Experiment.

  • Alternate designation for Alflex spaceplane.

Auto Landing Pre-Experimental Aircraft.

  • Alternate designation for Alpex spaceplane.

Automated Transfer Vehicle.

  • Manufacturer's designation for ATV space station logistics spacecraft.

Avco Project 7969.

  • American manned spacecraft. Study 1958. AVCO's proposal for the Air Force initial manned space project was a 690 kg, 2.

AX-1C.

  • American space suit, tested 1965. Full pressure, Apollo Block II prototype suit for both IVA/EVA by the David Clark Company. Not put into production.

AX-5.

  • American space suit, tested 1985. The AX-5 high pressure, zero prebreathe hard suit was developed at NASA Ames Research Center in the 1980s. It achieved mobility through a constant volume, using a hard metal/composite rigid exoskeleton design.

AX5L.

  • American space suit, tested 1964. NASA Apollo suit prototype, rated for intravehicular activity only.

AXAF.

  • Manufacturer's designation for Chandra x-ray astronomy satellite.

AX-Series.

  • American space suit, tested 1964-68. Between 1964 and 1968 two hard suit assemblies were developed at NASA-ARC, identified as the AX-1 (Ames Experimental) and AX-2. These suits were the first to demonstrate multiple bearing technology.

Ayame.

  • Japanese communications technology satellite. 2 launches, 1979.02.06 (Ayame 1) and 1980.02.22 (Ayame 2). Experimental Communications Satellite (ECS). Communications and propagation experiments of satellite-communication systems.

AZUR.

  • German earth magnetosphere satellite. One launch, 1969.11.08. German Research Satellite A; examined Van Allen belts, solar particles, aurora.

BA-330.

  • Alternate designation for Nautilus manned space station module.

Badr.

  • Pakistani communications technology satellite. 3 launches, 1990.07.16 (Badr-A) to 2008.07.07 (Badr B). Pakistani experimental series with a variety of payloads.

Baklan.

  • Russian pressure suit, operational 1970. The Baklan full-pressure suit was developed by Zvezda for the crew of high altitude strategic aviation aircraft..

Bambi.

  • American military anti-ballistic missile satellite. Cancelled 1963. BAllistic Missile Boost Intercept ABM system, cancelled May 1963.

Ban Xing.

  • Chinese technology satellite. One launch, 2008.09.25, BX-1. BanXing (companion satellite) subsatellite released by Shenzhou. If maneuvered away and back to the Shenzhou orbital module after the mission.

Barminograd.

BCP-2000.

BE.

  • American earth magnetosphere satellite. One launch, 1964.03.19, Explorer (20). Also known as Explorer S-66.

Beacon.

  • American earth ionosphere satellite. 2 launches, 1964.10.10 (Explorer 22) to 1965.04.29 (Explorer 27). Early technology satellite. None reached orbit.

Beacon 1.

  • American technology satellite. 2 launches, 1958.10.23 (Beacon 1) and 1959.08.15 (Beacon 2).

Beacon Explorer.

  • Alternate designation for BE earth magnetosphere satellite.

Beanstalk.

  • American technology satellite. One launch, 1962.05.31. Suborbital.

Beidou.

  • Chinese navigation satellite. Operational, first launch 2000.10.30. Beidou ('Big Dipper') was the satellite component of an independent Chinese satellite navigation and positioning system.

Bell Hypersonic Rocket Transport 1960.

  • American manned rocketplane. Study 1960. In March 1960 Bell proposed a revised hypersonic transport design based on its work on boost-glide vehicles during the 1950's. There was no government or airline interest in the concept.

Bell Project 7969.

  • American manned spacecraft. Study 1958. Bell's preferred concept for the Air Force initial manned space project was the boost-glide vehicle they had been developing for the Dynasoar program.

Bell Rocket Transport 1957.

  • American manned rocketplane. Study 1957. Proposed civilian transport version of Bomi rocket bomber. Bell was unable to interest any airlines in putting up the development funds for the project.

Bendix ALSS Rover.

  • American manned lunar rover. Study 1965. The Bendix ALSS Payloads lunar rover design of June 1965 had a range of 400 km with a crew of 2 on a 14 day traverse. A variety of configurations were studied in detail.

Bendix LSSM.

  • American manned lunar rover. Study 1965. The Bendix LSSM lunar rover design of October 1965 had 4 wheels. and a range of 400 km with a crew of 2 on a 14 day traverse.

Bendix Lunar Logistic System.

  • American manned lunar rover. Study 1963. The Bendix Lunar Logistic System was a lunar rover design of January 1963. The vehicle had 4 wheels with alternative front or all-wheel steering and a range of 800 km with a crew of 3 on a 14 day traverse.

Bendix Manned Lunar Vehicle.

  • American manned lunar rover. Study 1961. The Bendix Manned Lunar Vehicle was a lunar rover design of November 1961. The vehicle had 4 wheels and a range of 400 km with a crew of 3 on a 14 day traverse.

Bendix Molab.

  • American manned lunar rover. Study 1965. The Bendix Molab lunar rover design of June 1965 had 4 wheels and a range of 400 km with a crew of 2 on a 14 day traverse. The cabin had a volume of 12.8 cubic meters.

Bendix SLRV.

  • American lunar rover. Study 1964. The Bendix SLRV unmanned lunar rover design of April 1964 had a speed up to 25 kph on 4 tracks with floating pivot articulation. It was designed for a 105 day traverse mission.

Bepi-Columbo.

  • European comet probe. need summary - see links

Berkut.

  • Russian space suit, operational 1965. Berkut was a modified Vostok Sokol space suit. The needs of the cosmonaut were supplied not through the umbilical cord, but rather through a simple open-cycle environmental control system.

BGRV.

Bhaskara.

  • Indian earth land resources satellite. 2 launches, 1979.06.07 (Bhaskara 1) and 1981.11.20 (Bhaskara 2). Experimental satellite for conducting earth resources survey over India.

BI-1.

  • Russian manned rocketplane. Flown 1941. The Bereznyak-Isayev BI-1 was the first high speed rocket plane developed by the Soviet Union. Drawings were completed by spring 1941 but Stalin did not give the go-ahead for production until July 9, 1941.

Big Gemini.

  • American manned spacecraft. Reached mockup stage 1967.

Big Gemini AM.

  • American manned spacecraft module. Reached mockup stage 1967. Earth orbit maneuver and retrofire.

Big Gemini CM.

  • American manned spacecraft module. Reached mockup stage 1967. Space station resupply.

Big Gemini RV.

  • American manned spacecraft module. Reached mockup stage 1967. Crew and cargo return.

Big Soyuz.

  • Russian manned spacecraft. Study 2018. This enlarged version of the Soyuz reentry vehicle shape was one alternative studied for the next-generation Russian launch vehicle.

Bion.

  • Russian biology satellite. 11 launches, 1973.10.31 (Cosmos 605) to 1996.12.24 (Bion No. 11). Bion was developed for biological studies of the effects of radiation.

Biosatellite.

  • American biology satellite. 3 launches, 1966.12.14 (Biosatellite 1) to 1969.06.29 (Biosatellite 3). Biosatellite was a NASA spacecraft designed in the early 1960's to study the effects of the space environment on living organisms in missions.

Bio-Suit.

  • American space suit, study of 2001. Novel approach that used biomedical breakthroughs in skin replacement and materials to replace the bulky conventional balloon spacesuit with a second skin approach.

Bioteknologiya.

  • Russian materials science satellite. Study 1992. In 1991 the Salyut Design Bureau proposed a satellite based on a derivative of the class of spacecraft which serve as the heavy add-on modules for the Mir space station, e.g., Kvant 2 and Kristal.

BIRD.

  • German earth land resources satellite. One launch, 2001.10.22.

BIS Lunar Lander.

  • British manned lunar lander. Study 1939. Design of the British Interplanetary Society's BIS Spaceship began in 1937 and was published in January and July 1939.

BIS Space Suit.

  • British space suit, study of 1949. In 1947 R A Smith presented a series of papers to the British Interplanetary Society. This space suit was the concept for earth orbit work.

BIS Station.

  • British manned space station. Study 1948. H. E. Ross proposed a manned satellite station in Earth orbit that would serve as an astronomical and zero-gravity and vacuum research laboratory.

Bizan.

  • Russian manned spaceplane. Study 1982. Bizan was the 1982 Soviet air-launched spaceplane design iteration between the '49' and 'MAKS' concepts. Like the '49', it was air-launched from atop an An-124 transport.

Black Armadillo.

  • American manned spacecraft. Study 2004. X-Prize suborbital ballistic spacecraft concept of Armadillo Aerospace, Mesquite, Texas. Reached the stage of engineering tests by 2003.

Black Colt.

  • American manned spaceplane. Study 1993. Winged, first stage of a launch vehicle using aerial refueling and existing engines.

Black Horse.

  • American manned spaceplane. Study 1994. Winged, single stage to orbit launch vehicle using aerial refueling and lower performance, non-cryogenic propellants.

Blackstar.

  • American manned spaceplane. 2006 reports claimed it was flown covertly in the 1990s.

Block 11.

Block 111.

Block 1V.

Block D 11S824.

  • Russian space tug. 40 launches, (1967) to (1975). Upper stage / space tug - out of production. Launched by Proton. Block D, article number 11S824. Without guidance unit (navigation commands come from payload).

Block D-1 11S824M.

  • Russian space tug. 11 launches, (1976) to (1989). Upper stage / space tug - in production. Launched by Proton. Also known as Block D-1; article number 11S824M. Without guidance unit (navigation commands come from payload).

Block D-2 11S824F.

  • Russian space tug. 3 launches, (1988) to (1996). Upper stage / space tug - in production. Launched by . Also known as Block D-2; article number 11S824F. Without guidance unit (navigation commands come from payload).

Block DM 11S86.

  • Russian space tug. 66 launches, (1974) to (1990). Upper stage / space tug - out of production. Launched by Proton.

Block DM-2 11S861.

  • Russian space tug. 100 launches, (1982) to (2001). Upper stage / space tug - in production. Launched by Proton. Also known as Block DM-2 (different from commercial Block DM2 (no hyphen!)), article number 11S861.

Block DM-2M 11S861-01.

  • Russian space tug. 35 launches, (1994) to (2002). Upper stage / space tug - in production. Launched by Proton.

Block DM-5 17S40.

  • Russian space tug. 6 launches, (1997) to (2002). Upper stage / space tug - in production. Launched by Proton. Also known as Block DM-5. With guidance unit, modification of 11S861 stage for heavier payloads and with different payload adapter.

Block L Molniya 8K78.

  • Russian space tug. 27 launches, (1960) to (1970). Upper stage / space tug - out of production. Launched by Molniya.

Block L Molniya 8K78M.

  • Russian space tug. 288 launches, (1964) to (2002). Upper stage / space tug - in production. Launched by Molniya M.

Block V.

  • Alternate designation for LK-700 VA manned spacecraft module.

Bloka Skhoda s Orbiti.

  • Alternate designation for TKS BSO manned spacecraft module.

Bluebell.

  • American military target satellite. 2 launches, 1966.02.15 (Bluebell 2C (Cylinder)) and (Bluebell 2S (Sphere)). Space craft engaged in investigation of spaceflight techniques and technology.

Boeing LES Rover.

  • American manned lunar rover. Study 1963. The Boeing Lunar Exploration Systems lunar rover design of November 1963 was for a multipurpose rover with a range of 480 km with a crew of 2 on a 8 day traverse. The cabin had a volume of 4.95 cubic meters.

Boeing LSSM.

  • American manned lunar rover. Study 1965. The Boeing LSSM lunar rover design of June 1965 had 4 wheels of 1.2 or 1.6 m diameter. and a range of 200 km with a crew of 2 on a 14 day traverse.

Bomi.

  • American manned combat spacecraft. Study 1952. Bell manned skip-glide space bomber project of the 1950's. Predecessor to Dynasoar.

Bono Manned Mars Vehicle.

  • American manned Mars expedition. Study 1960. In 1960 Philip Bono, then working at Boeing, proposed a single-launch Mars manned expedition. Bono's scenario was the classic trade-off of weight for risk.

Bono Saucer.

  • American manned spaceplane. Study 1963. In 1963 Phil Bono of Douglas Aircraft considered a lenticular configuration for a single-stage-to-orbit reusable booster. This was the largest application found to date for the lenticular concept.

Boost Glide Re-entry Vehicle.

  • American re-entry vehicle technology satellite. Study 1968. The Boost Glide Re-entry Vehicle investigated related technological problems, particularly hypersonic maneuvering after re-entry into the atmosphere.

BOR-4.

  • Russian manned spaceplane. 4 launches, 1982.06.04 (Cosmos 1374) to 1984.12.19 (Cosmos 1614). BOR-4 were subscale test versions of the Spiral manned spaceplanes.

BOR-5.

  • Russian spaceplane. 2 launches, 1983.07.04 (BOR-5 Flight 1) and 1984.06.06 (BOR-5 Flight 6). The aerodynamic characteristics of Buran at hypersonic speeds were validated by the BOR-5 1:8 sub-scale model of Buran.

Boyles Law Suit.

  • American pressure suit, tested 1966. Concept by Otto Schueller, patented by Davis, Moore, Ritzinger and Whitmore at USAFSAM.

Brass Bell.

  • American manned combat spacecraft. Study 1956. Hypersonic manned reconnaissance spaceplane project of the 1950's. Predecessor to Dynasoar.

BremSat.

  • German re-entry vehicle technology satellite. One launch, 1994.02.03. Atomic oxygen, dust particle, microgravity, reentry experiments.

British Aerospace Space Station.

  • European manned space station. Study 1990. British Aerospace Ltd. (BAe) investigated alternate European space station designs for the European Space Agency.

Briz K.

  • Russian space tug. 6 launches, (1990) to (2002). Upper stage / space tug - in production. Launched by Rokot. Briz KM differed from Briz K in having 'compact' components, and a special payload truss for the Globalstar dispenser.

Briz M.

  • Russian space tug. 2 launches, (1999) to (2000). Upper stage / space tug - in production. New upper stage for Proton, replacing Energia Corporation's Block DM, making Proton an all-Khrunichev launch vehicle.

Buran.

  • Code name for M-42 and M-44 manned rocketplanes.

Buran.

  • Russian manned spaceplane. One launch, 1988.11.15. Soviet copy of the US Space Shuttle. Unlike the Shuttle, the main engines were not mounted on Buran and were not reused.

Buran Analogue.

  • Russian manned spaceplane. Study 1984. This Buran OK-GLI 'Analogue' was a version of the Buran spaceplane equipped with jet engines to allow it to be flown in handling and landing system tests at subsonic speed in the earth's atmosphere.

Bytovoy otsek.

  • Russian name (living module) for Soyuz TM BO manned spacecraft module.

C/NOFS.

  • American earth seismology satellite. One launch, 2008.04.16. The C/NOFS (Communication/Navigation Outage Forecasting System) satellite flew the US Defence Department's Space Test Program P00-3 space weather forecasting mission.

C-1A.

  • American pressure suit, tested 1958. A partial pressure capstan suit with incorporated anti-G bladders for USN fighter aircraft, 12 standard sizes.

C-21.

C-4.

  • American pressure suit, operational 1958. A partial pressure capstan suit, with vertical shoulder laces, adjustable break lines, anti-G suit, MG-1 Berger Bros. gloves, MA-2 helmet by ILC Dover.

Calipso.

  • American earth weather satellite. One launch, 2006.04.28.

Calsphere.

  • American military target satellite. 11 launches, 1964.10.06 (Calsphere 1) to 1971.02.17 (Calsphere 5). Radar calibration objects (but also cover for other classified subsatellites).

Caltech.

CAMEO.

  • American earth magnetosphere satellite. One launch, 1978.10.13. Released barium cloud.

Can X.

  • Canadian technology satellite. 2 launched, 2008.04.28 (Can X-6 ) and (Can X-2 ).

Canadian Arrow.

  • Canadian manned spacecraft. Study 2004. X-Prize suborbital ballistic spacecraft concept of Geoff Sheerin, Toronto. Reached the stage of engineering tests by 2003.

Canadian PPS.

  • Canadian pressure suit, operational 1957. The Canadian Waistcoat-Mask/Vest/G-Suit was a partial pressure assembly. The Canadians studied variants of this assembly as far back as the early 1940's.

Cannonball.

  • American military target satellite. One launch, 1971.08.07. Space craft engaged in investigation of spaceflight techniques and technology.

Canyon.

  • American military naval signals reconnaisance satellite. 7 launches, 1968.08.06 (Canyon 1) to 1977.05.23 (Canyon 7). The first large US signals intelligence satellite.

CAPRICORN.

  • American military communications satellite. One launch, 1998.01.29, USA 137. There was no firm information on this classified satellite for the National Reconnaissance Office.

Capsule.

Cargo Lander Reference Version 1.

  • American manned Mars lander. Study 1993.

Cargo Lander Reference Version 3.

  • American manned Mars lander. Study 1993. The second version of the NASA Cargo Lander for the design reference mission 3.0 was similar in concept to the first but mass was reduced nearly 30% by a thorough study and scrub of each element.

Case for Mars II.

  • American manned Mars expedition. Study 1984. The Case for Mars II Mars expedition plan was presented at a conference on 10-14 July 1984.

Cassini.

  • American outer planets probe. 2 launches, 1997.10.15 (Cassini) and (Huygens). The Cassini spacecraft was a scientific platform designed to perform an in-depth study of the Saturnian system.

CAT.

  • European technology satellite. 5 launches, 1979.12.24 (CAT 1) to 1981.12.20 (Tech. capsule).

CBERS.

  • Manufacturer's designation for ZY earth land resources satellite.

CDS.

  • American communications technology satellite. One launch, 1993.02.09, Orbcomm OXP-1. Experimental spacecraft.

Celestis.

  • American burial satellite. 4 launches, 1998.02.10 (Celestis-02) to 2008.08.03 (Celestis-4). Celestis offers the loved ones of the space-smitten deceases the opportunity to have (a portion) of their cremains put into orbit.

Centaur B-X.

  • American space tug. Study 2000. Upper stage / space tug - in development 1998, not put into production.

Centaur C.

  • American space tug. 22 launches, (1961) to (1967). Upper stage / space tug - out of production.

Centaur C-X.

  • American space tug. Study 2001. Upper stage / space tug - in development 1998, not put into production.

Centaur D/E.

  • American space tug. 56 launches, (1967) to (1983). Upper stage / space tug - out of production. Launched by Atlas Centaur D; Titan 3E.

Centaur G.

  • American space tug. 22 launches, (1989) to (1998). Upper stage / space tug - out of production. Centaur for Titan 4

Centaur G Prime.

  • American space tug. Cancelled 1987. Upper stage / space tug - out of production. Centaur for Shuttle payload bay. Cancelled after Challenger disaster on safety grounds.

Centaur I.

  • American space tug. 18 launches, (1984) to (1997). Upper stage / space tug - out of production. Launched by Atlas I.

Centaur II.

  • American space tug. 10 launches, (1991) to (1998). Upper stage / space tug - out of production. Launched by Atlas II.

Centaur IIA.

  • American space tug. 48 launches, (1992) to (2002). Upper stage / space tug - out of production. Launched by Atlas IIA.

Centaur IIIA.

  • American space tug. One launch, , 2000. Upper stage / space tug - out of production. Single-engine Centaur for Atlas IIIA.

Centaur IIIB.

  • American space tug. One launch, , 2002. Upper stage / space tug - out of production. Dual-engine Centaur for Atlas IIIB.

Centaur V1.

  • American space tug. One launch, , 2002. Upper stage / space tug - in production. Single engined Centaur for Atlas V, powered by one Pratt & Whitney RL10A-4-2 turbopump-fed engines burning liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen.

Centaur V2.

  • American space tug. Study 2001. Upper stage / space tug - in production. Twin engined Centaur for Atlas V, powered by two Pratt & Whitney RL10A-4-2 turbopump-fed engines burning liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen.

CEPE.

  • American satellite. One launch, 1970.12.11. Cylindrical Electrostatic Probe Experiment (orbital experiment attached to Delta second stage)

CEV.

  • American manned spacecraft. Study 2006. The Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) was NASA's planned manned spacecraft intended to carry human crews from Earth into space and back again from 2012 on.

CEV Andrews.

  • American manned spacecraft. Study 2005. The Andrews Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) design adopted NASA's preferred Apollo CM re-entry vehicle shape, but combined it with a mission module crew cabin to minimize the CEV's mass.

CEV Andrews MM.

  • American manned spacecraft module. Study 2005. The Andrews CEV mission module provided a pressurized cabin for use by the crew while in transit from the moon to the earth.

CEV Andrews OTV.

  • American manned spacecraft module. Study 2005. The Andrews CEV used a standard Orbital Transfer Vehicle for propulsion in low earth orbit or lunar transfer operations.

CEV Andrews RM.

  • American manned spacecraft module. Study 2005. The Andrews CEV Re-entry Module would be reusable and normally accommodate four crew. Six could be fitted in for the space-station ferry role.

CEV Boeing.

  • American manned spacecraft. Study 2012. Boeing's CEV consisted of a four-crew Apollo-type capsule, a service module, and a pressurized mission module.

CEV CM.

  • American manned spacecraft module. Study 2006.

CEV Draper MIT.

  • American manned spacecraft. Study 2012. The Draper-MIT CEV proposal was an 8-metric ton integral ballistic capsule.

CEV Lockheed.

  • American manned spacecraft. Study 2012. The Crew Exploration Vehicle first proposed by Lockheed was a lifting body with a total mass of 18 metric tons and a crew of four.

CEV Northrop.

  • American manned spacecraft. Study 2012. Northrop Grumman kept its CEV final proposal very secret, citing competitive concerns.

CEV Orbital.

  • American manned spacecraft. Study 2012. Orbital's nominal CEV was an Apollo-derived capsule. The CEV's service module would take the capsule from low earth orbit, to lunar orbit, and back to earth.

CEV Raytheon.

  • American manned spacecraft. Study 2012. Raytheon's CEV was a low L/D capsule, designed for three crew, sized so that an existing EELV Heavy could send it towards L1.

CEV SAIC.

  • American manned spacecraft. Study 2012. SAIC's notional CEV was a Soyuz-shaped aeroshell, enclosing a common pressurized module, and accommodating a crew of four.

CEV Schafer.

  • American manned spacecraft. Study 2012. Schafer proposed a lightweight 11 metric ton integral CEV, staged from L1.

CEV SM.

  • American manned spacecraft module. Study 2006. The Service Module of NASA's Crew Exploration Vehicle provided basic consumables, control systems, and sufficient delta-V for return of the CEV from lunar orbit to the earth.

CEV Spacehab.

  • American manned spacecraft. Study 2005. The final Spacehab CEV concept was a three-module spacecraft using a slightly enlarged Apollo command module for return of the crew to earth.

CEV Spacehab CM.

  • American manned spacecraft module. Study 2005. A 10% enlargement of the Apollo capsule, this re-entry vehicle provided the minimum volume for four crew to make re-entry from lunar distances.

CEV Spacehab SHM.

  • American manned spacecraft module. Study 2005. The Stowage/Habitation Module (SHM) provided generous living space for the crew during cislunar transit.

CEV Spacehab SM.

  • American manned spacecraft module. Study 2005. The Support Module (SM) could provide 2.3 km/s delta-V, enough for lunar orbit insertion and trans-earth injection. It also was the primary source for electrical power during the mission.

CEV t/Space.

  • Alternate designation for CXV manned spacecraft.

Chalet.

  • American military naval signals reconnaisance satellite. 6 launches, 1978.06.10 (Chalet 1) to 1989.05.10 (USA 37). Geosynchronous orbit signals intelligence satellite series that replaced Canyon. Also called Program 366 and Vortex.

Challenger.

  • American manned spaceplane. 10 launches, 1983.04.04 (STS-6) to 1986.01.28 (STS-51-L).

CHAMP.

  • German earth magnetosphere satellite. One launch, 2000.07.15. CHAMP was a geophysics research satellite operated by GFZ, Potsdam, to study the earth's magnetic and gravitational field.

Chandra.

  • American x-ray astronomy satellite. One launch, 1999.07.23.

Chandraayan.

  • Indian lunar orbiter. One launch, 2008.10.22. First Indian lunar orbiter. It released the MIP impactor.

Chang Cheng 1.

  • Chinese manned spaceplane. Study 1988. Vertical takeoff / horizontal landing two-stage compromise design; three expendable liquid oxygen/kerosene modular boosters and a winged reusable second stage.

Chang'e.

  • Chinese unmanned lunar orbiter. Two launched, 2007.10.24 and 2010.10.01. Originally announced in March 2003 with the first spacecraft to reach the moon by the end of 2005.

Chelomei Space Interceptor.

  • Alternate designation for LKS manned spaceplane.

Chemical Release Observation.

  • Alternate designation for CRO military strategic defense satellite.

Chibis.

  • Russian anti-zero-G device, in use from 1971 (Salyut 1) to the ISS era.

China Brazil Earth Resource Satellite.

  • Alternate designation for ZY earth land resources satellite.

Chinese ASAT.

  • Chinese military anti-satellite system. Study 2007. On 11 January 2007 a Chinese homing vehicle launched by a ballistic missile from Xichang intercepted and destroyed a Chinese FY-1C satellite at 850 km altitude.

Chinese Cargo Spaceship.

  • Unmanned space station resupply spacecraft being developed to resupply the planned Chinese Space Station, which as of 2011 was not due to be completed until 2020.

Chinese Lunar Base.

  • Chinese manned lunar base. Study 2025. Beginning in 2000, Chinese scientists began discussing preliminary work on a Chinese manned lunar base.

Chinese Manned Capsule 1978.

  • Chinese manned spacecraft. Study 1978. First public announcement of a Chinese manned program came in February, 1978.

Chinese Space Laboratory.

  • Chinese manned space station. Study 2012. The latest models displayed of the Chinese Space Laboratory show it to have a larger-diameter module, about 4 m in diameter, and a narrower module forward, about 3 m in diameter.

Chinese Space Station.

  • In 2009-2011 Chinese authorities announced firm plans to assemble a 60 metric ton, three-module space station by 2010.

Chinese Space Suit.

  • The Shenzhou flight suits were reverse-engineered from the Russia Sokol suit. The suits are designed to protect the astronaut in the event of cabin depressurization, and not for use in extra-vehicular activity.

CHIPSat.

  • American ultraviolet astronomy satellite. One launch, 2003.01.13. NASA's Cosmic Hot Interstellar Plasma Spectrometer (CHIPS) mission used the CHIPSat bus.

Clark.

  • American earth atmosphere satellite. Cancelled in 1998 when overruns had reached 20% of original price and no end to development was in sight.

Clementine.

  • American lunar orbiter. One launch, 1994.01.25. Clementine was jointly sponsored by BMDO and NASA as the Deep Space Program Science Experiment (DSPSE).

Clipper.

  • Alternate designation for Kliper manned spaceplane.

Cloudsat.

  • American earth weather satellite. One launch, 2006.04.28.

Cluster.

  • European earth magnetosphere satellite. 4 launches, 1996.06.04 (Cluster F4) to (Cluster F4). The Cluster satellites were a series of sophisticated earth-observation platforms that were to be launched aboard the first Ariane 5.

Cluster 2.

  • European earth magnetosphere satellite. 4 launches, 2000.07.16 (Samba) to 2000.08.09 (Tango).

Cluster II.

  • Alternate designation for Cluster 2 earth magnetosphere satellite.

CM Lunar Shelter.

  • Alternate designation for Apollo CMLS manned lunar habitat.

COBE.

  • American infrared astronomy satellite. One launch, 1989.11.18.

Columbia.

  • American manned spaceplane. 28 launches, 1981.04.12 (STS-1) to 2003.01.16 (STS-107). Columbia, the first orbiter in the Shuttle fleet, was named after the sloop that accomplished the first American circumnavigation of the globe.

Columbus Attached Pressurised Module.

  • European manned space station module. Study 1985. The European Space Agency formally joined the American Space Station project in May 1985, but the negotiations between ESA and NASA were often difficult.

Columbus Man-Tended Free Flyer - MTFF.

  • European manned space station. Study 1986. In April 1986, Italy's Aeritalia finally proposed that the European Space Agency build a second free-flying pressurized module to be used with the Space Station.

Columbus Space Station.

  • European manned space station. Study 1984. The European Space Agency Columbus module began as an independent European space station but would up as an unflown module of the International Space Station.

Combined Release and Radiation Effects Satellite..

  • Alternate designation for CRRES earth magnetosphere satellite.

Combo Lander Mission.

  • American manned Mars expedition. Study 1998. During the spring of 1998, NASA conducted a special study to design a human Mars mission that could be accommodated for launch by three heavy-lift launch vehicles.

Comet Rendezvous Asteroid Flyby.

  • Alternate designation for CRAF comet probe.

COMETS.

  • Alternate designation for Kakehashi communications satellite.

Command Control Pressure Suit.

  • American space suit. This 1990 concept placed the avionics required for landing open-cockpit lunar landers or operating rovers or other spacecraft within the suit itself.

Command Module.

  • Alternate designation for Apollo CM manned spacecraft module.

Command Service Module.

  • Alternate designation for Apollo CSM manned lunar orbiter.

Communications Technology Satellite.

  • Alternate designation for CTS communications satellite.

Compass.

  • German technology satellite. One launch, 2008.04.28. Fachhochschule Aachen nanosat.

Compton Gamma Ray Observatory.

  • Alternate designation for GRO gamma ray astronomy satellite.

Contour.

  • American comet probe. One launch, 2002.07.03.

Convair Project 7969.

  • American manned spacecraft. Study 1958. Convair's proposal for the Air Force initial manned space project involved a large-scale manned space station. When pressed, they indicated that a minimum vehicle - a 450 kg, 1.

Convair Shuttlecraft.

  • American manned spaceplane. Study 1962. Convair concept for a winged shuttle vehicle, early 1960's.

Conventional ASAT.

  • American military anti-satellite system. Study 1978. In May 1978, the US Joint Chiefs of Staff issued a priority list of potential Soviet target satellites for the MHV hit-to-kill ASAT then under development.

Copper Canyon.

  • American manned spaceplane. Study 1984. DARPA program of 1984 that proved the technologies and concept for the X-30 National Aerospace Plane concept.

Coriolis.

  • American earth sea satellite. One launch, 2003.01.06.

Corona.

  • Code name for KH-1 military surveillance satellite.

Corot.

  • French visible astronomy satellite. One launch, 2006.12.27.

Corsa A.

  • Japanese technology satellite. One launch, 1976.02.04. Japanese technology satellite.

COS.

  • European technology satellite. One launch, 1975.08.09. CERS/ESRO satellite, first European Space Agency satellite.

Cosmic Background Explorer.

  • Alternate designation for COBE infrared astronomy satellite.

Cosmopolis 21.

  • Russian manned spaceplane. Mock-up unveiled in 2002. On 15 March 2002 Space Adventures unveiled the mock-up of their C-21 (Cosmopolis 21) spaceplane at Zhukovskiy Air Base, Moscow.

Cosmos Mariner.

  • American manned spaceplane. Study 2004. X-Prize suborbital spaceplane concept of Lone Star Space Access, Houston, Texas.

Cosmo-SkyMed.

  • Italian military surveillance radar satellite. Constellation of four satellites launched 2007.06.08 - 2010.11.06.

Courier.

  • American communications technology satellite. 2 launches, 1960.08.18 (Courier 1A) and 1960.10.04 (Courier 1B). Experimental communications.

Covert Space Denial.

  • Alternate designation for Apollo LM CSD manned combat spacecraft.

CPAC.

  • American burial satellite. One launch, 1997.04.21, Celestis.

CPAC/Orion 38.

  • Manufacturer's designation for Celestis burial satellite.

CRAF.

  • American comet probe. Cancelled in the early 1990s. The CRAF spacecraft (Comet Rendezvous Asteroid Flyby) was to have rendezvoused with the Comet Kopff and flown alongside the comet for at least three years.

Crew Exploration Vehicle.

  • Alternate designation for CEV manned spacecraft.

Crew Lander Reference Version 1.

  • American manned Mars lander. Study 1993. The first version of the NASA Crew Lander for the design reference mission would land the crew and a Mars surface habitat on the surface near the previously-landed cargo lander.

Crew Lander Reference Version 3.

  • American manned Mars lander. Study 1996. The second version of the NASA Crew Lander for the design reference mission would land the crew and a Mars surface habitat on the surface near the previously-landed cargo lander.

Crew Module.

  • Alternate designation for CEV CM manned spacecraft module.

Crew Transfer Vehicle.

  • Alternate designation for CTV manned spacecraft.

CRO.

  • American military strategic defense satellite. 3 launches, 1991.04.28 (CRO-C) to (CRO-A).

Crocco Mars Flyby.

  • Italian manned Mars concept. Study 1956. Gaetano Crocco proposed trajectories for a Mars flyby required half the energy, one third the time, and only a single rocket burn, compared to the traditional Hohmann approach.

CRRES.

  • American earth magnetosphere satellite. One launch, 1990.07.25. Combined Release and Radiation Effects Satellite. Chemical release experiment.

Crusader X.

  • American manned spacecraft. Study 2004. X-Prize suborbital ballistic spacecraft concept of Micro-Space, Inc of Denver, Colorado.

Cryosat.

  • European earth resources radar satellite. CryoSat carried a radar altimeter to acquire accurate measurements of the thickness of floating sea ice so that annual variations could be detected.

Crystal.

  • Code name for KH-11 military surveillance satellite.

CS-1.

  • Japanese communications satellite. One launch, 1977.12.15, Sakura. This Medium-capacity Communications Satellite for Experimental Purposes was a spin stabilized geostationary communications satellite.

CS-2.

  • Japanese communications satellite. 2 launches, 1983.02.04 (Sakura 2A) to 1983.08.05 (Sakura 2B). Business communications. Launching organization NASDA (National Space Development Agency of Japan).

CS-3.

  • Japanese communications satellite. 2 launches, 1988.02.19 (Sakura 3A) to 1988.09.16 (Sakura 3B). To continue communications services provided by the communications satellite 2 (CS-2). To meet increasing and diversifying demands for communications.

CSM Block I.

  • CSM Block I Development Diary

CSM Block II.

  • CSM Block II Development Diary

CSM Cockpit.

  • CSM Cockpit Development Diary

CSM Communications.

  • CSM Communications Development Diary

CSM Docking.

  • CSM Docking Development Diary

CSM ECS.

  • CSM ECS Development Diary

CSM Electrical.

  • CSM Electrical Development Diary

CSM Fuel Cell.

  • CSM Fuel Cell Development Diary

CSM Guidance.

  • CSM Guidance Development Diary

CSM Hatch.

  • CSM Hatch Development Diary

CSM Heat Shield.

  • CSM Heat Shield Development Diary

CSM LES.

  • CSM LES Development Diary

CSM Original Specification.

  • CSM Original Specification Development Diary

CSM Parachute.

  • CSM Parachute Development Diary

CSM RCS.

  • CSM RCS Development Diary

CSM Recovery.

  • CSM Recovery Development Diary

CSM Simulator.

  • CSM Simulator Development Diary

CSM Source Selection.

  • CSM Source Selection Diary

CSM SPS.

  • CSM SPS Development Diary

CSM Structural.

  • CSM Structural Development Diary

CSM Television.

  • CSM Television Development Diary

CSS Skywalker.

  • American manned space station. Study 2015. Commercial Space Station Skywalker was hotel entrepreneur Bigelow's concept for the first space hotel.

CSU-2P.

  • American pressure suit, tested 1958. Developmental dual capstan partial pressure suit for altitude protection by Berger Brothers. Used pressure socks and double capstan for looser fit.

CSU-4/P.

  • American pressure suit, operational 1965. A bladder type partial pressure suit, with quick don, 8 sizes.

CSU-5/P.

  • American pressure suit, operational 1965. A modified bladder type partial pressure CSU-4/P suit with integrated wet suit.

CTA.

  • Canadian technology satellite. One launch, 1992.10.22. Canadian Target Assembly; deployed from STS-52 10/22/92.

CTS.

  • Canadian communications satellite. One launch, 1976.01.17. Canadian Telecommunications Satellite project. Only one spacecraft launched.

CTV.

  • European manned spacecraft. Study 2018. Proposed European manned spacecraft to shuttle crews to the International Space Station from 2018.

CTV CM.

  • European manned spacecraft module. Study 2018. Re-entry vehicle portion of the proposed European CTV manned spacecraft.

Cubesat.

  • American low-cost nanosatellite bus. Used in dozens of launches, the first on 2003.06.30.

Cute.

  • Japanese technology satellite. 2 launches, 2006.02.21 (Cute 1.7) and 2008.04.28 (Cute-1.7-APD-II). Student subsatellites.

CX-1.

  • Chinese communications technology satellite. 2 launches, 2003.10.21 (CX-1) and 2008.11.05 (Chuanxin-1-02).

CXV.

  • American manned spacecraft. Study 2012. Crew Transfer Vehicle proposed by `t/Space and Burt Rutan's Scaled Composites for NASA's Crew Exploration Vehicle requirement.

CZ-3A-3.

  • Chinese space tug. 11 launches, (1994) to (2000). Upper stage / space tug - in production. Launched by CZ-3A, CZ-3B, and CZ-3C.

CZ-NGLV-HO.

  • Chinese space tug. Study 2008. Upper stage / space tug - in development 2004. The upper stage for the Chinese Next Generation Launch Vehicle was a modification of the CZ-3B upper stage.

D.

  • French earth geodetic satellite. 8 launches, 1966.02.17 (Diapason) to 1975.09.27 (Aura). Small French science and technology satellites used on early Diamant launch vehicle tests.

D-1.

  • American space suit, operational 1998. The D-1 (S1035X) space suit assembly was developed to provide a functional all-soft suit technology demonstrator prototype model to be used for mobility system testing and evaluation.

D-558-1.

  • American manned high-speed research aircraft. Flown 1947-1953. The D-558-I "Skystreaks" were among the early transonic research airplanes like the X-1, X-4, X-5, and XF-92A.

D-558-2.

  • American manned rocketplane. Flown from 1949. Research airplane Douglas D-558. Airplane had both jet and rocket engines and was flown from ground takeoff. The D-558-II Skyrocket exceeded the speed of sound at Edwards AFB, Calif.

D-558-3.

  • American manned rocketplane. Flown 1954. The D-558-3 was a US Navy/Douglas counterpart to the X-15, which would have kept the Navy in the 'space race' and Douglas in the running for future manned spaceplanes.

DAD.

  • American earth atmosphere satellite. 2 launches, 1975.12.06 (DAD-B) and (DAD-B). Dual Air Density; air density experiments.

Daichi.

  • Japanese civilian surveillance radar satellite. One launch, 2006.01.24. Advanced Land Observing Satellite, which carried an L-band synthetic aperture radar, an optical 2.

DARPASAT.

  • American technology satellite. One launch, 1994.03.13, USA 102. GPS receiver and data processor technology tests.

DART.

  • American rendezvous technology satellite. One launch, 2005.04.15. Autonomous Rendezvous Technology mission, planned to guide itself to within a few meters of a US satellite.

Dash.

  • American military technology satellite. 2 launches, 1963.05.09 (Dash 1) and 1963.07.18 (Dash 2). Space craft engaged in investigation of spaceflight techniques and technology.

DASH 2002.

  • Japanese re-entry vehicle technology satellite. One launch, 2002.02.04, DASH. DASH (Demonstrator of Atmospheric Reentry System and Hypervelocity) was a small secondary payload built by ISAS, the scientific space agency which was to merge with NASDA.

Dawn.

  • American asteroid probe. One launch, 2007.09.27. Asteroid belt unmanned probe designed to first orbit and survey the asteroid Vesta, and then fly on to the largest asteroid, Ceres. Orbit asteroids Ceres and Vesta.

Dawn-1.

  • Alternate designation for Shuguang 1 manned spacecraft.

Daylight Rover.

  • American manned lunar rover. Study 1990. The Daylight Rover was a Boeing concept of 1990, which consisted of two separate pressure vessels. The forward served as the driving station, and the rear served as a storm shelter and EVA airlock.

DC-I.

  • Alternate name for DC-Y manned spacecraft.

DC-Y.

  • American manned spacecraft. Study 1995. The ultimate goal of the Delta Clipper program, a prototype reusable single-stage to orbit, vertical takeoff/vertical landing space truck. The DC-I Delta Clipper would be the full production version.

Debut.

  • Japanese communications technology satellite. One launch, 1990.02.07. Boom, umbrella test. DEBUT "Orizuru". Experiment of extending and contracting boom; experiment of expanding and contracting aerodynamic brake. Launching organization NASDA.

Deep Impact.

  • American comet probe. One launch, 2005.01.12. Studied interior composition of Comet Tempel 1. The flyby spacecraft carried a smaller impactor which it released, allowing it to study the plume from the collision with the comet on 2005.07.04.

Deep Space 1.

  • American asteroid probe. One launch, 1998.10.24. Deep Space 1 (DS1) was a primarily a technology demonstration probe powered by an ion engine, although the spacecraft also flew by asteroid and cometary targets.

Defender.

  • Alternate designation for Bambi military anti-ballistic missile satellite.

Defense Meteorological Satellite Program.

  • Alternate designation for DMSP Block 4A earth weather satellite.

Defense Satellite Communications System.

  • Alternate designation for DSCS II military communications satellite.

Defense Support Program.

  • Alternate designation for DSP military early warning satellite.

Delfi.

  • Dutch technology satellite. One launch, 2008.04.28. Technical University of Delft nanosat.

Delta 4 - 2.

  • American space tug. One launch, , 2002. Upper stage / space tug - in production. Delta 3 second stage with hydrogen tank stretch.

Delta 4H - 2.

  • American space tug. Study 2001. Upper stage / space tug - in production. Delta 4 second stage with hydrogen tank increased to 5.1 m diameter.

Delta Clipper.

  • Manufacturer's designation for DC-Y manned spacecraft.

Demeter.

  • French earth seismology satellite. One launch, 2004.06.29. Demeter studied disturbances of the ionosphere due to seismo electromagnetic effects and human activities (power lines, VLF transmitters, HF broadcasting stations).

Descent Module.

  • Alternate designation for MRC DM manned spacecraft module.

Descent Stage.

  • Alternate designation for Apollo LM DS manned spacecraft module.

Design Reference Mission 1.

  • American manned Mars expedition. Study 1993. The Design Reference Mission 1.0 was the Space Exploration Initiative's last gasp.

Design Reference Mission 3.

  • American manned Mars expedition. Study 1996. This July 1997 DRM was a subscale version of the original, with a scrub of the original payloads to reduce mass wherever possible.

Design Reference Mission 4 NTR.

  • American manned Mars expedition. Study 1998. The design reference mission 4.0 took into account all of the changes in payload masses as a result of further study of individual elements.

Design Reference Mission 4 SEP.

  • American manned Mars expedition. Study 1998. In 1998 NASA Lewis studied a Solar Electric Transfer Vehicle for use in a Mars Expedition. This would never leave earth orbit yet provide most of the delta-V to send a spacecraft toward Mars.

DFH-1.

  • Chinese communications technology satellite. 3 launches, 1969.11.16 (DFH Mao 1) to 1971.03.03 (SJ-1). First Chinese satellite. The initial satellite was flown for purely propaganda purposes, using a tune generator to play the 'East is Red'.

DFH-2.

  • Chinese military communications satellite. 7 launches, 1984.01.29 (STTW-T1) to 1991.12.28 (Zhongxing-4). The DFH-2 was a spin-stabilized, drum-shaped military communications satellite with a despun antenna, a diameter of 2.1 m, and a height of 3.1 m.

DFH-3.

  • Chinese military communications satellite using indigenous technologies. Operational, first launch 1994.02.08.

DFH-4.

  • Large Chinese communications satellite bus using a blend of Chinese and subcontracted European technologies. Operational, first launch on 2006.10.28 (Xinnuo 2).

Diadem.

  • French earth geodetic satellite. 2 launches, 1967.02.08 (Diademe 1) and 1967.02.15 (Diademe 2). French geodetic satellites.

Dial MIKA.

  • French technology satellite. One launch, 1970.03.10. Engineering package; monitored launch vehicle performance.

DIAL WIKA.

  • German technology satellite. One launch, 1970.03.10, DIAL-WIKA.

Direct Measurement Explorer.

  • Alternate designation for DME earth ionosphere satellite.

Disaster Monitoring Constellation.

  • Alternate designation for HJ-1 civilian surveillance satellite.

Discovery.

  • American manned spaceplane. 39 launches, 1984.08.30 to 2011.02.24.

DLB Beacon Lander.

  • Russian lunar logistics spacecraft. Study 1971. In most Soviet manned lunar landing scenarios, versions of the Ye-8 unmanned landers would precede manned landings on the moon.

DLB Lunar Base.

  • Russian manned lunar base. Substantial development activity from 1962 to cancellation in 1974. The N1 draft project of 1962 spoke of 'establishment of a lunar base and regular traffic between the earth and the moon'.

DLB Lunokhod 1.

  • Russian manned lunar rover. Study 1971. One of several conceptual models of Lunokhod or Marsokhod pressurized surface rovers planned for Soviet moon or Mars expeditions.

DLB Lunokhod 2.

  • Russian manned lunar rover. Study 1971. One of several conceptual models of Lunokhod or Marsokhod pressurized surface rovers planned for Soviet moon or Mars expeditions.

DLB Lunokhod 3.

  • Russian manned lunar rover. Study 1971. One of several conceptual models of Lunokhod or Marsokhod pressurized surface rovers planned for Soviet moon or Mars expeditions.

DLB Module.

  • Russian manned lunar habitat. Cancelled 1974. Basic module developed by Barmin's OKB from 1962 for the Zvezda Lunar Base. Cancelled, together with the N1 booster, in 1974.

DME.

  • American earth ionosphere satellite. One launch, 1965.11.29, Explorer 31. Explorer 31, the Direct Measurement Explorer, was launched with a Canadian Alouette II on November 28, 1965, on a Thor-Agena rocket from Vandenberg Air Force Base, California.

Dmitri.

  • Alternate designation for Kvant-2 manned space station.

DMLRV.

  • American manned lunar rover. Study 1990.

DMSP Block 4A.

  • American earth weather satellite. 13 launches, 1965.01.19 (DMSP-Block-4A F1) to 1969.07.23 (DMSP-Block-4A F13). Defense Meteorological Satellite Program.

DMSP Block 5A.

  • American earth weather satellite. 3 launches, 1970.02.11 (DMSP-Block-5A F1) to 1971.02.17 (DMSP Block 5A F3). Defense Meteorological Satellite Program.

DMSP Block 5B.

  • American earth weather satellite. 5 launches, 1971.10.14 (DMSP-Block-5B F1) to 1974.03.16 (DMSP-Block-5B F5). Defense Meteorological Satellite Program.

DMSP Block 5C.

  • American earth weather satellite. 3 launches, 1974.08.09 (DMSP-Block-5C F1) to 1976.02.19 (DMSP-Block-5C F3). Defense Meteorological Satellite Program.

DMSP Block 5D.

  • American earth weather satellite. 5 launches, 1976.09.11 (AMS 1) to 1980.07.15 (AMS 5). Defense Meteorological Satellite Program.

DMSP Block 5D-2.

  • American earth weather satellite. 9 launches, 1982.12.21 (AMS 5) to 1997.04.04 (USA 131). DMSP 5D-2 was the military's sixth generation of weather satellites.

DMSP Block 5D-3.

  • American earth weather satellite. 4 launches, 1999.12.12 (USA 147) to 2009-10-18. Military spacecraft similar in design to the civilian NOAA weather satellites.

DODECAPOLE.

  • American military target satellite. 2 launches, 1965.03.09 (DODECAPOLE 1/Porcupine 1) and 1965.08.13 (Dodecapole 2).

DODGE.

  • American gravity gradient technology satellite. One launch, 1967.07.01. The Navy's 195 kg DODGE (Department Of Defense Gravity Experiment) satellite had the primary mission to explore gravity gradient stabilization at near synchronous altitude.

Don.

  • Code name for Orlets-1 surveillance satellite.

Dong Fang Hong.

  • Alternate designation for DFH-3 or DFH-4 military communications satellites.

Dorian, AFP-632, KH-10.

  • Code name for MOL manned space station.

DOS 17KS-12701.

  • Manufacturer's designation for Mir manned space station.

Double Star.

  • Chinese earth magnetosphere satellite. 2 launches, 2003.12.29 (Tan Ce 1) to 2004.07.25 (Tan Ce 2). Double Star was a joint ESA - China project to supplement ESA's Cluster satellites in characterizing the earth's magnetosphere.

Douglas Astro.

  • American manned spaceplane. Study 1962. The Douglas "Astro" was a VTHL TSTO system designed for launching space station crews and cargo by the 1968-70 period.

Draeger Suit.

  • German pressure suit, developed 1935-1945. Draeger-Werke developed a hard shell full pressure suit for the Nazi government.

Dragon.

  • American manned spacecraft. Commercial space capsule developed by SpaceX as a shuttle to take cargo and crews to the International Space Station and the Bigelow Commercial Station from 2011 on. First launched in 2010.

Dream Chaser.

  • American manned spaceplane. Study 2016. A six-passenger human space transport system announced in 2006 by SpaceDev, based on the ten-passenger HL-20 Personnel Launch System developed by NASA Langley in the 1980's.

DRM 1 Mars Local Rover.

  • American manned Mars rover. Study 1987. The local unpressurized rover for the Mars Design Reference Mission was conceptually the same as the Apollo lunar rover.

DRM 1 Mars Rover - Pressurized.

  • American manned Mars rover. Study 1997. Hoffman and Kaplan proposed a large pressurized rover for long duration exploration sorties on Mars as a part of the Mars Design Reference Mission study.

DRTS.

  • Japanese geostationary communications satellite. One launch, 2002.09.10. DRTS (Data Relay Transponder Satellite) relayed images and data procured by the ADEOS 2 and ALOS satellites, and the KIBO module on ISS.

DS-1.

  • Ukrainian technology satellite. 2 launches, 1961.10.27 (DS-1 s/n 1) and 1961.12.21 (DS-1 s/n 2). Technology test version of the original DS light satellite design. Primary mission was to test launch vehicle.

DS-2.

  • Ukrainian technology satellite. 2 launches, 1962.03.16 (Cosmos 1) to 1964.12.01 (DS-2 s/n 2).

DS2000.

  • Japanese communications satellite bus. Operational, first launch 2006.02.18. Mitsubishi Electric developed the DS2000 standard satellite platform based on a design originally created for the DRTS and ETS-8 platforms for NASDA.

DS-A1.

  • Ukrainian navigation technology satellite. 7 launches, 1962.10.20 (Cosmos 11) to 1965.07.02 (Cosmos 70).

DSCS II.

  • American military communications satellite. 15 launches, 1971.11.03 (DSCS II-01) to 1982.10.30 (DSCS II-15). DSCS provided secure voice and data communications for the US military.

DSCS III.

  • American military communications satellite. 15 launches, 1982.10.30 (DSCS III-01) to 2003.08.29 (USA 170). DSCS satellites provided secure voice and data communications for the US military.

DSE-Alpha.

  • Russian manned lunar flyby spacecraft. Study 2005. Potential commercial circumlunar manned flights were offered in 2005, using a modified Soyuz spacecraft docked to a Block DM upper stage.

DS-K-40.

  • Ukrainian communications technology satellite. 2 launches, 1965.12.28 (DS-K-40 s/n 1) and 1966.02.21 (DS-K-40 s/n 2). Development of systems for the later operational Tselina satellites.

DS-K-8.

  • Ukrainian earth micrometeoroid satellite. One launch, 1962.08.18, Cosmos 8. Detected meteoroid flux in near-earth space and carried unspecified military research equipment.

DS-MG.

  • Ukrainian technology satellite. 2 launches, 1964.03.18 (Cosmos 26) to 1964.10.24 (Cosmos 49). Payload developed by VNIIEM to test electric gyrodyne orientation systems. Also studied magnetosphere of the earth.

DS-MO.

  • Ukrainian technology satellite. 2 launches, 1967.03.21 (Cosmos 149) to 1970.01.16 (Cosmos 320). Used in development of aerodynamic systems for stabilization and orientation of spacecraft. Also carried military optical equipment experiments.

DS-MT.

  • Ukrainian technology satellite. 3 launches, 1963.06.01 (DS-MT s/n 1) to 1964.12.10 (Cosmos 51). Payload developed by the VNIIEM to test electric gyrodyne orientation systems. Also studied variations in the intensity of cosmic rays.

DSP.

  • American military early warning satellite. 23 launches, 1970.11.06 (IMEWS 1) to 2007.11.11 (USA 176). An evolving series of satellites built by the United States to detect intercontinental ballistic missiles on launch.

DS-P1.

  • Ukrainian military target satellite. 4 launches, 1962.06.30 (Cosmos 6) to 1964.02.27 (Cosmos 25). Prototype ABM radar target; supported developmental experiments for ABM systems.

DS-P1-I.

  • Ukrainian military target satellite. 19 launches, 1966.01.25 (Cosmos 106) to 1977.06.18 (Cosmos 919). Operational radar target for the ABM forces.

DS-P1-M.

  • Ukrainian military anti-satellite system target satellite. 15 launches, 1970.12.22 (DS-P1-M s/n 1) to 1982.06.06 (Cosmos 1375). Target for IS ASAT systems tests.

DS-P1-Yu.

  • Ukrainian military target satellite. 79 launches, 1964.07.30 (Cosmos 36) to 1976.08.26 (Cosmos 850). Development of systems for air defense and the control of outer space.

DS-U1-A.

  • Ukrainian earth ionosphere satellite. One launch, 1968.04.19, Cosmos 215. Studied the optical characteristics of the atmosphere. Radiation observatory; 8 telescopes.

DS-U1-G.

  • Ukrainian earth ionosphere satellite. 2 launches, 1966.02.11 (Cosmos 108) to 1967.12.19 (Cosmos 196). Studied the relationship between variations in the upper atmosphere and solar activity.

DS-U1-IK.

  • Ukrainian earth ionosphere satellite. 2 launches, 1969.12.25 (Intercosmos 2) to 1972.12.01 (Intercosmos 8). Studies ionosphere of the earth; version used for Intercosmos international launches.

DS-U1-R.

  • Ukrainian earth atmosphere satellite. One launch, 1970.04.24, Cosmos 335. Studied spectral range of the UF.

DS-U1-Ya.

  • Ukrainian earth magnetosphere satellite. 2 launches, 1968.03.06 (DS-U1-Ya s/n 1) and 1968.06.12 (Cosmos 225). Studied charged particle flows and cosmic rays.

DS-U2-D.

  • Ukrainian earth magnetosphere satellite. 2 launches, 1966.12.21 (Cosmos 137) to 1968.04.26 (Cosmos 219). Studied charged particle flows.

DS-U2-GF.

  • Ukrainian solar satellite. One launch, 1968.12.26, Cosmos 262. Conducted heliophysical studies.

DS-U2-GK.

  • Ukrainian earth magnetosphere satellite. 2 launches, 1968.12.20 (Cosmos 261) to 1970.06.13 (Cosmos 348). Conducted complex geophysical studies of the upper atmosphere. Air density, auroral investigations.

DS-U2-GKA.

  • Soviet-French earth magnetosphere satellite. 2 launches, 1971.12.27 (Oreol) to 1973.12.26 (Oreol 2). Upper atmosphere, auroral studies. Investigation of physical phenomena in the Earth's upper atmosphere at high latitudes and study of the nature of auroras.

DS-U2-I.

  • Ukrainian earth ionosphere satellite. 3 launches, 1966.05.24 (Cosmos 119) to 1968.12.14 (Cosmos 259). Studied the influence of the ionosphere on passing VLF radio waves.

DS-U2-IK.

  • Ukrainian earth ionosphere satellite. 7 launches, 1970.08.07 (Intercosmos 3) to 1975.12.11 (Intercosmos 14). Studied charged particle flows and the ionosphere; version used for Intercosmos international launches.

DS-U2-IP.

  • Ukrainian earth ionosphere satellite. One launch, 1970.11.17, Cosmos 378. Studied the ionosphere and charged particle flows.

DS-U2-K.

  • Ukrainian earth magnetosphere satellite. One launch, 1971.06.05, Cosmos 426. Studied charged particle flows and cosmic radiation.

DS-U2-M.

  • Ukrainian technology satellite. 2 launches, 1965.11.26 (Cosmos 97) to 1967.03.03 (Cosmos 145). Development tests of atomic clocks.

DS-U2-MG.

  • Ukrainian earth magnetosphere satellite. 2 launches, 1970.01.20 (Cosmos 321) to 1970.08.10 (Cosmos 356). Studied the Earth's magnetic poles.

DS-U2-MP.

  • Ukrainian earth micrometeoroid satellite. 2 launches, 1966.12.12 (Cosmos 135) to 1967.06.05 (Cosmos 163). Studied cosmic dust particles in near-Earth space.

DS-U2-MT.

  • Ukrainian gamma ray astronomy satellite. One launch, 1971.12.02, Cosmos 461. Measured micrometeoroid impacts and gamma rays.

DS-U2-V.

  • Ukrainian military technology satellite. 4 launches, 1965.10.19 (Cosmos 93) to 1968.02.20 (Cosmos 202). Military technology development satellite - mission still classified.

DS-U3-IK.

  • Ukrainian earth magnetosphere satellite. 6 launches, 1969.10.14 (Intercosmos 1) to 1976.07.26 (Intercosmos 16). Measurements of the sun; used for Interkosmos launches.

DS-U3-S.

  • Ukrainian solar satellite. 2 launches, 1967.06.16 (Cosmos 166) to 1968.07.05 (Cosmos 230). Specialized orbital solar observatory for measuring solar rays in multiple spectral zones.

DS-U4-B.

  • Ukrainian biology satellite. Light satellite with recoverable capsule for biological studies. Cancelled in 1965 and never flown. Light satellite with recoverable capsule for biological studies. Cancelled in 1965 and never flown.

DS-U4-T.

  • Ukrainian materials science satellite. Cancelled 1963. Light satellite with recoverable capsule for low gravity materials and technology studies. Cancelled in 1965 and never flown.

DS-U5.

  • Ukrainian technology satellite. Cancelled 1965. Light satellite with propulsion for periodic correction of orbit. Cancelled in 1965 and never flown.

DU-1 Rocket Belt.

  • Russian space mobility device. Cancelled 1966. This rocket belt was planned for use aboard a follow-on Voskhod mission in the 1960's. The mission was cancelled and the belt never tested.

Dual Air Density Explorer.

  • Alternate designation for DAD earth atmosphere satellite.

Dual Keel Space Station - 1985.

  • American manned space station. Study 1985. NASA radically changed its Space Station baseline design in October 1985 following frequent complaints from users and astronauts.

Dual Lander Mission.

  • American manned Mars expedition. Study 1999. After some discussion within NASA, in the Combo Lander mission was found to be too lean.

Duga-K.

  • Code name for Taifun-3 military target satellite.

DUVE.

  • Japanese earth atmosphere satellite. One launch, 1992.07.24. Diffuse Ultraviolet Explorer package bolted to Delta 2 2nd stage.

Dynamics Explorer.

  • American earth magnetosphere satellite. 2 launches, 1981.08.03 (Dynamics Explorer 1) and (Dynamics Explorer 2). Spacecraft engaged in research and exploration of the upper atmosphere or outer space.

Dynasoar.

  • American manned spaceplane. Cancelled 1963. The X-20A Dyna-Soar (Dynamic Soarer) was a single-pilot manned reusable spaceplane, really the earliest American manned space project to result in development contracts.

Dynasoar AS.

  • American manned spacecraft module. Cancelled 1963. Abort Section, equipped with Thiokol XM-92 Minuteman Stage II motor. Contingency boost.

Dynasoar Glider.

  • American manned spacecraft module. Cancelled 1963. Manned space plane.

E-6.

  • Manufacturer's designation for Luna E-6 lunar lander.

E-6LF.

  • Manufacturer's designation for Luna E-6LF lunar orbiter.

E-6LS.

  • Manufacturer's designation for Luna E-6LS lunar orbiter.

E-6M.

  • Manufacturer's designation for Luna E-6M lunar lander.

E-6S.

  • Manufacturer's designation for Luna E-6S lunar orbiter.

EA.

  • Russian manned Mars lander. Studied 1978-1986. Mars landing craft originally designed for aborted 1972 Aelita Mars study by OKB-1, and revived in the 1980's for new Energia-launched Mars expedition studies.

Eagle.

  • American military strategic defense satellite. 3 launches, 1994.05.19 (STEP 2 (SIDEX)) to 1997.10.22 (STEP-4).

Eagle X-Prize.

  • American manned spacecraft. Study 2004. X-Prize suborbital ballistic spacecraft concept of Vanguard Spacecraft of Bridgewater, Massachusetts.

Early Bird.

  • Alternate designation for Intelsat 1 communications satellite.

Early Bird.

  • American civilian surveillance satellite. 2 launches, 1997.12.24 (Early Bird) and 2000.11.20 (QuickBird 1). Civilian earth resources / intelligence photo-imaging program.

Early Lunar Access.

  • American manned lunar base. Study 1993. Early Lunar Access (ELA) was a "cheaperfasterbetter" manned lunar mission study, carried out by General Dynamics in 1992-93.

Early Lunar Shelter.

  • Alternate designation for Apollo ELS manned lunar habitat.

Early Manned Planetary - Interplanetary Roundtrip Expedition.

Early Soviet Lunar Lander.

  • Russian manned lunar lander. Study 1958. Painting of early Soviet concept of a lunar lander. This was similar to Von Braun designs popular in the 1950's.

Early Spring.

  • American military anti-satellite system. Studied from 1960, officially cancelled, but possibly developed further as a black program. Early Spring was a conventional ASAT launched by Polaris missiles from US Navy ballistic missile submarines.

Earth Entry Module.

  • Alternate designation for EEM manned spacecraft module.

Earth Orbiting Station.

  • American manned space station. need summary - see links

Earth Radiation Budget Satellite.

  • Alternate designation for ERBS earth magnetosphere satellite.

Earth Resources Satellite.

  • Alternate designation for ERS earth magnetosphere satellite.

Earth Return Vehicle Reference Version 1.0.

  • American manned spacecraft. Study 1993.

Earth Return Vehicle Reference Version 3.0.

  • American manned spacecraft. Study 1996.

Earthquake Monitoring Satellite.

  • Chinese earth seismology satellite. Study 1998. Chinese scientists announced on 18 May 1998 that they were designing an earthquake early warning satellite system, including a constellation of 10 small satellites in low earth orbit.

Echo.

  • American passive communications satellite. 2 launches, 1960.05.13 (Echo 1) and 1960.08.12 (Echo 1). The Echo satellites were NASA's first experimental communications satellite project.

Echo 2.

  • American passive communications satellite. One launch, 1964.01.25. Passive communications satellite; balloon; 1st joint US/USSR space mission.

ECS/OTS.

  • European communications satellite. 20 launches, 1977.09.13 (OTS 1) to 2001.02.07 (Skynet 4F).

EEM.

  • American manned spacecraft module. Study 1968. Re-entry at extreme velocities from manned interplanetary missions..

EES.

  • American space suit, operational 1980. The initial series of shuttle flights were equipped with specially adapted SR-71 ejection seats for the two crew.

EFA-30.

  • French pressure suit, operational 1965. French partial pressure capstan suit using full pressure buffet protective helmet.

Efir.

  • Russian earth magnetosphere satellite. 2 launches, 1984.03.10 (Cosmos 1543) to 1985.12.27 (Cosmos 1713). Science. Adaptation of the Vostok spacecraft.

EGRESS.

  • American manned rescue spacecraft. Study 1972. The EGRESS space escape system was based on the proven Encapsulated Ejection Seat System developed for the B-58 bomber in the 1960's.

EGS.

  • Japanese earth geodetic satellite. One launch, 1986.08.12. Experimental Geophysical Payload; new launch vehicle test flight. EGS (Ajisai). Improvement of the accuracy of domestic geodetic triangulation network.

Ehricke 4-man orbital station.

  • American manned space station. Study 1954. In 1954 Ehricke postulated a four-man design that might serve a number of different purposes, depending upon altitude and orbital inclination.

EIS/OES.

  • American space suit, tested 1970. Developmental 0.54 bar Emergency Intravehicular Suit (EIS) and Orbital Extravehicular Suit (OES) programs were conducted by NASA in the 1970's.

EKA.

  • Russian technology satellite. One launch, 1995.03.28. Eksperimentalniy Kosmicheskiy Apparat - dummy of test satellite.

EKO.

  • Manufacturer's designation for Tellura earth land resources satellite.

Ekol.

  • Russian earth atmosphere satellite. Study 1992. The Lavochkin NPO designed a variety of remote sensing spacecraft based on a new 3-axis controlled satellite bus.

Ekologia.

  • Alternate designation for Tellura earth land resources satellite.

Ekran.

  • Russian communications satellite. 21 launches, 1976.10.26 (Ekran 1) to 1988.05.06 (Ekran 18). Ekran was the Soviet Union's first geosynchronous satellite.

Ekran-M.

  • Russian communications satellite. 6 launches, 1987.01.30 (Cosmos 1817) to 2001.04.07 (Ekran-M No. 18). Ekran-M provided unique direct television broadcasting service to community users in the central Russian Federation region (Zone 3).

Ekspress.

  • Russian communications satellite. 15 launches, 1994.10.13 to 2009-02-11. The Ekspress series communications satellite closely resembled the Gals spacecraft and shared a similar spacecraft bus.

Elekon.

  • Russian communications satellite. Study 1993.

Elektro.

  • Russian earth weather satellite. One launch, 1994.10.31. Elektro was to be the geostationary component of a third generation Soviet meteorological system. Following extended development, it flew only once, in 1994.

Elektron-A.

  • Russian earth magnetosphere satellite. 2 launches, 1964.01.30 (Elektron 1) to 1964.07.11 (Elektron 3). The Elektron mission was one of the earliest Soviet satellites to be authorized following the initial Sputnik series.

Elektron-B.

  • Russian earth magnetosphere satellite. 2 launches, 1964.01.30 (Elektron 2) to 1964.07.11 (Elektron 4). The Elektron mission was one of the earliest Soviet satellites to be authorized following the initial Sputnik series.

Elf.

  • Russian technology satellite. Study 1998. Elf was a micro satellite platform developed by KB Arsenal. With a platform weight of 80 kg it could provide 20 W power to 30 kg instrument payloads.

Emergency Earth Orbital Escape Device.

Emissary.

  • Alternate designation for Safir Iran technology satellite.

EMPIRE Aeronutronic.

  • American manned Mars flyby. Study 1962. Aeronutronic's Mars flyby spacecraft design of 1962 had a total mass of 170 metric tons and would be launched into low earth orbit with a single launch of a Nova booster.

EMPIRE General Dynamics.

  • American manned Mars flyby. Study 1962. General Dynamics' manned Mars orbiter spacecraft design of 1962 had a total mass of 900 metric tons and would be launched into low earth orbit with a two launches of a Nova booster or eight launches of a Saturn V.

EMPIRE Lockheed.

  • American manned Mars flyby. Study 1962. Lockheed's manned Mars flyby spacecraft design of 1962 had a total mass of 100 metric tons.

ENCAP.

  • American manned rescue spacecraft. Study 1970. The ENCAP encapsulated bailout-from-orbit concept consisted of a folded heat shield. The astronaut would exit his stranded spacecraft and strap into the seat.

Endeavour.

  • American manned spaceplane. 25 launches, 1992.05.07 to 2011.05.16. Built as a replacement after the loss of the Challenger; named after the first ship commanded by James Cook.

Energia.

  • Russian earth magnetosphere satellite. 2 launches, 1972.04.07 (Intercosmos 6) to 1978.07.02 (Cosmos 1026). Adaptation of recoverable Vostok spacecraft for investigation of primary cosmic radiation and meteoritic particles in near-earth outer space.

Energia Control Sat.

  • Russian military surveillance satellite. Study 1984. This satellite would consist of a 33 metric ton equipment bus and a 17 metric ton rocket stage. It would be placed in a 600 km / 97 degree orbit for arms control and environment monitoring.

Energia Ecosat.

  • Russian earth land resources satellite. Study 1992.

Energia Geostationary Platform.

  • Russian earth land resources satellite. Study 1984. Energia could place observation platforms of 18 to 21 metric tons in geostationary orbit.

Energia Lunar Expedition.

  • Russian manned lunar base. Study 1988. In 1988, with development of the Buran space shuttle completed, Glushko ordered new studies on a lunar based that could be established using the Energia booster.

Energia Nuclear Waste Disposal.

  • Russian burial satellite. Study 1984. The entire inventory of high-level nuclear waste (100 metric tons) would be permanently disposed of in a solar orbit at 1. 2 AU between Earth and Mars using 10 to 15 launches of the Energia launch vehicle.

Energia Orbital Debris Remover.

  • Russian earth environment satellite. Study 1984. A 15 metric ton maneuverable satellite, consisting of an engine unit and a satellite collection mechanism, would maneuver at geosynchronous altitude in orbits with inclinations of between 0 and 14 degrees.

Energia Ozone Replenishment Satellite.

  • Russian earth environment satellite. Study 1984. The eroding ozone layer of the earth would be replenished using a constellation of space-based lasers that would bombard the stratosphere at 30 km altitude for 30 years.

Energia Polar City Illuminator.

  • Russian earth environment satellite. Study 1984. The Energia launch vehicle could be used to launch 100 orbital reflectors to provide light to cities located in the polar regions.

Energia-Buran.

  • Russian manned spaceplane. Study 1984. Article number for combined Energia (launch vehicle) - Buran (manned spaceplane) complex. See Buran for details.

Engine unit.

  • Alternate designation for Voskhod KDU manned spacecraft module.

Engineering Test Satellite.

  • Alternate designation for ETS technology satellite.

Enhanced Microsat SSTL.

  • Manufacturer's designation for MicroSat-100 technology satellite.

Enterprise.

  • American manned spaceplane. Study 1974. Enterprise was the first Space Shuttle Orbiter. It was rolled out on September 17, 1976.

Environmental Sciences Research Satellite.

  • Alternate designation for ESRS earth magnetosphere satellite.

Envisat.

  • European earth resources radar satellite. One launch, 2002.03.01. The European Space Agency's Envisat polar platform was originally envisaged as an automated polar orbiting segment of the Space Station.

EO-1.

  • American earth land resources satellite. One launch, 2000.11.21. The Earth Orbiter 1 satellite was part of NASA's New Millennium Program.

Eole.

  • French earth weather satellite. One launch, 1971.08.12. Experimental weather satellite; received meteorological data from balloon network.

EPE.

  • American solar satellite. 4 launches, 1961.08.16 (Explorer 12) to 1964.12.21 (Explorer 26). Radiation and solar wind data.

Equator-S.

  • German earth magnetosphere satellite. One launch, 1997.12.02. German geophysics satellite.

Equipment Module.

  • Alternate designation for Gemini EM manned spacecraft module.

ERBS.

  • American earth magnetosphere satellite. One launch, 1984.10.05. ERBS was part of the NASA's three-satellite Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE), designed to investigate how energy from the Sun is absorbed and re-emitted by the Earth.

Eridan.

  • Alternate designation for Geo-IK earth geodetic satellite.

ERS.

  • American earth magnetosphere satellite. 7 launches, 1962.09.17 (TRS) to 1967.04.28. Environmental Research Satellites were especially designed for piggyback launching from large primary mission vehicles.

ERS 1-2.

  • European earth resources radar satellite. 2 launches, 1991.07.17 (ERS 1) to 1995.04.21 (ERS 2). The primary mission of Europe's ERS-1 and -2 was to perform remote sensing of the Earth's oceans, ice caps, and coastal regions.

ERTA.

  • Russian space tug. Study 1992. ERTA (Elecktro-Raketniy Transportniy Apparat) was a nuclear-electric space tug designed to be boosted on medium boosters and provide both propulsion and electrical power for unmanned planetary probes.

ESA.

  • European space suit, tested 1995. Prototype full pressure suit for the European Space Agency (ESA), produced by Dornier, Dassault, Zodiac, et. al., 0.40 bar.

ESA ACRV.

  • European manned spacecraft. Study 1992. As Hermes gradually faded into oblivion, the European Space Agency started to take a closer a look at cheaper and less complicated manned space capsules.

ESA MTFF-Derived Space Station.

  • European manned space station. Study 1987. Back in the heady days of 1987, Europe was making plans to build an autonomous space station derived from the Columbus Man-Tended Free-Flying (MTFF) platform as the next logical step after Space Station Freedom.

ESA Polar Platform.

  • European manned space station. Study 1986. Britain initially expressed strong interest in developing an unmanned Polar Platform for Earth observation as part of the European Columbus package. In 1986 the platform was scheduled for a 1995 launch.

ESA-Geos.

  • European earth magnetosphere satellite. 2 launches, 1977.04.20 (ESA-Geos 1) and 1978.07.14 (ESA-Geos 2). Magnetospheric research. European Space Agency satellite.

Escafandra Estratonautica.

  • Spanish pressure suit. Spanish Colonel Don Emilio Herrera Linares designed and built a full pressure suit in 1935, which was to have been used during an open-basket balloon stratospheric flight scheduled for early 1936.

ESRO.

  • European technology satellite. 5 launches, 1967.05.30 (ESRO 2A) to 1972.11.22 (ESRO 4). The ESRO series were small Scout-launched probes of near-earth space.

ESRO X-Ray Observatory Satellite.

  • Alternate designation for Exosat x-ray astronomy satellite.

ESRS.

  • American earth magnetosphere satellite. One launch, 1964.06.25. Environmental Sciences Research Satellite.

Estafeta.

  • Russian military communications satellite. Study 1982. Military nuclear powered communications satellite. Development approved by the Soviet VPK Military-Industrial Commission on 8 January 1982.

Etalon.

  • Russian earth geodetic satellite. 2 launches, 1989.01.10 (Cosmos 1989) to 1989.05.31 (Cosmos 2024). Passive geodetic satellites, 1415 kg, 1.294 m in diameter, covered with 306 antenna arrays, each with 14 corner cubes for laser reflection.

ETS.

  • Manufacturer's designation for Kakehashi communications satellite.

ETS.

  • Japanese technology satellite. 7 launches, 1975.09.09 (Kiku 1) to 2006.12.16 (Kiku 8).

ETS-7.

  • Japanese rendezvous technology satellite. One launch, 1997.11.27, Hikoboshi. Technology satellite, to accomplish remote automatic rendezvous and docking.

ETS-7 Target.

  • Japanese rendezvous technology satellite. One launch, 1997.11.27, Orihime. Attached to Hikoboshi. Docking target for ETS-7.

Eureca.

  • European materials science satellite. One launch, 1992.07.31. Microgravity experiments; deployed from one shuttle mission, left in earth orbit for extended periods, and retrieved and returned to earth on a later shuttle flight.

European Mars Mission.

  • European manned Mars expedition. Study 2005. In 2005 the Mars Society Germany proposed a European Mars Mission (EMM) that could be launched using an improved version of the Ariane 5 booster.

European Remote Sensing Satellite.

  • Alternate designation for ERS 1-2 earth resources radar satellite.

European Retrievable Carrier.

  • Alternate designation for Eureca materials science satellite.

European Space Agency.

  • Alternate designation for ESA space suit.

Eurostar 1000.

  • French communications satellite. 4 launches, 1990.10.30 (Inmarsat 2 F1) to 1992.04.15 (Inmarsat 2 F4). The Eurostar 1000 platform was the first generation of Matra Marconi Space GEO satellite platforms serving mainly commercial telecoms applications.

Eurostar 2000.

  • French communications satellite. 24 launches, 1988.03.11 (Telecom 1C) to 2006.11.08 (Badr 4 ARABSAT 4B).

Eurostar 3000.

  • French communications satellite bus. Operational, first launch 2005.03.11 (Inmarsat 4-F1). Third generation of Matra Marconi Space GEO satellite platforms serving mainly commercial telecommunications applications.

EUVE.

  • American ultraviolet astronomy satellite. One launch, 1992.06.07. The EUVE Extreme Ultra-Violet Explorer mission mapped space in the 70- to 760-angstrom portion of the spectrum and conducted detailed ultraviolet examinations of selected celestial targets.

EVA 2000.

  • Russian space suit, tested 1995. Prototype full pressure suit effort between ESA and USSR to upgrade the Orlan DMA.

EXOS.

  • Japanese earth ionosphere satellite. 4 launches, 1978.02.04 (SS-05 Kyokko) to 1989.02.21 (Akebono). Optical investigations of ionosphere. EXOS-C (OHZORA).

Exosat.

  • European x-ray astronomy satellite. One launch, 1983.05.26. EXOSAT was a space research satellite of the European Space Agency.

Experiment Satellite I.

  • Alternate designation for Shiyan civilian surveillance satellite.

Experimental Geophysical Satellite.

  • Alternate designation for EGS earth geodetic satellite.

Experimental Spacecraft System.

  • Alternate designation for XSS rendezvous technology satellite.

Explorer A.

  • American earth magnetosphere satellite. 3 launches, 1958.02.01 (Explorer 1) to 1958.03.26 (Explorer 3). Discovered Van Allen radiation belts. Spacecraft engaged in research and exploration of the upper atmosphere or outer space.

Explorer B.

  • American earth magnetosphere satellite. One launch, 1958.07.26, Explorer 4. Mapped project Argus radiation.

Explorer C.

  • American earth magnetosphere satellite. One launch, 1958.08.24, Explorer 5.

Express 1.

  • Japanese materials science satellite. One launch, 1995.01.15, EXPRESS RV. At first thought not to have reached orbit. Later reentry vehicle was discovered in Ghana having reentered and deployed its parachute on Jan 15.

Extended Mission Gemini.

  • American manned spacecraft. Study 1965. A McDonnell concept for using Gemini for extended duration missions. The basic Gemini would dock with an Agena upper stage.

Extravehicular Activity Maneuvering Unit.

  • Alternate designation for Gemini EMU space suit.

Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer.

  • Alternate designation for EUVE ultraviolet astronomy satellite.

F-22 PPS.

  • American pressure suit, operational 1993. Partial pressure suit development for F-22 Aircraft. Get-me-down partial pressure ensemble combining Mask/Vest/uniform pressure anti-G garment for protection to 18 km.

Faget Mars Expedition.

  • American manned Mars expedition. Study 1963. NASA Houston supported a conference in May 1963 which examined a number of Mars expedition scenarios.

FAISAT.

  • American military communications satellite. 2 launches, 1995.01.24 (FAISAT) and 1997.09.23 (FAISAT-2V). Store/forward communications.

Falcon.

  • Code name for Hayabusa asteroid probe.

Falcon Gold.

  • American navigation technology satellite. One launch, 1997.10.25. US Air Force Academy experiment to demonstrate use of GPS navigation in geosynchronous orbit.

FalconSat.

  • American technology satellite. 3 launches, 2000.01.27 (Falconsat) to 2007.03.09 (Falconsat-3). The JAWSAT/FalconSat payloads were developed as a joint effort between the Air Force Academy and Weber State University.

Fanhui Shei Weixing.

  • Code name for FSW military surveillance satellite.

Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer.

  • Alternate designation for FUSE ultraviolet astronomy satellite.

FAST.

  • American earth magnetosphere satellite. One launch, 1996.08.21. FAST was designed to observe and measure rapidly varying electric and magnetic fields and the flow of electrons and ions above the aurora.

Fast Auroral Snapshot Explorer.

  • Alternate designation for FAST earth magnetosphere satellite.

FedSat.

  • Australian communications satellite. One launch, 2002.12.14. FedSat contained high-tech communication, space science, navigation and computing equipment and was intended to help bring broadband Internet services to remote parts of Australia.

Feitian.

  • Chinese space suit for extravehicular activity, operational 2008. Reverse-engineered copy of Russian Orlan suits purchased in . Many details different, new Chinese avionics and control systems, all-Chinese materials.

Feng Yun.

  • Alternate designation for FY-1 earth weather satellite.

Feniks.

  • Code name for Yantar-2K military surveillance satellite.

Ferret.

  • American military naval signals reconnaisance satellite. 19 launches, 1962.02.21 (Ferret 1) to 1971.07.16 (OPS 8373).

FGB Functional / Cargo Block.

  • Alternate designation for TKS FGB manned spacecraft module.

FGB TKS / 77KS / 77KM.

FH-1.

  • Chinese military communications satellite. 2 launches, 2000.01.25 (Zhongxing-22) to 2006.09.12 (Zhongxing 22A). In May 1999 Aviation Week reported that a new communication satellite, Fenghuo-1 (FH-1), would be launched by a CZ-3A by the end of 1999.

FIRE.

  • American re-entry vehicle technology satellite. 2 launches, 1964.04.14 (FIRE 1) and 1965.05.22 (FIRE 2). Suborbital re-entry test program that used a subscale model of the Apollo Command Module to verify the configuration at high reentry speed.

Firewheel.

  • French technology satellite. 5 launches, 1980.05.23 (Feuerrad subsatellite 4) to (Feuerrad subsatellite 4). Multiple European technology test satellites launched on the first Ariane.

First Lunar Outpost.

  • American manned lunar base. Study 1992. The First Lunar Outpost was a very comprehensive moon base study carried out by NASA's Office of Exploration in 1992.

FIRST Re-Entry Glider.

  • American manned rescue spacecraft. Study 1960. FIRST (Fabrication of Inflatable Re-entry Structures for Test) used an inflatable Rogallo wing for emergency return of space crew from orbit.

FJ-4F.

  • American manned rocketplane. Study 1958. The FJ-4F was a US Navy Fury fighter fitted with a Rocketdyne AR1 engine for quick intercept of Soviet bombers. Two prototypes were tested which reached Mach 1.41 at 22 km altitude.

Fleet Satellite Communications.

  • Alternate designation for FLTSATCOM military communications satellite.

FLEM.

  • American manned Mars expedition. Study 1966.

Flight Investigation of the Reentry Environment.

  • Alternate designation for FIRE re-entry vehicle technology satellite.

Flight Telerobotic Servicer.

  • American logistics spacecraft. Study 1987. NASA decided to develop a $288-million Flight Telerobotic Servicer in 1987 after Congress voiced concern about American competitiveness in the field of robotics.

FLTSATCOM.

  • American military communications satellite. 8 launches, 1978.02.09 (Fltsatcom 1) to 1989.09.25 (USA 46).

Fobos.

Fobos 1F.

  • Russian Mars orbiter. 5 launches, 1988.07.07 (Phobos 1) to 1988.07.12 (1F PPS). The 1F spacecraft was flown on the Phobos mission to Mars, consisting of 2 nearly identical spacecraft.

FOBS.

  • Alternate designation for OGCh military orbital bombing system.

Ford Mars Lander.

  • American manned Mars lander. Study 1963. The Mars lander assumed in NASA studies from 1964 to 1966 was a lifting body conceived by Ford Aeronutronic in May-December 1963. Given a go-ahead by 1965, it would be available for Mars missions by 1975.

Forpost.

  • Russian military communications satellite. Study 1992. Communications satellite - Soviet Ministry of Defense. No other details available.

FORTE.

  • American earth magnetosphere satellite. One launch, 1997.08.29. FORTE - 'Fast On-orbit Recording of Transient Events' - was a US Los Alamos National Laboratory satellite designed to study natural and artificial radio emissions from the ionosphere.

Fotino.

  • European tether technology satellite. Study 2005. European re-entry capsule experiment planned to be carried on Foton-M2, but not ready in time for launch.

Foton.

  • Russian materials science satellite. 15 launches, 1985.04.16 (Cosmos 1645 / Foton 1) to 2007.09.14 (Foton M-2). Adaptation of recoverable Vostok spacecraft for zero-gravity materials processing tests. 400 W available to operate experiments.

Fractional Orbital Bombardment System..

  • Manufacturer's designation for OGCh military orbital bombing system.

Fram.

  • Code name for Zenit-4MKT military surveillance satellite.

FRANCE.

  • French earth ionosphere satellite. One launch, 1965.12.06. Investigated the properties of the ionized layers of the atmosphere by observation of the propagation of very low frequency waves in the ionosphere.

Freja.

  • Swedish earth magnetosphere satellite. 2 launches, 1992.10.06 (Freja) and (Freja). Freja was designed to image the aurora and measure particles and fields in the upper ionosphere and lower magnetosphere.

Freja-C.

  • Alternate designation for Astrid earth magnetosphere satellite.

FS-1300.

  • American communications satellite bus. Operational, first launch 1989.06.05.

FSW.

  • Chinese military surveillance satellite. 24 launches, 1974.11.05 (FSW-0) to 2006.09.09 (SJ-8).

Fuji.

  • Japanese amateur radio communications satellite. One launch, 1996.08.17, JAS-2. Japanese amateur radio satellite.

FUSE.

  • American ultraviolet astronomy satellite. One launch, 1999.06.24. FUSE carried four 0.35m far ultraviolet telescopes each with an ultraviolet high resolution spectrograph.

FY-1.

  • Chinese earth weather satellite. 4 launches, 1988.09.06 (FY-1A) to 2002.05.15 (SJ-6A). The Feng Yun 1 meteorological satellites were launched into sun-synchronous 900 km, 99 deg inclination orbits by CZ-4 boosters from Taiyuan.

FY-2.

  • Chinese earth weather satellite. 5 launches, 1997.06.10 (FY-2A) to 2008.12.23 (FY-2C). The Feng Yun 2 spin-stabilized geosynchronous meteorological spacecraft was slightly more massive than China's DFH-2 communications satellite.

FY-3.

  • Chinese new generation polar orbit weather satellite. Operational, first launched 2008.05.27. The FY-3 was equipped with new global, all-weather, multi-spectral, three-dimensional sensors.

G1C.

  • American space suit, tested 1962. NASA Gemini prototype full pressure suit, closed loop. The G-1C lead to the G-2C, G-3C (IVA suits), G-4C (both IVA and EVA suit), and G-5C with a soft head enclosure for the 14 day Gemini 7 mission.

G2C.

  • American space suit, tested 1963. The Dave Clark G2C was the prototype IVA space suit for project Gemini. None were flown. The flight versions were G4C and G5C.

G2G.

  • American space suit, tested 1962. The BF Goodrich space suit was developed in competition with the Dave Clark G2C suit for Project Gemini. It was not flown.

G3C.

  • American space suit, operational 1964. Dave Clark G3C initial Gemini production flight suits were worn aboard Gemini 3, and by the spacecraft commanders of Gemini 6 and 8..

G4C.

  • American space suit, operational 1964. Dave Clark G4C flight suits were designed for wear by Gemini astronauts.

G4C AMU.

  • American space suit, operational 1966. This space suit was designed to provide thermal protection to astronauts using the Astronaut Maneuvering Unit (AMU).

G5C.

  • American space suit, operational 1965. This David Clark lightweight suit was developed for long duration project Gemini missions. It was designed to be easily removed during flight and to provide greater comfort than the standard Gemini space suit.

Gaia.

  • American earth resources satellite. need summary - see links

Galaxy.

  • American technology satellite. Study 2008. The Galaxy subscale module was scheduled to fly in 2008. It would be twice as large as its Genesis predecessors and represent a 50% scale model of the Sundancer manned inflatable space station.

Galex.

  • American ultraviolet astronomy satellite. One launch, 2003.04.28. The Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX) was an orbiting space telescope that was to observe galaxies in ultraviolet wavelengths.

Galileo.

  • American outer planets probe. One launch, 1989.10.18. The Galileo Jupiter orbiter was designed to perform in-depth studies of the giant planet's atmosphere, satellites, and surrounding magnetosphere.

Galileo Navsat.

  • European navigation satellite. One launch, 2008.04.26, GIOVE B. Galileo was to be Europe's own global navigation satellite system, providing a highly accurate, guaranteed global positioning service under civilian control.

Galileo Probe.

  • American outer planets probe. One launch, 1989.10.18. Jupiter atmospheric probe; deployed from Galileo 7/13/95; entered Jupiter atmosphere 12/7/95.

Gals.

  • Russian communications satellite. 2 launches, 1994.01.20 (Gals) and 1995.11.17 (Gals-2). Direct broadcasting satellite (new generation of satellites) intended for development of the Russian television system and international cooperation.

Gambit.

  • Code name for KH-7and KH-8 military surveillance satellites.

Gamma.

  • Russian gamma ray astronomy satellite. One launch, 1990.07.11. The Gamma USSR/France gamma/x-ray astronomical telescope spacecraft was derived from the Soyuz manned spacecraft and had an unusually long gestation.

Garpun.

  • Military communications and data relay satellite. Replacement for the Potok and Geizer.

Garsaux Suit.

  • French pressure suit, tested 1935. The first French full pressure suit was designed by Dr Paul Garsaux with the backing of the Potez Airplane Company in 1935.

GAS.

  • American technology satellite. Study 1976. NASA's getaway special program, officially known as the Small, Self-Contained Payloads program, offered interested individuals or groups opportunities to fly small experiments aboard the space shuttle.

Gauchito.

  • Argentinan manned spacecraft. Study 2004. X-Prize suborbital ballistic spacecraft concept of Pablo De Leon of Buenos Aires, Argentina. Reached the stage of engineering tests by 2003.

GE Life Raft.

  • American manned rescue spacecraft. Study 1966. The GE Life raft was a rigid unpressurized aeroshell. Three crew in space suits with parachutes would strap themselves into the seats.

GE Lunar NEP Tug.

  • American lunar logistics spacecraft. Nuclear electric tug proposed by General Electric in a 1965 study to support an Apollo Applications Lunar Base. A Snap-50 space reactor generating 1.9 MW would power the tug.

Geizer.

  • Code name for Potok military communications satellite.

Gektor, Gektor-Priroda.

  • Code name for Zenit-2M military surveillance satellite.

Gelikon.

  • Russian communications satellite. Study 1995. An early Applied Mechanics NPO plan to replace Gorizont and Ekran spacecraft revolved around the Gelikon project.

Gemini.

  • American manned spacecraft. 12 launches, 1964.04.08 (Gemini 1) to 1966.11.11 (Gemini 12). It was obvious to NASA that there was a big gap of three to four years between the last Mercury flight and the first scheduled Apollo flight.

Gemini - Double Transtage.

  • American manned lunar orbiter. Study 1965. In June 1965 astronaut Pete Conrad conspired with the Martin and McDonnell corporations to advocate an early circumlunar flight using Gemini.

Gemini - Saturn I.

  • American manned lunar flyby spacecraft. Study 1964. In the spring of 1964, with manned Apollo flights using the Saturn I having been cancelled, use of a Saturn I to launch a Gemini around the moon was studied.

Gemini - Saturn IB.

  • American manned lunar flyby spacecraft. Study 1964.

Gemini - Saturn V.

  • American manned lunar orbiter. In late 1964 McDonnell, in addition to a Saturn 1B-boosted circumlunar Gemini, McDonnell proposed a lunar-orbit version of Gemini to comprehensively scout the Apollo landing zones prior to the first Apollo missions.

Gemini Agena Target Vehicle.

  • American space tug. 6 launches, 1965.10.25 (GATV 6) to 1966.11.11 (Gemini 12 Agena Target).

Gemini AM.

  • American manned spacecraft module. 12 launches, 1964.04.08 (Gemini 1) to 1966.11.11 (Gemini 12).

Gemini B AM.

  • American manned spacecraft module. Cancelled 1969. Adapter module for Gemini B, the engines serving as both abort motors during ascent to orbit and for retrofire on return to earth. Abort/deorbit propulsion.

Gemini B RM.

  • American manned spacecraft. Cancelled 1969. Gemini was extensively redesigned for the MOL Manned Orbiting Laboratory program. The resulting Gemini B, although externally similar, was essentially a completely new spacecraft. Reentry capsule.

Gemini ECS.

  • Gemini ECS Development Diary

Gemini Ejection.

  • Gemini Ejection Development Diary

Gemini EM.

  • American manned spacecraft module. 12 launches, 1964.04.08 (Gemini 1) to 1966.11.11 (Gemini 12).

Gemini EMU.

  • American space mobility device, tested 1966. Vought developed the EMU, which was to have been flown in the Gemini program. This design approach led to the Space Shuttle's MMU (Manned Maneuvering Unit) was put into operation.

Gemini Ferry.

  • American manned spacecraft. Study 1963. The Gemini Ferry vehicle would have been launched by Titan 3M for space station replenishment.

Gemini Ferry AM.

  • American manned spacecraft module. Study 1963.

Gemini Ferry CM.

  • American manned spacecraft module. Study 1963.

Gemini Ferry RM.

  • American manned spacecraft module. Study 1963.

Gemini Fuel Cell.

  • Gemini Fuel Cell Development Diary

Gemini G2C Space Suit.

  • Alternate designation for G2C space suit.

Gemini G2G Space Suit.

  • Alternate designation for G2G space suit.

Gemini G3C Space Suit.

  • Alternate designation for G3C space suit.

Gemini G4C Space Suit.

  • Alternate designation for G4C space suit.

Gemini G5C Space Suit.

  • Alternate designation for G5C space suit.

Gemini Inertial Guidance System.

  • Gemini Inertial Guidance System Development Diary

Gemini Lightweight Suit.

  • Manufacturer's designation for G5C space suit.

Gemini LOR.

  • American manned lunar lander. Study 1961. Original Mercury Mark II proposal foresaw a Gemini capsule and a single-crew open cockpit lunar lander undertaking a lunar orbit rendezvous mission, launched by a Titan C-3.

Gemini LORV.

  • American manned lunar orbiter. Study 1967. This version of Gemini was studied as a means of rescuing an Apollo CSM crew stranded in lunar orbit. The Gemini would be launched unmanned on a translunar trajectory by a Saturn V.

Gemini LORV RM.

  • American manned spacecraft module. Study 1967. Calculated mass based on mission requirements, drawing of spacecraft.

Gemini LORV SM.

  • American manned spacecraft module. Study 1967. Calculated mass based on mission requirements, drawing of spacecraft, dimensions of propellant tanks.

Gemini LSRS AM.

  • American manned spacecraft module. Study 1966. Calculated mass based on mission requirements, drawing of spacecraft, dimensions of propellant tanks.

Gemini LSRS LM.

  • American manned spacecraft module. Study 1966. Calculated mass based on mission requirements, drawing of spacecraft, dimensions of propellant tanks.

Gemini LSRS LOIM.

  • American manned spacecraft module. Study 1966. Calculated mass based on mission requirements, drawing of spacecraft, dimensions of propellant tanks.

Gemini LSRS RM.

  • American manned spacecraft module. Study 1966. Calculated mass based on mission requirements, drawing of spacecraft.

Gemini LSSS LM.

  • American manned spacecraft module. Study 1967. Calculated mass based on mission requirements, drawing of spacecraft, dimensions of propellant tanks.

Gemini LSSS SM.

  • American manned spacecraft module. Study 1967. Calculated mass based on mission requirements, drawing of spacecraft.

Gemini Lunar Lander.

  • American manned lunar lander. Study 1961. A direct lunar lander design of 1961, capable of being launched to the moon in a single Saturn V launch through use of a 2-man Gemini re-entry vehicle instead of the 3-man Apollo capsule.

Gemini Lunar Orbit Rescue Vehicle.

  • Alternate designation for Gemini LORV manned lunar orbiter.

Gemini Lunar RM.

  • American manned spacecraft module. Study 1967. Calculated mass based on mission requirements, drawing of spacecraft.

Gemini Lunar Surface Rescue Spacecraft.

  • American manned lunar lander. Study 1966. This version of Gemini would allow a direct manned lunar landing mission to be undertaken in a single Saturn V flight, although it was only proposed as an Apollo rescue vehicle.

Gemini Lunar Surface Survival Shelter.

  • American manned lunar habitat. Study 1967. Prior to an Apollo moon landing attempt, the shelter would be landed, unmanned, near the landing site of a stranded Apollo Lunar Module.

Gemini OAMS/RCS.

  • Gemini OAMS/RCS Development Diary

Gemini Observatory.

  • American manned spacecraft. Study 1966. Proposed version of Gemini for low-earth orbit solar or stellar astronomy. This would be launched by a Saturn S-IB. It has an enlarged reentry module which seems to be an ancestor of the 'Big Gemini' of 1967.

Gemini Parachute.

  • Gemini Parachute Development Diary

Gemini Paraglide.

  • Gemini Paraglide Development Diary

Gemini Paraglider.

  • American manned spacecraft. Study 1966. The paraglider was supposed to be used in the original Gemini program but delays in getting the wing to deploy reliably resulted in it not being flown.

Gemini Pecan.

  • American manned space station. Study 1964.

Gemini Radar.

  • Gemini Radar Development Diary

Gemini REP.

  • Gemini REP Development Diary

Gemini RM.

  • American manned spacecraft module. 12 launches, 1964.04.08 (Gemini 1) to 1966.11.11 (Gemini 12).

Gemini Satellite Inspector.

  • American manned spacecraft. Study 1965. A modification of Gemini to demonstrate rendezvous and inspection of noncooperative satellites was proposed. The Gemini would rendezvous with the enormous Pegasus satellite in its 500 x 700 km orbit.

Gemini Transport.

  • American logistics spacecraft. Study 1963. This Gemini Transport version was proposed as a Gemini program follow-on in 1963. With the extended reentry module, this was the ancestor of the Big Gemini spacecraft of the late 1960's.

Gemini-Centaur.

  • American manned lunar flyby spacecraft. Study 1962. In the first Gemini project plans, it was planned that after a series of test dockings between Gemini and Agena rocket stages, Geminis would dock with Centaur stages for circumlunar flights.

GemStar.

  • American communications satellite. One launch, 1995.08.15. Global Electronic Messaging Satellite.

General Electric Life Raft.

  • Alternate designation for GE Life Raft manned rescue spacecraft.

Genesat.

  • American biology satellite. One launch, 2006.12.16. Genesat was a NASA Ames nanosatellite launched as a secondary payload.

Genesis.

  • American solar satellite. One launch, 2001.08.08. Genesis was part of NASA's Discovery program. Its objective was to fly to the Earth-Sun L1 point and spend two years collecting samples of the solar wind.

Genesis Pathfinder.

  • American technology satellite. 2 launches, 2006.07.12 (Genesis 1) to 2007.06.28 (Genesis 2). One third scale version of the Nautilus inflatable human space habitat module.

Geo Forschungs Zentrum.

  • Alternate designation for GFZ-1 earth geodetic satellite.

Geodetic Satellite.

  • Alternate designation for Geosat earth resources radar satellite.

Geo-IK.

  • Russian earth geodetic satellite. 14 launches, 1981.01.23 (Geo-IK no. 1) to 1994.11.29 (Geo-IK). Development of a second generation geodetic satellite system began in 1977.

GeoLITE.

  • American military communications satellite. One launch, 2001.05.18, USA 158. GeoLITE was a TRW T-310 class satellite with a mass of about 1800 kg, including a solid apogee motor.

Geophysical Research Satellite.

  • Alternate designation for GRS earth magnetosphere satellite.

GEOS.

  • American solar satellite. 3 launches, 1965.11.06 (Explorer 29) to 1975.04.09 (Geos 3). The GEOS spacecraft were gravity-gradient-stabilized, solar-cell powered satellites designed exclusively for geodetic studies.

Geosat.

  • American earth resources radar satellite. One launch, 1985.03.13. Geosat was a US Navy satellite designed to measure sea surface heights to within 5 cm.

GEOSAT Follow On.

  • Alternate designation for GFO earth resources radar satellite.

Geostar-MSS.

  • Russian communications satellite. Study 1994. The Lavochkin Geostar-MSS communications system was designed in association with Moscow NII Radio-communications.

Geostationary Meteorological Satellite.

  • Alternate designation for GMS earth weather satellite.

Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite..

  • Alternate designation for GOES earth weather satellite.

Geostationary Orbiting Environmental Satellite.

  • Code name for GOES earth weather satellite.

Geotail.

  • Japanese earth magnetosphere satellite. One launch, 1992.07.24. Measured magnetosphere and Earth's geomagnetic tail; Diffuse Ultraviolet Explorer package bolted to Delta 2 second stage.

Gerkules.

GetAway Special.

  • Alternate designation for GAS technology satellite.

GFO.

  • American earth resources radar satellite. One launch, 1998.02.10. GFO was a follow-on to the successful GEOSAT program which flew between 1985 and 1990. GFO was to provide real-time ocean topography data to 65 Navy users at sea and on shore.

GFZ-1.

  • German earth geodetic satellite. 2 launches, 1995.04.19 (GFZ-1) and 1998.07.10 (WESTPAC). GFZ-1 was a geodetic satellite designed to improve the current knowledge of the Earth's gravity field.

GGSE.

  • American gravity gradient technology satellite. 5 launches, 1964.01.11 (GGSE 1) to 1967.05.31 (GGSE 5). Developed designs and deployment techniques later applied to the NOSS / Whitecloud naval reconnaissance satellites.

GGTS.

  • American gravity gradient technology satellite. One launch, 1966.06.16. Gravity gradient stabilization tests.

Giotto.

  • European comet probe. One launch, 1985.07.02. The Giotto mission was designed to study Comet P/Halley, and also studied Comet P/Grigg-Skjellerup during its extended mission.

GLAST.

  • American gamma ray astronomy satellite. One launch, 2008.06.11, Fermi Gamma Ray Space Telescope. Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope; renamed Fermi GST after launch.

Global Communications Satellite Using Nuclear Power.

  • Russian military communications satellite. Study 1963. In 1963 Korolev's OKB proposed development of a massive nuclear-powered geosynchronous satellite, which would be launched by the N1 superbooster.

Global Positioning System.

  • Alternate designation for GPS Block 1 navigation satellite.

Globalstar.

  • American communications satellite. 72 launches, 1998.02.14 (Globalstar FM1) to 2007.10.20 (Globalstar D). The Globalstar constellation was a Medium Earth Orbit system for mobile voice and data communications.

Globis.

  • Russian communications satellite. Studied 1984-1994. Lox/LH2 upper stages launched by Energia would put 21 metric ton communications satellites into geosynchronous orbit.

Globsat.

  • Russian communications satellite. Study 1993. The Salyut Design Bureau proposed the least ambitious of all Russian low earth orbit communications systems.

Globus.

  • Code name for Raduga-1 communications satellite.

GLOMR.

  • American military store-dump communications satellite. 2 launches, 1985.10.30 (GLOMR; GLOMAR) and 1990.04.05 (USA 55).

Glonass.

  • Russian navigation satellite. Operational, first launch 1982.10.12. Glonass was a Soviet space-based navigation system comparable to the American GPS system.

Glory.

GMS.

  • Japanese earth weather satellite. 5 launches, 1977.07.14 (Himawari 1) to 1995.03.18 (Himawari 5). The Geostationary Meteorological Satellite series were spin-stabilized satellites.

GOCE.

  • The Gravity Field and Steady-State Ocean Circulation Explorer was an ion-engine-powered European satellite equipped with a highly sensitive gravity gradiometer to detect fine density differences in the crust and oceans of the Earth.

GOES.

  • American earth weather satellite. 8 launches, 1975.10.16 (GOES 1) to 1987.02.26 (GOES 7). Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite.

GOES-Next.

  • American earth weather satellite. 3 launches, 1994.04.13 (GOES 8) to 1997.04.25 (GOES 10). Geostationary Environmental Satellite.

GOMS.

  • Code name for Elektro earth weather satellite.

Gonets.

  • Code name for Strela-3 military store-dump communications satellite.

Gonets.

  • Russian civilian store-dump communications satellite. Study 1999. The first generation store-dump communications Gonets-D system was to have been followed by an advanced Gonets-R design equipped with satellite-to-satellite links.

Gonets-D1.

  • Russian civilian store-dump communications satellite. 15 launches, 1992.07.13 (Cosmos 2199) to 2005.12.21 (Gonets D1M 1). Commercial version of GRU Strela-3 military store-dump satellite.

Gonets-R.

  • Alternate designation for Gonets sattelite.

Goodyear Project 7969.

  • American manned spacecraft. Study 1958. Goodyear's proposal for the Air Force initial manned space project was a 2.1 m diameter spherical vehicle with a rearward facing tail cone and ablative surface.

Gorizont.

  • Russian communications satellite. 35 launches, 1978.12.19 (Gorizont 1) to 2000.06.06 (Gorizont). Gorizont-1 was designed specifically to support broadcast of the 1980 Olympic Games from Russia.

GPS Block 1.

  • American navigation satellite. 11 launches, 1978.02.22 (Navstar 1) to 1985.10.09 (USA 10). GPS Block 1 prototype satellites formed the GPS Demonstration system and were followed by the Block 2 operational system.

GPS Block 2 and 2A.

  • American navigation satellite. 28 launches, 1989.02.14 (USA 35) to 1997.11.06 (USA 134). The Navstar GPS constellation worked in concert with ground receivers to give precise location information to military and civilian users anywhere in the world.

GPS Block 2F.

  • American navigation satellite. Study 2005. Block IIF satellites were the planned fourth generation of the Navstar satellite. Launched 2010.05.28,

GPS Block 2R.

  • American navigation satellite. 21 launches, 1997.01.17 (USA 132) to 2009-08-17. Launches began in 1997 of 'GPS-IIR' replenishment satellites, produced by General Electric Astrospace (later acquired by Lockheed Missiles & Space).

GPS Block 3.

  • American navigation satellite. Study 2010. GPS III, as planned in 2003, would be the fifth generation of Navstar satellites. They would continue to deliver the new civil signals and improved military codes initiated on the GPS IIR-M and IIF programs.

GRAB.

  • American military naval signals reconnaisance satellite. 9 launches, 1960.04.13 (Dummy subsatellite) to 1965.03.09 (Solrad 7B). GRAB, the first US electronic intelligence (ELINT) satellite, was not declassified until June 1998.

GRACE.

  • American earth geodetic satellite. 2 launched, 2002.03.17 (GRACE 1 ) and (GRACE 2 ). The GRACE mission was to accurately map variations in the Earth's gravity field over its 5-year lifetime.

Grail.

Gramsat.

  • Alternate designation for GSat communications satellite.

Gran.

  • Code name for Raduga communications satellite.

Granat.

  • Russian x-ray astronomy satellite. One launch, 1989.12.01. Granat was a Lavochkin design with the mission of making gamma ray observations in energy ranges of 3 to 200 keV.

Gravity Probe-B.

  • American earth geodetic satellite. One launch, 2004.04.20, Gravity Probe B. Gravity Probe B was an experiment developed by NASA and Stanford University to test two unverified predictions of Albert Einstein's general theory of relativity.

Greb.

  • Manufacturer's designation for GRAB military naval signals reconnaisance satellite.

Greensat.

  • South African earth land resources satellite. Cancelled 1990. The South African RSA-3 launch vehicle was designed to place a small surveillance satellite of 330 kg mass into a 41 degree, 212 x 460 km orbit around the earth.

Gridsphere.

  • American technology satellite. 2 launches, 1971.08.07 (Gridsphere 1) and (Gridsphere 2). Space craft engaged in investigation of spaceflight techniques and technology.

GRO.

  • American gamma ray astronomy satellite. One launch, 1991.04.05, Compton Observatory. The Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (CGRO) was the gamma-ray element of NASA's Great Observatories program .

GRS.

  • American earth magnetosphere satellite. One launch, 1963.06.28. Space gas data.

Grumman LSS Project 344 Rover - 1 man.

  • American manned lunar rover. Study 1963. The Grumman Lunar Logistics System Project 344 single-crew rover of January 1963 had 2 x two-wheeled power modules. Each wheel was 360 cm in diameter, and the rover had a range of 300 km on a 3.3 day traverse.

Grumman LSS Project 344 Rover - 2 man.

  • American manned lunar rover. Study 1963. The Grumman Lunar Logistics System Project 344 two-man rover design of January 1963 consisted of the basic vehicle, a manned module, and a tanker. This provided a range of 370 km on a 7 day traverse.

Grumman LSS Project 344 Rover - 2 man 3 kW.

  • American manned lunar rover. Study 1963. The Grumman Lunar Logistics System Project 344 alternate three-crew lunar rover design of February 1963 vehicle had three x two wheeled modules. The rover would have a range of 770 km on a 23.5 day traverse.

Grumman LSS Project 344 Rover - 3 man.

  • American manned lunar rover. Study 1963. The Grumman Lunar Logistics System Project 344 three-man lunar rover design of January 1963 used a 3 module vehicle. It had a range of 2340 km on a 28 day traverse.

Grumman LSS Project 344 Rover - Unmanned.

  • American lunar rover. Study 1963. The Grumman Lunar Logistics System Project 344 unmanned rover design of February 1963 had 4 wheels (two equal-weight, 2 wheel modules of 360 cm diameter). The robot had a range of 750 km.

Grumman Moon Suit.

  • American space suit, tested 1965.

Gruzovoi otsek.

  • Russian name (payload module) for Progress M GO manned spacecraft module.

GSat.

  • Indian communications satellite bus. First launch 2001.04.18.

Guardian.

  • American technology satellite. Cancelled 2006. 45% scale version of the Nautilus inflatable human space habitat module, designed to prove the ECS system.

Gun-Launched ASAT.

  • American military anti-satellite system. Study 1990. One of the applications of the superguns Gerald Bull was designing for Iraq would have been firing of an anti-satellite shell that would have blinded Western spy satellites with a sticky material.

Gurwin.

  • Israeli technology satellite. 2 launches, 1995.03.28 (Gurwin 1) and 1998.07.10 (Gurwin Techsat 1B). Gurwin satellites were built by the Technion Institute of Technology, Israel.

GVM DS-U2-IK.

  • Ukrainian earth ionosphere satellite. One launch, 1977.02.15, Cosmos 893. Designation indicates a mass model of the DS-U2-IK (which studied charged particle flows and the ionosphere). However flown after the functional spacecraft's flights were completed.

H-2 HTOHL.

  • Chinese manned spaceplane. Study 1988. The H-2 horizontal takeoff / horizontal landing two-stage reusable space shuttle was proposed by Institute 601 of the Air Ministry in 1988.

H-2 Transfer Vehicle.

  • Alternate designation for HTV space tug.

Habot.

  • American manned lunar rover. Study 2000. The Habot (Habitat Robot) modules would land on six articulated legs, which also provided the locomotion. These walking modules could operate autonomously or in a teleoperation mode.

HAFO.

  • American pressure suit, operational 1977. High Altitude Flying Outfit. Prototype developmental full pressure suit with integrated thermal/pressure/chemical defense/immersion and anti-G protection, ILC Dover.

Hagoromo.

  • Japanese lunar orbiter. One launch, 1990.01.24. Lunar orbiter ejected from Muses A 3/19/90; contact lost after release; engineering test. Lunar Orbit (Selenocentric).

HALCA.

  • Alternate designation for Haruka radio astronomy satellite.

HAPS.

  • American pressure suit, operational 1977. High Altitude Protective System (HAPS). Hybrid get-me-down system assembled for NASA Dryden Flight Research Center test pilots.

HARP 5-1.

  • Canadian earth atmosphere probe. Launched from 1960. The HARP 5-1 gun probe was a dart-shaped, sub-caliber vehicle with a major diameter of 66 mm, a length of 116 cm and a flight weight of 10.4 kg.

HARP 5-3.

  • Canadian earth atmosphere satellite. Study 1960. The HARP 5-3 probe was developed during HARP to reduce the complexity of the 5 inch vehicles and in particular the nose eject system used by the HARP 5-1 probe.

HARP 7-1.

  • Canadian earth atmosphere suborbital probe. Flights from 1961. The original HARP 7-1 gun probe was fundamentally a scaled up version of the 5-1 gun probe and was used for similar payloads.

HARP 7-2.

  • Canadian earth atmosphere probe. Study 1961. The Harp 7-2 vehicle was an optimized version of the 7-1 vehicle. The 7-2 had a body diameter of 76 mm a length of 1410 mm a flight weight of 18.2 kg and a payload volume of 2048 cc.

Haruka.

  • Japanese radio astronomy satellite. One launch, 1997.02.12. The Muses B satellite was renamed 'Haruka', meaning 'Far-away', after launch. It formed the spacesegment of the VLBI Space Observatory Program.

Hawker Siddeley Waverider-1960.

  • British manned spaceplane. Study 1960. An ambitious Blue Streak / Waverider design study was conducted by Hawker Siddeley Aviation in the 1960's. The project was led by Peter A E Stewart, Astronautics Section, Advanced Projects Group.

Hawker Siddeley Waverider-1971.

  • British manned spaceplane. Study 1971. The Hawker Siddeley Waverider study of 1971 laid out a space vehicle with a waveriding airbreathing hypersonic first stage, and a rocket propelled, lifting body second stage.

Hawkeye.

  • American solar satellite. One launch, 1974.06.03, Explorer 52. Solar wind experiments. Follow-on to Injun.

Hayabusa.

  • Japanese asteroid probe. One launch, 2003.05.09.

He-112.

  • German manned rocketplane. Flown 1935. The Heinkel He-112 was an unsuccessful pre-war German monoplane fighter, competing for orders with the Bf 109. However it entered rocketry history when tests were conducted with rocket engines.

He-122.

  • German manned rocketplane. Flown 1938. Early German rocketplane.

He-176.

  • German manned rocketplane. Flown 1938. Early German rocketplane.

HEAO.

  • American x-ray astronomy satellite. 3 launches, 1977.08.12 (HEAO 1) to 1979.09.20 (HEAO 3). The 3 satellites of the High Energy Astronomical Observatory program surveyed the celestial sphere for X-ray sources and gamma and cosmic ray phenomena.

Heavy Orbital Earth Space Station.

Heavy Piloted Interplanetary Spacecraft.

  • Manufacturer's designation for TMK-1 manned mars flyby.

Helios.

  • German solar satellite. 2 launches, 1974.12.10 (Helios 1) and 1976.01.15 (Helios 2). Solar probe. Launched by the United States and the Federal Republic of Germany. Heliocentric orbit 190 days, 0.309 x 0.985 AU x 0 deg.

Helios 1A-1B.

  • French military surveillance satellite. 2 launches, 1995.07.07 (Helios 1A) to 1999.12.03 (Helios 1B). Helios 1A an 1B were advanced French military surveillance satellites which were widely believed to have 1 meter resolution capability.

Helios 2.

  • French military surveillance satellite. One launch, 2004.12.18. French military surveillance satellite series which began service in 2004.

Henry PPS.

  • American pressure suit, tested 1943. J P Henry and D R Drury designed the capstan partial pressure suit and exposed subjects to 24,000 m. Three models were tested. These would be the basis of the post-war Dave Clark rocketplane suits.

HEOS.

  • European earth magnetosphere satellite. 2 launches, 1968.12.05 (HEOS 1) and 1972.01.31 (HEOS 2). Highly Eccentric Orbiting Satellite; examined magnetic fields outside of Earth's magnetosphere.

Hermes.

  • French manned spaceplane. Cancelled 1992. The Hermes spaceplane would have provided independent European manned access to space. Hermes was designed to take three astronauts to orbits of up to 800 km altitude on missions of 30 to 90 days in space.

Herschel.

  • Herschel

HERTF.

  • American military anti-satellite system. Study 1995.

HESSI.

  • American solar satellite. One launch, 2002.02.05. HESSI, the sixth Small Explorer, was a Spectrum Astro satellite derived from the SA-200S design. It carried a rotating modulation collimator transform telescope.

HETE.

  • American gamma ray astronomy satellite. 2 launches, 1996.11.04 (HETE) and 2000.10.09 (HETE-2). The High Energy Transient Experiment (HETE) was an international mission led by The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT).

Hexagon.

  • Code name for KH-9 military surveillance satellite.

HGV.

  • American spaceplane. Study 1992. The Hypersonic Glide Vehicle was a USAF project discussed openly in 1987 to 1988, which may have flown as a black project in 1992-1993.

High Energy Astronomical Observatory.

  • Alternate designation for HEAO x-ray astronomy satellite.

High Energy Transient Experiment.

  • Alternate designation for HETE gamma ray astronomy satellite.

Highwater.

  • American earth atmosphere satellite. 2 launches, 1962.04.25 (Highwater 1) and 1962.11.16 (Highwater 2). Release of large quantities of chemicals at high altitudes during suborbital tests of Saturn I.

Hi-Hoe.

  • American technology satellite. 3 launches, 1961.10.05 (Hi-Hoe 1) to 1962.07.26 (Hi-Hoe 3). US antisatellite tests.

HILAT.

  • American communications satellite. One launch, 1983.06.27. Communications technology tests. Spacecraft engaged in practical applications and uses of space technology such as weather or communication.

Himawari.

  • Code name for GMS earth weather satellite.

Hinode.

  • Japanese solar satellite. One launch, 2006.09.22. Solar satellite with a large optical telescope and an X-ray telescope built by the Smithsonian Observatory.

Hipparcos.

  • European visible astronomy satellite. One launch, 1989.08.08. Scientific satellite for astrometry. Didn't reach GEO due to AKM failure; measured star positions. Frequency plan 2054.25 /2241 MHz. Launch time 2325:53 UT. Designator ESA/89/03.

Hiten.

  • Japanese lunar orbiter. One launch, 1990.01.24. MUSES-A was renamed Hiten after launch. It developed of lunar swingby techniques for future missions and ejected a lunar orbiter.

Hitsat.

  • Japanese technology satellite. One launch, 2006.09.22, SSSat.

HJ-1.

  • Chinese civilian surveillance satellite. 2 launches, 2008.09.06 (Huan Jing-1A) to 2008.09.06 (Huan Jing-1B).

HL-10.

  • American manned spaceplane. 37 launches, 1966.12.22 to 1970.07.17 . The HL-10 was the favored lifting body configuration of NASA Langley in the 1960's. It reached Mach 1.86 and 27,700 m during its flight tests.

HL-20.

  • American manned spaceplane. Study 1988. The HL-20 was a NASA Langley design for a manned spaceplane as a backup to the space shuttle (in case it was abandoned or grounded) and as a CERV (Crew Emergency Return Vehicle) for the Freedom space station.

HL-42.

  • American manned spaceplane. Study 1997. The HL-42 was a reusable, lifting body manned spacecraft designed to be placed into low-Earth orbit by an expendable booster.

HOPE.

  • Japanese spaceplane. Study 1986. Like Europe, the National Space Development Agency had big plans to develop a large carrier rocket and manned 'H2 Orbiting Plane' (HOPE).

Hope Station.

  • American manned space station. Study 1961. Douglas space station concept of the early 1960's using a spent Saturn S-IV stage and Gemini spacecraft as crew shuttles.

Horizon LERV.

  • American manned lunar lander. Study 1959. Lunar landing and return vehicle planned to take up to 16 crew to the lunar surface and back in the US Army's Project Horizon of 1959.

Horizon Lunar Outpost.

  • American manned lunar base. Study 1959. In 1959 the US Army completed a plan for a manned military outpost on the moon.

Horizon Space Suit.

  • American pressure suit, study of 1959. For sustained operation on the lunar surface Project Horizon advocated a 'body conformation suit' having a substantial outer metal surface.

Horizon Station.

  • American manned space station. Study 1959.

Horus.

  • German manned spaceplane. Hypersonic Orbital Upper Stage was part of the Saenger-II spaceplane studied in Germany from 1985-1993. It would have separated from the lower stage at Mach 6.6 and flown to orbit.

HS 333.

  • American communications satellite. 8 launches, 1972.11.10 (Anik A1) to 1979.08.10 (Westar 3). The satellites, act as space repeaters capable of receiving transmissions from earth stations and retransmitting them to other earth stations in Canada.

HS 376.

  • American communications satellite. 56 launches, 1980.11.15 (SBS 1) to 2003.09.27 (E-Bird). Mass 654 kg at beginning-of-life in geosynchronous orbit. Spin stabilized at 50 rpm by 4 hydrazine thrusters with 136 kg propellant.

HS 376W.

  • American communications satellite. 4 launches, 1994.08.10 (Brasilsat B1) to 2000.08.17 (Brasilsat B-4). Based on Hughes HS-376, single antenna on despun platform, spin stabilized, hydrazine thrusters, body mounted solar cells provide 982 W BOL.

HS 381.

  • American military communications satellite. 4 launches, 1984.08.30 (Syncom IV-2) to 1985.08.27 (Syncom IV-4). The Leasat HS 381 series was developed as a commercial venture to provide dedicated communications services to the U. S. military.

HS 393.

  • American communications satellite. 7 launches, 1989.03.06 (JCSAT 1) to 1991.10.29 (Intelsat 6A F-1). Domestic communication. Launching states: Japan, France, USA. At the time, these were the largest commercial spacecraft ever built.

HS 601.

  • American communications satellite bus. First launch 1990.01.09. 3-axis unified ARC 22 N and one Marquardt 490 N bipropellant thrusters, Sun and Barnes Earth sensors and two 61 Nms 2-axis gimbaled momentum bias wheels.

HS 702.

  • American communications satellite bus. Operational, first launched 1999.12.22.

HST.

  • American visible astronomy satellite. One launch, 1990.04.24. The Hubble Space Telescope was designed to provide a space telescope with an order of magnitude better resolution than ground-based instruments.

HTSTL.

  • Chinese technology satellite. 2 launches, 2002.09.15 to 2003.09.16 . 50 kg test satellite, built by university students, was to have been placed in a 300 km polar orbit.

HTV.

  • Japanese unmanned spacecraft designed for launch by the H-IIB launch vehicle for International Space Station resupply. The HTV carried International Standard Payload Racks, and was docked using the ISS robot arm after rendezvous with the station. First launched 2009.09.10.

Hubble Space Telescope.

  • Alternate designation for HST visible astronomy satellite.

Human Lunar Return.

  • American manned lunar base. Study 1996.

Huygens.

  • European outer planets probe. One launch, 1997.10.15. Titan landing probe; attached to Cassini spacecraft.

HY-1.

  • Chinese earth land resources satellite. 2 launches, 2002.05.15 (Hai Yang 1) to 2007.04.11 (Haiyang 1B).

Hyflex.

  • Japanese spaceplane. Unmanned testbed for Japanese HOPE spaceplane.

Hyper.

  • American spaceplane.

Hyperion SSTO.

  • American manned spacecraft. Study 1966. Yet another of Philip Bono's single-stage-to-orbit designs of the 1960's, using a plug-nozzle engine for ascent and as a re-entry heat shield.

Hypersonic Flight Experiment.

  • Alternate designation for Hyflex spaceplane.

Hypersonic Glide Vehicle.

  • Alternate designation for HGV spaceplane.

Hypersonic Weapon And R&D System.

  • Alternate designation for Hywards manned combat spacecraft.

Hyper-X.

  • Alternate designation for X-43 spaceplane.

Hytex.

  • German manned rocketplane. Study 1995. Following the cancellation of Saenger II, Germany briefly considered a manned X-15/NASP type flight test vehicle (HYTEX) capable of Mach 6 flight. This too was cancelled for cost reasons.

Hywards.

  • American manned combat spacecraft. Study 1956. Hypersonic manned test spaceplane project of the 1950's. Predecessor to Dynasoar.

I1.

  • Manufacturer's designation for Polyot military anti-satellite system.

I1P.

  • Alternate designation for Polyot military anti-satellite system.

I-270.

  • Russian manned rocketplane. Flown 1947. The MiG I-270 rocketplane began as a post-war copy of the German Ju-248 (Me-263) design. The resulting rocketplane had a more refined aerodynamic form than the Me-263 and lower gross weight.

I2M.

  • Manufacturer's designation for IS-P military anti-satellite system target satellite.

I2P.

  • Manufacturer's designation for IS-A military anti-satellite system.

IAE.

  • American technology satellite. One launch, 1996.05.19. Deployed from Spartan 207 5/20/96; test of inflatable antenna technology. Reentered May 22.

IBSS.

  • American satellite. One launch, 1991.04.28. Sensor technology test; retrieved 5/2/91.

Ibuki.

  • Japanese earth atmosphere satellite. One launch, 2009.01.23. Greenhouse Gas Observing Satellite, renamed Ibuki after launch.

ICAN.

  • American space tug. Antimatter-powered nuclear pulse spacecraft designed by Pennsylvania State University.

ICESat.

  • American earth land resources satellite. One launch, 2003.01.13.

IDCSP.

  • American military communications satellite. 35 launches, 1966.06.16 (IDCSP 1-1) to 1968.06.13 (IDCSP 4-8).

Ideal Home Station.

  • American manned space station. Study 1959. Designed by Douglas, the Space Vehicle was represented by a full-scale model at the Ideal Home Show in London in 1962. It had a length of 19 m and was 5.2 m in diameter.

IE.

  • American earth ionosphere satellite. One launch, 1964.08.25, Explorer 20. Ionospheric research.

IGS.

  • Japanese military surveillance satellite. Operational, first launched 2003.03.28. Japan's first military reconnaissance satellites, launched in optical and radar versions.

Ikar.

  • Code name for Tselina-D military naval signals reconnaisance satellite.

Ikar.

  • Russian space tug. Study 1999. Upper stage / space tug - in production. Launched by Soyuz. Derived from propulsion module of Yantar spy satellite, over 30 flights to 1998. 50 restarts.

Ikaros.

  • Solar sail test vehicle. Released in solar orbit 0.72 AU x 1.07 AU x 2.0 deg. Deployed sail by 11 June, and acceleration due to the pressure of the light from the sun was as expected. Launched 2010.05.20,

IK-B-1300.

  • Ukrainian earth magnetosphere satellite. One launch, 1981.08.07, Intercosmos 22. Intercosmos-Bulgaria 1300. Comprehensive investigation of physical processes in the earth's ionosphere and magnetosphere.

Ikon.

Ikonos.

  • American civilian surveillance satellite. 2 launches, 1999.04.27 (Ikonos 1) and 1999.09.24 (Ikonos). The first high resolution commercial imaging satellite.

ILRV.

  • American manned spaceplane. Study 1968. In late 1968 the USAF Flight Dynamics Laboratory proposed its Integrated Launch and Re-entry Vehicle. This was a 1.5 stage-to-orbit concept with an external drop tank.

IMAGE.

  • American solar satellite. One launch, 2000.03.25. The IMAGE spacecraft imaged remote particle populations in the magnetosphere.

Imager for Magnetopause-to-Aurora Global Exploration.

  • Alternate designation for IMAGE solar satellite.

IMEWS.

  • Code name for DSP military early warning satellite.

IMIS 1968.

  • American manned Mars expedition. Study 1968. In January 1968 Boeing issued a report that was the result of a 14 month study on manned Mars missions.

IMLSS.

  • American space mobility device. Cancelled 1969. In 1968-69 Hamilton Standard developed this Integrated Maneuvering Life Support System (IMLSS) for the USAF Manned Orbiting Laboratory program.

IMP.

  • American earth magnetosphere satellite. 10 launches, 1963.11.27 (Explorer 18) to 1973.10.26 (Explorer 50).

Improved Crystal.

  • American military surveillance satellite. Operational, first launch 1992.11.28. Improved CRYSTAL was an optical reconnaissance satellite built for the US National Reconnaissance Office. Prime contractor was thought to be Lockheed.

Improved TIROS Operational System.

  • Alternate designation for ITOS earth weather satellite.

IMS.

  • Indian military surveillance radar satellite. One launch, 2008.04.28. Indian Mini Satellite, a small imaging satellite.

Industrial Space Facility.

  • American manned space station module. Study 1982. In 1982 Space Industries Inc. planned to develop an 'Industrial Space Facility' (ISF), a 'mini space station' that would fly unmanned most of the time but be serviced regularly by the Space Shuttle.

Inflatable Antenna Experiment.

  • Alternate designation for IAE technology satellite.

Informator.

  • Russian communications satellite. One launch, 1991.01.29, Oscar 21. Informator was the spacecraft component of the planned Koskon medium earth-orbit communications satellite system.

InfraRed Astronomical Satellite.

  • Alternate designation for IRAS infrared astronomy satellite.

Infrared Background Signature Survey.

  • Alternate designation for IBSS infrared astronomy satellite.

Infrared Space Observatory.

  • Alternate designation for ISO infrared astronomy satellite.

Initial Defense Communictions Satellite Program.

  • Alternate designation for IDCSP military communications satellite.

Injun.

  • American earth magnetosphere satellite. 5 launches, 1961.06.29 (Injun 1) to 1968.08.08 (Explorer 40). Radiation decay data satellite. May also have been a cover for some NRL ELINT satellites.

Insat 1.

  • Indian communications satellite. 5 launches, 1981.06.19 (Apple) to 1990.06.12 (Insat-1D; Insat 1D). Experimental communications satellite.

Insat 2.

  • Indian communications satellite. 5 launches, 1992.07.09 (Insat-2A) to 1999.04.02 (Insat 2E).

Insat 3.

  • Indian communications satellite bus. Operational, first launch 2000.03.21. The multipurpose satellite design provided telecommunications, television broadcasting, meteorological and search and rescue services.

INSATRAC.

  • American military anti-satellite system. Study 1965. Follow-on to SAINT anti-satellite. No information available beyond the name.

Inspector.

  • German logistics spacecraft. One launch, 1997.10.05, X-Mir Inspector. Robotic spacecraft designed for free flight and camera inspection of the exterior of the Space Shuttle or International Space Station.

Instrument Unit.

  • Alternate designation for S-IVB IU manned space station module.

Intasat.

  • Spanish communications technology satellite. One launch, 1974.11.15. Spanish communications satellite.

Integral.

  • European gamma ray astronomy satellite. One launch, 2002.10.17. INTEGRAL (INTErnational Gamma Ray Astrophysics Laboratory) was a European (ESA) astrophysics satellite. The four-ton (with fuel) cylindrical (5 m height and 3.

Integrated Cargo Carrier.

  • Alternate designation for ATV ICC space tug.

Integrated Launch and Re-entry Vehicle.

  • Alternate designation for ILRV manned spaceplane.

Integrated Maneuvering Life Support System, 1968.

  • Alternate designation for IMLSS space suit.

Integrated Manned Interplanetary Spacecraft.

  • Alternate designation for IMIS 1968 manned mars expedition.

Integrated Missile Early Warning Satellites.

  • Manufacturer's designation for DSP military early warning satellite.

Integrated Rendezvous Target.

  • Alternate designation for IRT technology satellite.

Intelsat 1.

  • American communications satellite. One launch, 1965.04.06. Intelsat 1, also called Early Bird, was the world's first commercial communications satellite. It provided the first scheduled transoceanic TV service and was operational for 3.5 years.

Intelsat 2.

  • American communications satellite. 4 launches, 1966.10.26 (Intelsat 2 F-1) to 1967.09.28 (Intelsat 2 F-4). The Intelsat 2 series expanded ITSO coverage to include 2/3 of the Earth's surface.

Intelsat 3.

  • American communications satellite. 8 launches, 1968.09.19 (Intelsat-3 F-1) to 1970.07.23 (Intelsat 3 F-8). Intelsat 3 spacecraft were used to relay commercial global telecommunications including live TV.

Intelsat 4.

  • American communications satellite. 8 launches, 1971.01.26 (Intelsat 4 F-2) to 1975.05.22 (Intelsat 4 F-1). The Intelsat 4 series continued the growth of the Intelsat communications network.

Intelsat 4A.

  • American communications satellite. 10 launches, 1975.09.26 (Intelsat 4A F-1) to 1981.02.21 (Comstar 4). Intelsat 4A satellites increased satellite capacity to 7250 voice circuits or 2 TV channels.

Intelsat 5.

  • American communications satellite. 9 launches, 1980.12.06 (Intelsat 5 F-2) to 1984.06.09 (Intelsat 5 F-9). The last five of the nine spacecraft in this block carry a maritime mobile payload (seven additional transponders) for lease by Inmarsat.

Intelsat 5A.

  • American communications satellite. 6 launches, 1985.03.22 (Intelsat 5A F-10) to 1989.01.27 (Intelsat 5A F-15). The Intelsat 5A series was derived from the Intelsat 5.

Interbol.

  • Alternate designation for Prognoz-M earth magnetosphere satellite.

International Space Station.

  • American manned space station. Development from 1994. Assembled in orbit from 1998, with completion expected 2010. In 1987-1993 the Russians successfully assembled and operated the 124-metric ton Mir station.

International Sun-Earth Explorer.

  • Alternate designation for ISEE earth magnetosphere satellite.

International Ultraviolet Explorer..

  • Alternate designation for IUE ultraviolet astronomy satellite.

Interorbital Tug.

  • Russian space tug. Cancelled 1991. Upper stage / space tug - nuclear electric space tug, to be launched by Energia-2. Developed 1978-1991, ultimately cancelled.

Interplanetary Monitoring Platform.

  • Alternate designation for IMP earth magnetosphere satellite.

Ion.

  • American space tug. Study 1990. 1970's conceptual design of ion upper stage sized for use in the shuttle. It was nuclear-electric and intended for trans-Jovian planetary missions

Ionosfernaya.

  • Russian earth ionosphere satellite. 2 launches, 1969.12.27 (Ionosfernaya?) and 1970.12.02 (Cosmos 381). Ionospheric studies. Used the basic KAUR-1 bus, consisting of a 2.

Ionosphere Explorer.

  • Alternate designation for IE earth ionosphere satellite.

IQSY.

  • American solar satellite. One launch, 1965.11.19, Explorer 30. Solar radiation data.

IRAS.

  • American infrared astronomy satellite. 2 launches, 1983.01.26 (IRAS) and (PIX 2). All-sky survey of astronomical IR bodies.

IRDT.

  • Russian manned rescue spacecraft. First launch 2000.02.08. Inflatable re-entry and descent technology vehicle designed to return payloads from space to the earth or another planet. Tested three times, with only one partially successful recovery.

IRS.

  • Indian Remote Sensing Satellite. Operational, first launch 1988.03.17. Remote sensing of the Earth for natural resources management applications.

IRT.

  • American technology satellite. One launch, 1984.02.03. Deployed from STS 41B 2/5/84.

IS.

  • Alternate designation for IS-A military anti-satellite system.

IS-A.

  • Russian military anti-satellite system. 22 launches, 1967.10.27 (Cosmos 185) to 1982.06.18 (Cosmos 1379). First operational ASAT. Tested in 1967-1971 and deployed through the late 1970's. Design as revised by Yangel and Korolev from Chelomei's original.

ISAS.

  • Interstage Adapter Subsystem, consisting of the STAR-37M solid rocket motor, the Interstage Adapter for Clementine, and radiation detectors. It transmitted radiation data on the Van Allen Radiation belts for three months. American military technology satellite. One launch, 1994.01.25.

ISEE.

  • American earth magnetosphere satellite. 3 launches, 1977.10.22 (ISEE 1) to 1978.08.12 (ISEE 3). These Explorer-class heliocentric spacecraft were part of the mother/daughter/heliocentric mission (ISEE 1, 2, and 3).

Isinglass.

  • American manned spaceplane. Study 1965. CIA air-launched, rocket-powered high speed manned vehicle project of 1965-1968 that developed basic technologies used in later shuttle and reusable launch vehicle programs.

Isis.

  • Canadian earth magnetosphere satellite. 2 launches, 1969.01.30 (Isis 1) and 1971.04.01 (Isis 2). Ionospheric measurements; data correlated with measurements from Alouette 1.

Iskra.

  • Russian amateur radio communications satellite. 3 launches, 1981.07.10 (Iskra) to 1982.11.18 (Iskra 3). Launched from Salyut 7 airlock. Conduct of experiments in the field of amateur radio communications.

IS-MU.

  • Russian military anti-satellite system. Reportedly deployed in 1990. Improved modernized ASAT/ABM. Reportedly deployed in 1980's without flight test, replacing IS-A. Accepted into military service in 1991.

ISO.

  • European infrared astronomy satellite. One launch, 1995.11.17. Infrared astrophysics.

IS-P.

  • Russian military anti-satellite system target satellite. 4 launches, 1968.04.24 (Cosmos 217) to 1970.10.20 (Cosmos 373). ASAT Target, launched by R-36. Evidently a derivative of the first IS-A ASAT itself.

ISS Columbus Orbiting Facility.

  • European manned space station. Launched 2008.02.07. In October 1993, ESA decided to further slash its overall budget by a combined $4.8 billion in 1994-2000. The Columbus space station module survived, but in a reduced form.

ISS Commercial Enterprise Module.

  • American manned space station module. Study 1999. The Russian economic crisis provided some intriguing opportunities for private industry.

ISS Destiny.

  • American manned space station module. Launched 2001. American ISS module, a cylindrical structure that functioned as a science and technology module and the primary control module for the ISS.

ISS EMU.

  • American space suit, operational 1993. Upgraded version of the Shuttle EMU with improved sizing and mobility, 25 EVA certification, Hamilton Standard and ILC Dover.

ISS Leonardo.

  • American manned space station module. need summary - see links

ISS Mini PLM.

  • American manned space station module. Study 1992.

ISS MPLM.

  • American manned space station reusable supply module. Launched and returned to earth, 2001-2011. When the International Space Station (ISS) was redesigned again in 1993, it was decided to expand the original Mini-Pressurized Logistics Module design.

ISS Pirs.

  • Russian manned space station module. One launch, 2001.09.14. Russian docking and airlock module for the International Space Station. The Stikovochniy Otsek No. 1 (SO1, Docking Module 1), article 240GK No.

ISS Quest Joint Airlock.

  • American manned space station module. One launch, 2001.07.12. The Quest Joint Airlock was delivered to the ISS by STS-104 and installed onto the Unity module.

ISS Russian Science and Power Platform.

  • Russian manned space station module. Cancelled 1994. The RSPP was originally going to be launched on six Russian Proton rockets fairly early during the ISS assembly phase.

ISS Space Station Remote Manipulator System.

  • Canadian manned space station module. One launch, 2001.02.07. When the Space Station plan was changed in 1987, its satellite servicing element was postponed indefinitely.

ISS Space Telescope.

  • American visible astronomy satellite. Study 1988. The Space Station's free-flying unmanned platforms were all deleted in 1987-90 to compensate for the budget cuts. However, some of them may yet be reintroduced in the 21st century.

ISS Unity.

  • American manned space station. One launch, 1998.10.29, Unity. Unity was the first U.S.-built component of the International Space Station.

ISS Zarya.

  • Russian manned space station. One launch, 1998.11.20, Zarya.

ISS Zvezda.

  • Russian manned space station. One launch, 2000.07.12, Zvezda. The Zvezda service module of the International Space Station had its origins a quarter century before it was launched.

IS-T.

  • Alternate designation for IS-P military anti-satellite system target satellite.

ISZ.

  • Alternate designation for Sputnik 3 earth magnetosphere satellite.

Italsat.

  • Italian communications satellite. 6 launches, 1991.01.15 (Italsat 1) to 2009-04-20.

Ithacus.

  • American manned spacecraft. Study 1966. Adaptation of Phillip Bono's enormous ROMBUS plug-nozzle semi-single-stage-orbit launch vehicle as a 1,200 soldier intercontinental troop transport.

ITOS.

  • American earth weather satellite. 8 launches, 1970.01.23 (ITOS 1) to 1976.07.29 (NOAA 5). ITOS was the follow-on to the TIROS series of polar-orbiting US weather satellites, and marked the beginning of the use of the NOAA designator.

ITV.

  • American military anti-satellite system target satellite. 4 launches, 1985.12.13 (USA 13) to (ITV 1 Balloon). Instrumented Target Vehicle - a satellite balloon target for tests of the American F-15 launched ASAT anti-satellite missile.

IUE.

  • American ultraviolet astronomy satellite. One launch, 1978.01.26.

JAG Mars Flyby 1966.

  • American manned Mars flyby. Study 1966. Final NASA attempt to mount a manned Mars flyby mission by 1975 using Apollo hardware. It took the best elements of the NASA Huntsville and Douglas concepts of 1965, requiring only four Saturn V launches.

JAK.

  • American technology satellite, launched, 2000.01.27. Three picosatellites (JAK, Thelma, and Louise), developed by the Artemis team of women undergraduates at Santa Clara University, were deployed from the OPAL satellite.

Janus.

  • American manned spaceplane. Study 1965. This TRW design of 1965 used a unique concept - a lifting body main stage, that provided both ascent propulsion and re-entry protection.

Japanese Earth Resources Satellite.

  • Alternate designation for JERS earth land resources satellite.

Japanese Ionosphere Sounding Satellite.

  • Alternate designation for JISS earth ionosphere satellite.

Japanese Space Plane.

  • Japanese manned spacecraft. Study 1995. NAL / Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd. design for a single stage to orbit spaceplane. Crew of ten, empty mass 110 metric tons. LACE / Scramjet engines, 29 m wingspan.

Jason.

  • French earth sea satellite. 2 launches, 2001.12.07 (Jason 1) and 2008.06.20 (Jason 2). Jason was a joint mission between CNES (the French space agency) and NASA/JPL, carrying the same type of sea surface altimeter used on NASA's Topex satellite.

JAWSAT.

  • American technology satellite. One launch, 2000.01.27. The JAWSAT/FalconSat payloads are being developed as a joint effort between the Air Force Academy and Weber State University.

JAXA SDS.

  • Japanese technology satellite. One launch, 2009.01.23, SDS-1. JAXA Small Demonstration Satellite, a microsatellite with a camera, GPS receiver and sun sensor.

JERS.

  • Japanese earth land resources satellite. One launch, 1992.02.11. JERS-1 (Japanese Research Satellite-1; FUYO-1) was Japan's second Earth observation satellite.

JISS.

  • Japanese earth ionosphere satellite. 2 launches, 1976.02.29 (ISS 1) to 1978.02.16 (ISS 2). JISS - national name "Ume". Spin-stabilized; Ionospheric Sounder, Radio Noise Receiver, Plasma Measuring Equipment, Ion Mass Spectrometer, and other instruments.

JSC Moon Base 1984.

  • American manned lunar base. Study 1984. In 1984 a Johnson Space Center team lad by Barney Roberts took NASA's first look at a return to the moon after the shuttle was in service.

JSSW.

  • Chinese military surveillance satellite. 6 launches, 1973.09.18 (JSSW 1) to 1976.11.10 (JSSW 6). Mysterious early Chinese satellite, orbited by the cancelled FB-1 launch vehicle.

Jules Verne.

  • Alternate designation for ATV space station logistics spacecraft.

Jumpseat.

  • American military naval signals reconnaisance satellite. 7 launches, 1971.03.21 (Jumpseat 1) to 1983.07.31 (Jumpseat 7). Jumpseat signals intelligence satellites were launched by Titan 3B or 34B into highly elliptic Molniya-type orbits.

Jumpseat-2.

  • American military naval signals reconnaisance satellite. 2 launches, 2006.06.25 (USA 200) to 2008.03.13 (USA 200).

Junkers 'Junior'.

  • German manned rocketplane. Flown 1936. Early German rocketplane.

Juno.

Jupiter nose cone.

  • American re-entry vehicle technology satellite. One launch, 1964.01.29, Saturn 5. Launch vehicle test.

K.

  • Alternate designation for Kosmoplan mars orbiter.

Kagayaki.

  • Japanese technology satellite. One launch, 2009.01.23. Technology satellite built by Sorun Corporation, Tokyo, with several technology payloads.

Kaguya.

  • Japanese lunar orbiter. Launched 2007.09.14.

Kaitsat.

  • Manufacturer's designation for Kitsat technology satellite.

Kakehashi.

  • Japanese communications satellite. One launch, 1998.02.21. Name means 'Bridge', was called Communications and Broadcasting Experimental Test Satellite (COMETS) before launch. It contained Ka-band communications and inter-satellite data relay payloads.

Kankoh Maru.

  • Japanese manned spacecraft. Study 1995. Kawasaki design for single stage to orbit reusable booster. Would carry 50 passengers to orbiting hotels or fast intercontinental flights.

KE ASAT.

  • American military anti-satellite system. Study 1989. In 1989 the US Army began a demonstration/validation program to develop a direct ascent kinetic energy ASAT for US forces.

Kehlet Lenticular Vehicle.

  • American manned spaceplane. Study 1961. Alan B. Kehlet of NASA's Space Task Group New Projects Panel, worked at NASA Langley and first conceived of his lenticular manned spacecraft design in 1959.

Kennan.

  • Alternate designation for KH-11 military surveillance satellite.

Kepler.

  • Kepler

KH-1.

  • American military surveillance satellite. 22 launches, 1959.01.21 (Thor Agena test) to 1960.09.13 (Discoverer 15). First US film reconnaissance satellite, and first polar orbiting satellite.

KH-11.

  • American military surveillance satellite. 9 launches, 1976.12.19 (KH-11 no. 1) to 1988.11.06 (USA 33). Also known as Kennan, Program 1010. Used systems developed for KH-10 Manned Orbiting Laboratory.

KH-11B.

  • Manufacturer's designation for Improved Crystal military surveillance satellite.

KH-12.

KH-2.

  • American military surveillance satellite. 10 launches, 1960.10.26 (SRV 506) to 1961.08.04 (SRV 512). Early US reconnaissance satellite. Carried one 'C-Prime' panoramic camera, with a focal length of 61 cm and a ground resolution of 9 m.

KH-3.

  • American military surveillance satellite. 12 launches, 1961.08.30 (Discoverer 29) to 1962.01.13 (SRV 571). Early US reconnaissance satellite. Carried one 'C-Double Prime' panoramic camera, with a focal length of 61 cm and a ground resolution of 7.6 m.

KH-4.

  • American military surveillance satellite. 31 launches, 1962.02.27 (Discoverer 38) to 1963.12.21 (KH-4 9062). Early US reconnaissance satellite. Carried two 'Mural' panoramic cameras, with a focal length of 61 cm, and a ground resolution of 7.6 m.

KH-4A.

  • American military surveillance satellite. 70 launches, 1963.08.25 (KH-4A 1001) to 1969.09.22 (SRV 743R). Early US reconnaissance satellite. Carried two 'J-1' panoramic cameras, with a focal length of 61 cm, and a ground resolution of 2.7 m.

KH-4B.

  • American military surveillance satellite. 24 launches, 1967.09.15 (KH-4B 1101) to 1972.05.25 (KH-4B 1117). Early US reconnaissance satellite. Carried two 'J-3' panoramic cameras, with a focal length of 61 cm, and a ground resolution of 1.8 m.

KH-5.

  • American military surveillance satellite. 16 launches, 1961.02.17 (Discoverer 20) to 1964.08.21 (KH-5 9066A). US mapping satellite. Carried one frame camera, with a focal length of 76 mm, and a ground resolution of 140 m.

KH-6.

  • American military surveillance satellite. 3 launches, 1963.03.18 (KH-6 8001) to 1963.07.31 (KH 4A-07). US reconnaissance satellite, lashed together to meet an emergency requirement for close-up imaging of a suspected Soviet ICBM site near Tallinn.

KH-7.

  • American military surveillance satellite. 43 launches, 1963.07.12 (KH 7-01 (Gambit)) to 1967.06.04 (KH 7-38). US reconnaissance satellite. Still classified. Camera believed to have ground resolution of 0.46 m. Film returned in two capsules.

KH-8.

  • American military surveillance satellite. 61 launches, 1966.07.29 (OPS 3014) to 1984.04.17 (OPS 8424). Longest-lived and last US film-return reconnaissance satellite. Ground resolution 0.5 m. Film returned in two capsules. Typical life 50 days.

KH-9.

  • American military surveillance satellite. 26 launches, 1971.06.15 (KH-9 no. 01 (Big Bird)) to 1986.04.18 (SRV-4). Popularly known as 'Big Bird'. Titan 3C-class film-return reconnaissance satellite.

Kirari.

  • Japanese communications satellite. One launch, 2005.08.23. Optical Inter-Orbit Communications Engineering Test Satellite. Its laser communications experiment was be used in with ESA's Artemis geostationary satellite.

Kistler OV.

  • American space tug. Study 2012. The Kistler reusable launch vehicle concept included a reusable, recoverable second stage, dubbed the 'Orbital Vehicle', with an integral cargo module.

Kitsat.

  • South Korean technology satellite. 2 launches, 1993.09.26 (Oscar 23) to 1999.05.26 (Kitsat-3). South Korean indigenous 50-kg-class small satellite series, developed originally with technology transfer from Surrey Satellite Technology Ltd.

Kitten.

  • American manned spaceplane. Study 2004. X-Prize suborbital rocketplane concept of Kittyhawk of Oroville, Washington.

Kizuna.

  • Japanese communications satellite. One launch, 2008.02.23.

KK.

  • Russian manned Mars expedition. Study 1966. Work on the TMK project continued, including trajectory trade-off studies and refinement of the design.

KKO-15.

  • Russian pressure suit, operational 1989. Protective partial pressure suit was used by pilots of Russian high-performance combat aircraft. It featured better performance and G-protection than earlier models .

KKO-3.

  • Russian pressure suit, operational 1955. The KKO-3 was the first mass-produced Soviet partial pressure suit. It was very similar to the US MC-3 of the same period.

KKO-5.

  • Russian pressure suit, operational 1961. The KKO-5 partial pressure suit was introduced for pilots of Mach 2 aircraft such as the MiG-21 and Su-9 at the beginning of the 1960's. It represented the largest production run of any pressure suit model.

KKS.

  • Japanese military surveillance radar satellite. One launch, 2009.01.23. Picosatellite built by Kouku-kosen, the Tokyo Metropolitan College of Aeronautical Engineering, carrying an Earth imager.

KLE Complex Lunar Expedition.

  • Russian manned lunar base. Chelomei's design for a lunar base, studied 1964 to 1974 as a UR-700-launched predecessor or alternative to Barmin's DLB.

Kliper.

  • Russian manned spaceplane. Study 2004. The Kliper manned spacecraft replacement for Soyuz was first announced at a Moscow news conference on 17 February 2004.

Kobalt.

  • Code name for Yantar-4K2 military surveillance satellite.

Kodama.

  • Alternate designation for DRTS communications satellite.

Kolibor.

  • Russian earth seismology satellite. Study 1998. The Kolibor microsatellite platform of KB Arsenal was a universal development of that designed for the Predvestnik earthquake monitoring system.

Kolibri.

  • Russian technology satellite. One launch, 2002.03.19. Kolibri was a joint Russian-Australian educational project to allow school children to monitor low frequency waves and particle fluxes in low orbit.

Koltso.

  • Russian military target satellite. One launch, 1986.10.22, Cosmos 1786. Calibration mission. Tentatively identified as third generation replacement for Taifun-2, perhaps to have been launched by the Tsyklon 3 launch vehicle.

Kometa.

  • Manufacturer's designation for Yantar-1KFT military surveillance satellite.

Kompas.

  • Russian earth seismology satellite. 2 launches, 2001.12.10 (Kompas) and 2006.05.26 (Kompas).

KOMPSAT.

  • South Korean communications technology satellite. One launch, 1999.12.21. KOMPSAT was the first joint spacecraft development project for the South Korean aerospace agency KARI (Korea Aerospace Research Institute).

KOMPSAT-2.

  • South Korean civilian surveillance satellite. One launch, 2006.07.28, Kompsat 2.

Kondor.

  • Russian communications satellite. Study 1997. The Khrunichev State Space Research and Production Center (including the Salyut Design Bureau), proposed the Kondor communications system for mobile users.

Konus-A.

  • Russian gamma ray astronomy satellite. Study 1995. The Konus-A scientific satellite was developed in 1995-1997 for the Russian Academy of Science and flown as Cosmos 2326.

Konvert.

  • Russian communications satellite. Study 1995. The Elas Scientific Production Association was a principal participant in the proposed Kuryer communications system of Konvert spacecraft.

Korea Multi-Purpose Satellite.

  • Alternate designation for KOMPSAT communications technology satellite.

Korolev Rocket Plane.

  • Russian manned rocketplane. Study 1938. Korolev was already sketching rocketplanes similar to the Me-163 before World War II. This was one concept from his sketchbook.

Korund.

  • Code name for Molniya-1T military communications satellite.

Kosmoplan.

  • Russian Mars orbiter. Cancelled 1965. Beginning in the late 1950's, Chelomei began studying use of his encapsulated cruise missile technology for spacecraft. A whole family of unmanned spacecraft, dubbed Kosmoplans, would be built using modular elements.

Krechet.

  • Russian space suit, tested 1969. The Krechet spacesuit was designed by the Zvezda OKB for use on the lunar surface. It consisted of flexible limbs attached to a one-piece rigid body / helmet unit.

Kristall.

  • Russian manned space station. One launch, 1990.05.31. Kristal was a dedicated zero-gravity materials and biological science research module for the Mir space station, launched in January 1990

KRT-10.

  • Soviet . One launch, 1979.06.28. 10 m diameter radio telescope. Attached to Salyut 6 docking hatch and deployed after separation of Progress from Mir.

KRT-25 Radio Telescope.

  • Russian radio astronomy satellite. Study 1990. In collaboration with the European Space Agency, a 25 m diameter space radio telescope was studied for launch by Energia in 2001.

KS.

  • Russian military orbital bombing system. Study 1988. To co-ordinate the actions of multiple space combat units, NPO Energia proposed in the 1980's a KS space station.

KSI.

  • Russian logistics spacecraft. Study 1977. Capsule designed to return film and data materials from the Almaz military space station.

Kukai.

  • Japanese tether technology satellite. One launch, 2009.01.23. Also named STARS, a Kagawa University picosatellite demonstrating a tethered space robot. It consisted of two tethered box-shaped packages, dubbed Ku and Kai.

Kupon.

  • Russian military communications satellite. One launch, 1997.11.12. Kupon was originally developed by Lavochkin for the third generation GKKRS (Global Space Command and Communications System). Other satellites in the network included Potok and Geizer.

Kuryer.

  • Alternate designation for Konvert communications satellite.

Kvant.

  • Russian manned space station. One launch, 1987.03.31 (Kvant 1). The Kvant spacecraft represented the first use of a new kind of Soviet space station module, designated 37K.

Kvant AM.

  • Russian manned space station module. One launch, 1987.03.31 (Kvant 1). Space station module astrophysics.

Kvant FGB.

  • Russian manned spacecraft module. One launch, 1987.03.31 (Kvant 1). Used only once, tug docked Kvant module to station, then separated and was commanded to destructive reentry over Pacific Ocean. Space station module tug.

Kvant-2.

  • Russian manned space station. One launch, 1989.11.26, Kvant 2. Kvant-2 was a utility module launched to the Mir station. It provided an airlock, additional electric power, and additional gyrodynes for orienting the station.

KVRB.

  • Russian space tug. Study 1992. Upper stage / space tug - design 1992. High energy upper stage for Proton, never put into production.

Kwangmyongsong.

  • North Korean communications technology satellite. One launch, 1998.08.31. Payload of the first attempted North Korean satellite launch.

L1-1960.

  • Russian manned lunar flyby spacecraft. Study 1960. Circumlunar manned spacecraft proposed by Korolev in January 1960. The L1 would a man on a loop around the moon and back to earth by 1964.

L1-1962.

  • Russian manned lunar flyby spacecraft. Study 1962. Early design that would lead to Soyuz. A Vostok-Zh manned tug would assemble rocket stages in orbit. It would then return, and a Soyuz L1 would dock with the rocket stack and be propelled toward the moon.

L2-1963.

  • Russian lunar rover. Study 1963. The L2 was a project to land a remote-controlled self-propelled rover on the surface of the moon. It was described in a 23 September 1963 letter setting out the space exploration plan for 1965 to 1975.

L2-9K-11K-13K.

  • Manufacturer's designation for L2-1963 lunar rover.

L3.

  • Russian manned lunar expedition. Development begun in 1964. All hardware was test flown, but program cancelled in 1974 due to repeated failures of the project's N1 launch vehicle.

L3-1963.

  • Russian manned lunar lander. Study 1963. Korolev's original design for a manned lunar landing spacecraft was described in September 1963 and was designed to make a direct lunar landing using the earth orbit rendezvous method.

L3M.

  • Russian manned lunar base. Study 1970-1972. Follow-on to the L3, a two N1-launch manned lunar expedition designed and developed in the Soviet Union between 1969 and 1974.

L3M-1970.

  • Russian manned lunar lander. Study 1970. The first design of the L3M lunar lander had the crew of two accommodated in a Soyuz capsule atop the lander.

L3M-1972.

  • Russian manned lunar lander. Study 1972. Revised L3M design of the L3M lunar lander for use with the Block Sr crasher stage. The Soyuz return capsule was completely enclosed in a pressurized 'hangar'.

L4.

  • Manufacturer's designation for L4-1963 manned lunar orbiter.

L4-1960.

  • Russian manned lunar orbiter. Study 1960. Lunar orbiter proposed by Korolev in January 1960. The spacecraft was to take 2 to 3 men to lunar orbit and back to earth by 1965.

L4-1963.

  • Russian manned lunar orbiter. Study 1963. The L-4 Manned Lunar Orbiter Research Spacecraft would have taken two to three cosmonauts into lunar orbit for an extended survey and mapping mission.

L5-1963.

  • Russian manned lunar rover. Study 1963. The L-5 Heavy Lunar Self-Propelled Craft would be used for extended manned reconnaissance of the lunar surface.

L5-1967.

  • Russian manned lunar lander. Study 1967. At a Lunar Soviet meeting in October 1967 preliminary agreement was reached to study a follow-on to the first N1-L3 lunar landings. A new N1 model was to be developed to launch a new 'L5' spacecraft.

Laboratorno-zhiloy modul'.

  • Alternate designation for LZhM manned lunar habitat.

Laboratory Module.

  • Alternate designation for MOL LM manned space station module.

Laboroatorno-zavodskoy modul'.

  • Alternate designation for LZM manned lunar habitat.

LACE.

  • American military strategic defense satellite. One launch, 1990.02.14, USA 51. The Low-power Atmospheric Compensation Experiment was part of a dual payload with RME carrying laser defense experiments.

Lacrosse.

  • American military side-looking radar all-weather surveillance radar satellite. Operational, first launch 1988.12.02.

LAGEOS.

  • American earth geodetic satellite. 2 launches, 1976.05.04 (Lageos) and 1992.10.22 (Lageos 2). The LAGEOS satellites were passive vehicles covered with retroreflectors designed to reflect laser beams transmitted from ground stations.

Lagrangian Interplanetary Shuttle Vehicle.

  • American manned Mars expedition. Study 1985. A Lagrangian approach to Mars exploration was proposed in June 1985. This would use the L1 sunward point of equal Earth/Moon/Sun gravity to assemble and refuel a large Interplanetary Shuttle Vehicle spacecraft.

LAMPO.

  • American military target satellite. One launch, 1963.08.29.

Landsat 1-2-3.

  • American earth land resources satellite. 3 launches, 1972.07.23 (Landsat 1) to 1978.03.05 (Landsat 3). The first 3 Landsat missions were also known as the Earth Resources Technology Satellite (ERTS) series.

Landsat 4-5.

  • American earth land resources satellite. 2 launches, 1982.07.16 (Landsat 4) to 1984.03.01 (Landsat 5).

Landsat 6.

  • American earth land resources satellite. One launch, 1993.10.05. Landsat 6 was designed to continue the Landsat program and carried an improved suite of instruments.

Landsat 7.

  • American earth land resources satellite. One launch, 1999.04.15.

Lantern.

  • Alternate designation for Mesbah technology satellite.

Lantern-2.

  • Alternate designation for Mesbah-2 civilian store-dump communications satellite.

LANTR Moon Base.

  • American manned lunar base. Study 1997. Liquid oxygen mined from the moon combined with a LOX-Augmented Nuclear Thermal Rocket earth-to-moon shuttle to achieve dramatic reductions in launch requirements for a lunar base.

Larets.

  • Russian . One launch, 2003.09.27. No information publicly released. TASS claimed this was a radar calibration satellite.

LAser GEOdynamics Satellite.

  • Alternate designation for LAGEOS earth geodetic satellite.

LBSAT.

  • Spanish communications technology satellite. One launch, 1995.07.07, UPM/LBSAT 1. Universidad Politecnia de Madrid Satellite; experimental communications, microgravity experiments.

LB-X.

  • American manned spaceplane. Study 2004. X-Prize suborbital spaceplane concept of Kelly Space & Technology, San Bernardino, California.

LCS.

  • American military target satellite. 3 launches, 1965.05.06 (LCS 1) to 1971.08.07 (LCS 4). Aluminum sphere used for radar calibration.

LDEF.

  • American earth micrometeoroid satellite. One launch, 1984.04.06.

LDREX.

  • Japanese communications technology satellite. 2 launches, 2000.12.20 (LDREX) and 2006.10.13 (LDREX). Japan's NASDA space agency sponsored the LDREX experimental antenna.

LEAP.

  • American manned lunar flyer. Study 1961. LEAP was an early 1960's British design for getting disabled astronauts on the lunar surface quickly to lunar orbit for ferrying home.

Leased Satellite.

  • Alternate designation for HS 381 military communications satellite.

LEH Helmet.

  • American space wear, operational 1981. US Space Shuttle crews on operational flights (STS-5 through Mission 51-L) wore no special protective pressure garments.

LEK.

  • Russian manned lunar lander. Study 1973. Lunar lander for the Vulkan surface base. As in the original LK lunar lander, this would be taken to near zero velocity near the lunar surface by the Vulkan Block V 'lunar crasher' rocket stage.

LEK Lunar Expeditionary Complex.

  • Russian manned lunar base. Cancelled 1974. Although the N1, L3, and DLB projects were cancelled, Glushko still considered the establishment of a moon base to be a primary goal for his country.

LEK PS.

  • Russian manned spacecraft module. Study 1973. Descent stage very similar in appearance to that of Apollo LM, with same function - descent from lunar orbit to landing of crewed module on surface of moon. Landing stage - Carry LEK ascent stage from lunar orbit to lunar surface; act as launching platform for LEK ascent stage..

LEK SA.

  • Russian manned spacecraft module. Study 1973. Descent module was contained within pressurized cabin of LEK ascent stage. Crew may have entered hatch in heat shield. Landing apparatus - Reentry capsule for crew and lunar samples..

LEK VS.

  • Russian manned spacecraft module. Study 1973. Ascent stage, carried a crew of three from the lunar surface to trans-earth trajectory. Contained within the pressurized cabin was a Soyuz descent module for reentry by the crew into the earth's atmosphere. Ascent stage - Carry crew and Soyuz descent module from lunar surface to trans-earth trajectory. Provide crew quarters and midcourse corrections during return journey from lunar surface to earth..

LEM.

  • Manufacturer's designation for Apollo LM manned lunar lander.

LES.

  • American communications technology satellite. 8 launches, 1965.02.11 (LES 1) to 1976.03.15 (LES 9).

LESA Lunar Base.

  • American manned lunar base. Cancelled 1968. LESA (Lunar Exploration System for Apollo) represented the ultimate lunar base concept studied by NASA prior to the cancellation of further Saturn V production in June 1968.

LESA Shelter.

  • American manned lunar habitat. Study 1966. LESA (Lunar Exploration System for Apollo) was an advanced lunar surface shelter.

LEV.

  • American manned lunar lander. Study 1989. The Lunar Excursion Vehicle (LEV) figured in numerous NASA studies of the 1980's and 1990's.

Lewis.

  • American earth land resources satellite. One launch, 1997.08.23. Lewis was selected in the NASA SSTI (Small Spacecraft Technology Initiative) program, along with Clark, to demonstrate advanced spacecraft technologies.

LFV Bell.

  • American manned lunar flyer. Study 1965. Bell Aerosystems designed a rocket-propelled Lunar Flying Vehicle (LFV) to aid Apollo astronauts in their exploration of the moon.

LFV North American.

  • American manned lunar flyer. Cancelled 1969. The North American design for a Lunar Flying Vehicle would have taken one astronaut and up to 167 kg of cargo to a distance of 3. 2 to 8.5 km from a lunar landing site in minutes, at a maximum speed of 85 m/s.

L-I.

  • Alternate designation for LLV L-I manned spacecraft module.

Liberator.

  • American manned spacecraft. Study 2004. X-Prize suborbital ballistic spacecraft concept of HARC, Huntsville, Alabama.

Libra.

  • Code name for NOSS-3 military naval signals reconnaisance satellite.

Lifting Body Escape Concept.

  • Alternate designation for Northrop LBEC manned rescue spacecraft.

Light Utility Rover.

  • American manned lunar rover. Study 1990. In 1990, Boeing Advanced Civil Space Systems performed an Advanced Civil Space Systems Piloted Rover Technology Assessment Study, which considered both a large pressurized and a small unpressurized rover.

L-II.

  • Alternate designation for LLV L-II manned spacecraft module.

LII Spaceplane.

  • Russian manned spaceplane. Study 1993. LII (the Gromov Experimental Flight Institute at Zhukovskiy) designed several alternate spaceplane concepts for air-launch from the An-225 transport. These were similar to the various MAKS concepts.

Lincoln Experimental Satellite.

  • Alternate designation for LES communications technology satellite.

Lines of non-extension suit.

  • American pressure suit, tested 1955. Developmental partial pressure suit concept by Arthur S Iberall while at the Rand Corporation.

LIPS.

  • American tether technology satellite. 3 launches, 1980.12.09 (LIPS 1) to 1987.05.15 (LIPS 3).

Lira.

  • Code name for Tyulpan and DS-P1-M military anti-satellite system target satellites.

Litton Suit - 1958.

LK.

  • Russian manned lunar lander. 3 launches, 1970.11.24 (Cosmos 379) to 1971.08.12 (Cosmos 434). The LK ('Lunniy korabl' - lunar craft) was the Soviet lunar lander - the Russian counterpart of the American LM Lunar Module.

LK Energia.

  • Russian manned lunar lander. Study 1988. Lunar lander for Energia-launched lunar expedition. The LOK and LK lander would be inserted into lunar orbit by separate Energia launches.

LK Energia PS.

  • Russian manned spacecraft module. Study 1988. Descent stage similar in appearance to Apollo LM and LEK stages, but of differing dimensions. Descent from lunar orbit to lunar surface, launch platform for ascent stage..

LK Energia VS.

  • Russian manned spacecraft module. Study 1988. Although similar in appearance to LEK ascent stage, 80% smaller and no descent module for reentry into earth's atmosphere. Ascent from lunar surface to lunar orbit, dock with LOK Energia..

LK-1.

  • Russian manned lunar flyby spacecraft. Cancelled 1965. The LK-1 was the spacecraft designed by Chelomei for the original Soviet manned lunar flyby project.

LK-1 PAO.

  • Russian manned spacecraft module. Cancelled 1965. Calculated masses, specific impulse based on mission requirements and drawing of spacecraft. Equipment-engine section.

LK-1 VA.

  • Russian manned spacecraft module. Cancelled 1965. Total internal volume 8.37 m3. Assumes capsule was similar to TKS VA. Reentry Capsule.

LK-3.

  • Russian manned lunar lander. Reached mock-up stage, 1972. The LK-3 was Chelomei's preliminary design for a direct-landing alternative to Korolev's L3 manned lunar landing design.

LK-700.

  • Russian manned lunar lander. Chelomei's direct-landing alternative to Korolev's L3 manned lunar landing design. Developed at a low level 1964 to 1974, reaching mockup and component test stage.

LK-700 Block 1.

  • Russian manned spacecraft module. Study 1968. Three identical stages of 34,491 kg each clustered around the core. Translunar Injection Stage.

LK-700 Block 11.

  • Russian manned spacecraft module. Study 1968. Differed from the lateral Block 1 stages in having an engine unit for orientation of the assembly. Main engine of 23,500 kgf and three engines for soft landing / midcourse maneuvers of 1,670 kgf each. Midcourse manoeuvre/lunar braking stage.

LK-700 Block 111.

  • Russian manned spacecraft module. Study 1968. Soft Landing Stage.

LK-700 Block 1V.

  • Russian manned spacecraft module. Study 1968. Main engine of 13,400 kgf and three engines for soft landing / midcourse maneuvers of 1,670 kgf each. Trans-earth injection / midcourse manoeuvre stage.

LK-700 VA.

  • Russian manned spacecraft module. Study 1968. VA Re-entry Capsule.

LKA.

LKS.

  • Russian manned spaceplane. Mock-up stage when cancelled in 1983. The LKS was a Chelomei design for a reusable manned winged spacecraft, similar to the later European Hermes spaceplane.

LL.

  • Russian manned rocketplane. Flown 1945. The LL was a transonic aerodynamic testbed authorized by LII in September 1945. Three were built: the LL-1 with a straight wing; LL-2 with a conventional swept wing; and LL-3 with a forward swept wing.

LLV.

  • American lunar logistics spacecraft. Study 1966. Many versions of new Lunar Logistic Vehicles (LLV's) using several possible candidate propellants were studied by NASA and its contractors in the mid-1960's for post-Apollo lunar base support.

LLV L-I.

  • American manned spacecraft module. Study 1966. Lunar Orbit Insertion stage for placing LLV into lunar orbit. Propulsion 2 x RL10-A3 with N2O4/MMH thrusters for orientation, midcourse, and ullage. Lunar orbit insertion of Lunar Logistics Vehicle lander and payload.

LLV L-II.

  • American manned spacecraft module. Study 1966. Landing stage for delivery of up to 13,400 kg payload from lunar orbit to lunar surface. Propulsion 2 x RL10-A3 with N2O4/MMH thrusters for orientation, midcourse, and ullage. Delivery of lunar base elements from lunar orbit to lunar surface.

LM 100.

LM 700.

  • American communications satellite. 98 launches, 1997.05.05 (Iridium 8) to 2002.06.20 (Iridium SV98 ). The LM 700 had its first use in the Iridium system, a commercial communications network comprised of a minimum of 66 LEO spacecraft.

LM Adapter Surface Station.

  • Alternate designation for Apollo LASS manned lunar habitat.

LM Ascent Propulsion.

  • LM Ascent Propulsion Development Diary

LM Communications.

  • LM Communications Development Diary

LM Crew Station.

  • LM Crew Station Development Diary

LM Descent Propulsion.

  • LM Descent Propulsion Development Diary

LM ECS.

  • LM ECS Development Diary

LM Electrical.

  • LM Electrical Development Diary

LM Guidance.

  • LM Guidance Development Diary

LM Hatch.

  • LM Hatch Development Diary

LM Lab.

LM Landing Gear.

  • LM Landing Gear Development Diary

LM Langley Light.

  • American manned lunar lander. Study 1961. This early open-cab single-crew Langley lunar lander design used storable propellants, resulting in an all-up mass of 4,372 kg.

LM Langley Lighter.

  • American manned lunar lander. Study 1961. This early open-cab Langley design used cryogenic propellants. The cryogenic design was estimated to gross 3,284 kg - to be compared with the 15,000 kg / 2 man LM design that eventually was selected.

LM Langley Lightest.

  • American manned lunar lander. Study 1961. Extremely light-weight open-cab lunar module design considered in early Langley studies.

LM Mode Debate.

  • LM Mode Debate Diary

LM Original Specification.

  • LM Original Specification Development Diary

LM RCS.

  • LM RCS Development Diary

LM Shelter.

LM Simulator.

  • LM Simulator Development Diary

LM Source Selection.

  • LM Source Selection Diary

LM Structural.

  • LM Structural Development Diary

LM Taxi.

LM Television.

  • LM Television Development Diary

LM Truck.

LM Weight.

  • LM Weight Development Diary

LMI.

  • Russian communications satellite. One launch, 1999.09.26. Lockheed Martin Intersputnik's LMI-1 satellite was a joint Russian-American venture. LMI-1 provided communications services to Eastern Europe and Central Asia.

LO.

  • Russian manned space station. Study 1984. A later version of the 37K design for civilian experiments, the LO Laboratory Compartment, would be retained in the payload bay of Buran and connected to the orbiter's cockpit area by an access tunnel.

Local Scientific Survey Module.

  • Alternate designation for LSSM manned lunar habitat.

Lockheed 1963 Space Station.

  • American manned space station. Study 1963. Lockheed made an unsolicited proposal to NASA in 1963 for an ambitious space station project. The elements would be launched by Saturn I, as would the 'Astrocommuter' shuttle.

Lockheed 1963 Space Tug.

  • American space tug. Study 1963. Lockheed proposed a space tug to service its 1963 space station.

Lockheed EEOED.

  • American manned rescue spacecraft. Study 1966. Lockheed's EEOED was a three-crew Discovery-type re-entry vehicle.

Lockheed Project 7969.

  • American manned spacecraft. Study 1958. Lockheed's proposal for the Air Force initial manned space project was a 20 degree semiapex angle cone with a hemispherical tip of 30 cm radius. The pilot was in a sitting position facing rearward.

Lockheed RTTOCV.

  • American manned spaceplane. Study 1963. In 1962 NASA funded studies with several contractors on Operations and Logistics for Space Stations.

Lockheed Space Taxi.

  • American manned spaceplane. Study 1963. Lockheed investigated the economics of reusable launch vehicles for crews and light space station cargo during the early 1960s. Lockheed proposed a new reusable 10-man spaceplane as a follow-on to the Apollo CSM.

Lofer Mystery Craft.

  • German manned spaceplane. Hardware construction stage, 1945. There exist in US Army postwar files a murky photo of what some think is a large-scale mock-up of the Saenger antipodal bomber, taken in Lofer, Austria after the end of the World War II.

Lofti.

  • American communications technology satellite. 2 launches, 1961.02.22 (Lofti) and 1963.06.15 (Lofti 2A). The Low Frequency Trans-Ionospheric (LOFTI) satellites were produced as a cooperative effort with the Radio Division.

Lofti 2.

  • American earth magnetosphere satellite. One launch, 1962.01.24. Carried 5 satellites.

LOK Energia.

  • Russian manned lunar orbiter. Study 1988. Lunar orbiter for Energia-launched lunar expedition. The LOK and LK lander would be inserted into lunar orbit by separate Energia launches.

LOK Energia PAO.

  • Russian manned spacecraft module. Study 1988. The LOK provided a pressurized volume for three crew. Within the cabin was a descent module of the same configuration as Soyuz, but almost 50% larger. Equipment-engine section - Lunar orbit maneuver, trans-orbit propulsion, pressurized crew quarters..

LOK Energia SA.

  • Russian manned spacecraft module. Study 1988. Descent module of Soyuz configuration but 50% larger dimensionally and nearly twice as heavy. Reentry capsule for crew and lunar samples.

LOK PAO.

  • Russian manned spacecraft module. 2 launches, 1971.06.26 (N-1 6L) to 1972.11.23 (LOK). Unique PAO developed for Soyuz lunar orbiter. Powerful sophisticated engine for lunar orbit rendezvous maneuvers and trans-earth injection. Equipment-engine section.

LOK, T1K.

  • Alternate designation for Soyuz 7K-LOK manned lunar orbiter.

Lombard Suit.

  • American pressure suit, tested 1958. Developmental partial pressure suit developed by Dr. Lombard of Northrop.

Long Duration Exposure Facility.

  • Alternate designation for LDEF earth micrometeoroid satellite.

LORL.

  • American manned space station. Study 1962. Large Orbiting Research Laboratory was a term applied to a number of NASA and USAF designs of the 1960's intended to succeed MORL. Typically these were rotating stations orbited in a single Saturn V launch.

Losat.

  • American military strategic defense satellite. One launch, 1991.07.07. Test flight of DOD sensors; Low Altitude Satellite Experiment.

LOTRAN.

  • American manned lunar rover. Study 1989. The LOTRAN (LOcal TRANsportation) two-crew rover was the unpressurized lunar rover intended for local base operations in NASA's 90-Day-Study moon base concept of 1989.

Low-power Atmospheric Compensation Experiment.

  • Alternate designation for LACE military strategic defense satellite.

LRE.

  • Japanese earth geodetic satellite. One launch, 2001.08.29. The 87 kg Laser Ranging Experiment was a passive mirror ball of diameter 51 cm and carried 24 glass sheets and 126 prisms on its surface.

LRO.

  • The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter was a NASA spacecraft that comprehensively mapped the lunar surface at a resolution of up to 0.5 m and determined the extent of water ice for possible use by future manned bases.

LS 400.

  • Manufacturer's designation for Globalstar communications satellite.

LSAM.

  • American manned lunar lander. Study 2018. Lunar lander proposed by NASA in 2005 for their planned return to the moon by 2018.

LSS Site Survey Payload.

  • American lunar rover. Study 1963. The BellComm Lunar Logistic System unmanned Site Survey Payload was outlined in a January 1963 study. The 2 x 2 vehicle had articulated wheels, a 1.5 m diameter folded chassis. and a range of 260 km.

LSSM.

  • American manned lunar rover. Study 1968. The Bendix Local Science Survey Module was a forerunner of the Lunar Rover. The LSSM was a small size vehicle used to support a local manned survey. It was proposed for delivery with an LM Shelter.

LSV.

  • American manned lunar rover. Study 1971. The Lunar Sortie Vehicle (LSV), was a North American Rockwell design of 1971, conceived as a railroad train without the rails.

Luch.

  • Russian military communications satellite. 5 launches, 1985.10.25 (Cosmos 1700) to 1995.10.11 (Luch 1).

Lucky Seven.

  • American manned spacecraft. Study 2004. X-Prize suborbital ballistic spacecraft concept of Acceleration Engineering, Bath, Michigan.

Luna E-1.

  • Russian lunar impact probe. 4 launches, 1958.09.23 (Luna failure) to 1959.01.02 (Luna 1). The first spacecraft to achieve escape velocity and the first to reach the Moon. The spacecraft was sphere-shaped. Five antennae extended from one hemisphere.

Luna E-1A.

  • Russian lunar impact probe. 2 launches, 1959.06.18 (Luna) to 1959.09.12 (Luna 2). First probe to impact lunar surface. Delivered a pennant to the surface of the Moon and conducted research during flight to the Moon.

Luna E-3.

  • Russian lunar flyby probe. 3 launches, 1959.10.04 (Luna 3) to 1960.04.19 (Luna). The E-3 was designed to loop around the moon and photograph the Moon's far side.

Luna E-6.

  • Russian lunar lander. 12 launches, 1963.01.04 (Sputnik 25) to 1966.01.31 (Luna 9). E-6 probes were designed by Korolev's OKB-1 with the objective of making the first soft landing on the moon and beaming back pictures of the surface.

Luna E-6LF.

  • Russian lunar orbiter. 2 launches, 1966.08.24 (Luna 11) to 1966.10.22 (Luna 12). Photographed lunar surface and orbital space environment in preparation for manned missions.

Luna E-6LS.

  • Russian lunar orbiter. 3 launches, 1967.05.17 (Cosmos 159) to 1968.04.07 (Luna 14). The E-6LS was a radio-equipped version of the E-6 used to test tracking and communications networks for the Soviet manned lunar program.

Luna E-6M.

  • Russian lunar lander. One launch, 1966.12.21, Luna 13. Modernized version of the E-6 with the ALS lander mass increased from 84 kg to 150 kg. Conducted further scientific investigation of the moon and circumlunar space.

Luna E-6S.

  • Russian lunar orbiter. 2 launches, 1966.03.01 (Cosmos 111) to 1966.03.31 (Luna 10).

Luna Ye-8.

  • Russian lunar rover. 3 launches, 1969.02.19 (Ye-8 s/n 201) to 1973.01.08 (Luna 21).

Luna Ye-8-5.

  • Russian lunar lander. 11 launches, 1969.06.14 (Ye-8-5 VA) to 1975.10.16 (Luna 24). Unmanned lunar soil sample return.

Luna Ye-8-5M.

  • Russian lunar lander. 4 launches, 1974.10.28 (Luna 23) to 1976.08.09 (Luna 24 Return Vehicle). Lunar sample return. Conduct of further scientific investigation of the moon and circumlunar space.

Luna Ye-8-LS.

  • Russian lunar orbiter. 2 launches, 1971.09.28 (Luna 19) to 1974.05.29 (Luna 22). Lunar surface mapping. Lunar Orbit (Selenocentric). Investigation of the moon and near-lunar space from the orbit of an artificial satellite.

Lunar Application of a Spent S-IVB Stage.

Lunar Bus.

  • American lunar logistics spacecraft. Study 1962. The lunar "bus" was an early NASA Apollo logistics vehicle study.

Lunar Escape Ambulance and close orbit Pickup.

  • Alternate designation for LEAP manned lunar flyer.

Lunar Evolution Base 1989.

  • American manned lunar base. Study 1989. In August 1989 NASA's Office of Exploration completed a two-year, NASA-wide plan for future manned space exploration.

Lunar Excursion Module.

  • Code name for Apollo LM manned lunar lander.

Lunar Excursion Vehicle.

  • Alternate designation for LEV manned lunar lander.

Lunar Exploration Program 1968.

  • American manned lunar base. Cancelled 1968. In January 1968, Bellcomm, NASA's Apollo project management advisor, proposed a four-phase program for exploration of the lunar surface using Apollo and Apollo-derived hardware.

Lunar Exploration System for Apollo.

Lunar Flying Vehicle.

Lunar Lander Test Vehicle.

  • Manufacturer's designation for Apollo LLRV manned lunar lander test vehicle.

Lunar Landing Research Facility.

  • Alternate designation for Apollo LLRF manned lunar lander test vehicle.

Lunar Landing Research Vehicle.

  • Code name for Apollo LLRV manned lunar lander test vehicle.

Lunar Landing Vehicle.

  • Alternate designation for LLV lunar logistics spacecraft.

Lunar Leaper.

  • American manned lunar rover. Study 1964. One of the many bizarre modes for lunar transportation proposed in the early 1960's.

Lunar Logistic System 13.7 kW.

  • American manned lunar rover. Study 1963. This NASA Lunar Logistic System lunar rover design of March 1963 had 4 wheels, rigidly mounted, and a range of 450 km with a crew of 2 on a 30 day traverse. The cabin had a volume of 9.72 cubic meters.

Lunar Logistic System 6 kW.

  • American manned lunar rover. Study 1963. This NASA Lunar Logistic System lunar rover design of March 1963 had 4 wheel unit, each wheel 1.3 m in diameter and 20 cm wide. It had a range of 370 km with a crew of 2 on a 7 day traverse.

Lunar Logistics Vehicle.

  • Manufacturer's designation for LLV lunar logistics spacecraft.

Lunar Mapping and Survey System.

  • Alternate designation for Apollo LMSS manned space station.

Lunar Mobile System.

  • American lunar rover. Study 1961. The Bendix Lunar Mobile System was an unmanned lunar rover design of September 1961. The vehicle had 3 wheels, powered separately, and a range of 800 km.

Lunar Module.

  • Alternate designation for Apollo LM manned lunar lander.

Lunar Module Adapter Laboratory.

  • Alternate designation for Apollo LMAL manned space station.

Lunar module Test Article.

  • Alternate designation for Apollo LTA technology satellite.

Lunar Orbit Insertion Module.

Lunar Orbit OPS.

  • Russian manned lunar orbiter. Study 1968. In Chelomei's draft project for the UR-700, he proposed that lunar versions of the Almaz OPS be placed in lunar orbit to conduct detailed reconnaissance of the surface using manned assistance.

Lunar Orbit Station.

  • American manned lunar orbiter. Study 1984. A variety of lunar orbital way-stations, based on space station components, were studied by NASA in the 1980's.

Lunar Orbiter.

  • American lunar orbiter. 5 launches, 1966.08.10 (Lunar Orbiter 1) to 1967.08.01 (Lunar Orbiter 5). Photography of the moon's surface from selenocentric orbit. The Lunar Orbiter series took photos of lunar surface from selenocentric orbit.

Lunar Outpost.

  • American manned lunar base. Study 1989.

Lunar Payload Module.

  • Alternate designation for Apollo LPM lunar logistics spacecraft.

Lunar Polar Rover.

  • American manned lunar rover. Study 1999. Pressurized rover concept for a hypothetical lunar polar mission.

Lunar Prospector.

  • American lunar orbiter. One launch, 1998.01.07.

Lunar Reconnaissance Module.

  • Alternate designation for Apollo LRM manned lunar orbiter.

Lunar Roving Vehicle.

  • Alternate designation for Apollo LRV manned lunar rover.

Lunar Sortie Vehicle.

  • Alternate designation for LSV manned lunar rover.

Lunar Surface Access Module.

  • Alternate designation for LSAM manned lunar lander.

Lunar Transfer Vehicle.

  • Alternate designation for OTV space tug.

Lunar Worm.

  • American manned lunar rover. Study 1966. The Aeronutronic Division of Philco Corp. proposed the unique Lunar Worm Planetary Roving Vehicle Concept in 1966.

Lunex.

  • US Air Force manned lunar base. Studied 1958-1961. The final lunar expedition plan of 1961 was for a 21-airman underground Air Force base on the moon by 1968 at a total cost of $ 7.5 billion.

Lunex Lunar Lander.

  • American manned lunar lander. Studied 1958-1961. The largest single development objective for the Lunex program was to provide a spacecraft capable of transporting men and equipment to the lunar surface and returning them to a selected earth base.

Lunniy ekspeditionniy korabl'.

  • Alternate designation for LEK manned lunar lander.

Lunniy korabl.

  • Alternate designation for LK Energia manned lunar lander.

Lunniy orbital'niy korabl'.

  • Alternate designation for LOK Energia manned lunar orbiter.

Lunokhod.

  • Alternate designation for Luna Ye-8 lunar rover.

Lunokhod.

  • Russian lunar rover. Study 1965. The Lunokhod lunar rover was delivered to the surface by the Ye-8 robotic lander.

Lunokhod LEK.

  • Russian manned lunar rover. Study 1973. Lunar rover for the Vulkan Lunar Expedition. The rover provided pressurized quarters for 2 crew, allowing trips up to 200 km from the lunar base at a top speed of 5 km/hr.

Lunox.

  • American manned lunar base. Study 1993. The NASA/JSC LUNOX proposal of 1993 tried to reduce the cost of maintaining a First Lunar Outpost by producing liquid oxygen propellant for the return to Earth from lunar soil.

LZhM.

  • Russian manned lunar habitat. Study 1973. Laboratory-living module. Three story lunar surface residence and laboratory for Vulkan-launched Lunar Expedition.

LZM.

  • Russian manned lunar habitat. Study 1973. Laboratory-Factory Module for the Vulkan surface base.

M1.

  • Manufacturer's designation for Mars M1 mars orbiter.

M1.

  • Ames' original design for a blunt lifting body. Technical details are for single-crew version proposed in 1958 as a lower-cost alternate to Dynasoar.

M2b.

  • Version of M2 lifting body proposed in 1958 as an alternate to the Dynasoar winged glider configuraiton.

M2-F2.

  • American manned spaceplane. Study 1966. The least stable of the lifting body designs. The 'flying bathtub' had a rounded belly / flat top layout as opposed to the flat belly / rounded top of the other designs.

M2-F3.

  • American manned spaceplane. 43 launches, 1966.07.12 to 1971.12.21 . The crashed M2-F2 was rebuilt as the M2-F3 with enlarged vertical stabilizers. Maximum speed achieved was Mach 1.6, top altitude 21,800 m.

M-42.

  • Russian manned rocketplane. Cancelled 1957. Several variants of the Myasishchev Buran trisonic intercontinental cruise missile M-42 cruise stage were studied.

M-44.

  • Russian manned ramjet-powered research aircraft. Study 1958. Air-launched derivative of the Buran Mach 3 high altitude cruise missile system, proposed for use as an unmanned high speed research vehicle.

M-48.

  • Russian manned spaceplane. Study 1958. In 1958 the VVS (Soviet Air Force) requested development as quickly as possible of high-speed aerospace vehicles.

M-71.

  • Manufacturer's designation for Mars M-71 mars lander.

M-73.

  • Manufacturer's designation for Mars M-73 mars lander.

MABES.

  • Japanese technology satellite. One launch, 1986.08.12. MABES (Jindai). Experiment on the levitation of the magnetic bearing flywheel under zero-g condition.

MACSAT.

  • American military communications satellite. 2 launches, 1990.05.09 (Macsat 1; M-1) and (Macsat 2; M-2).

Macuh Suit.

  • American space suit, tested 1962. Closed cell foam suit concept by Macuh Laboratories, USAF/NASA study, report MLTRD-62-13.

Magellan.

  • American Venus probe. One launch, 1989.05.04. The primary objectives of the Magellan mission were to map the surface of Venus with a synthetic aperture radar (SAR) and to determine the topographic relief of the planet.

Magion.

  • Czech earth magnetosphere satellite. 5 launches, 1978.10.24 (Magion 1) to 1996.08.29 (Magion 5). The Czechoslovak satellite MAGION researched the magnetosphere and ionosphere of the earth.

Magnum.

  • American military naval signals reconnaisance satellite. 3 launches, 1985.01.24 (USA 8) to 1990.11.15 (USA 67). Shuttle-launched geostationary ELINT satellite model that replaced Rhyolite/Aquacade.

Magsat.

  • American earth magnetosphere satellite. One launch, 1979.10.30. Measured near-Earth magnetic field and crustal anomalies.

Mak.

  • Russian earth atmosphere satellite. 2 launches, 1991.06.17 (Mak 1) and 1992.10.27 (Mak 2). Launched from Mir airlock. Investigation of features at the Earth's atmosphere.

MAKS Orbiter.

  • Russian manned spaceplane. Reached advanced stage of development testing and prototype construction when project was cancelled in 1988. The MAKS spaceplane was the ultimate development of the OK-M studies NPO Molniya conducted with NPO Energia.

Malyutka.

  • Russian manned rocketplane. Cancelled 1944. The Malyutka rocket point interceptor was designed by Polikarpov beginning in 1943.

Man Out Of Space, Easiest.

  • Alternate designation for MOOSE manned rescue spacecraft.

Man-high.

  • American manned balloon. Study 1955. Project Manhigh was established in December 1955 to obtain scientific data on the behavior of a balloon in an environment above 99% of the earth's atmosphere and to investigate cosmic rays and their effects on man.

Manned Earth Reconnaissance.

  • Alternate designation for Project Mer manned spacecraft.

Manned Flying System.

  • Alternate designation for MFS manned lunar flyer.

Manned Orbital Rendezvous and Docking.

  • Alternate designation for MORAD manned spacecraft.

Manned Orbital Research Laboratory.

  • Alternate designation for MORL manned space station.

Manned Orbiting Facility.

  • American manned space station. Study 1974. NASA carried out a number of space station studies while the Shuttle was being developed in the mid-1970s.

Manned Orbiting Laboratory.

  • Alternate designation for MOL manned space station.

Manned Orbiting Laboratory Suit, 1963.

Manned Orbiting Shuttle Escape System.

  • Alternate designation for MOSES manned rescue spacecraft.

Manned Reusable Capsule.

Manned Upper Reusable Payload.

  • Alternate designation for MURP manned spaceplane.

Manned Venus Orbiting Mission.

  • American manned Venus orbiter. A 1967 a NASA study examined requirements for a manned Venus orbiter. It concluded such a mission could be mounted by 1975 using Apollo technology.

Manned Vulkan-launched version.

  • Manufacturer's designation for Lunokhod LEK manned lunar rover.

MAP.

  • American infrared astronomy satellite. One launch, 2001.06.30. NASA's Microwave Anisotropy Probe was placed at the L2 Earth-Moon Lagrangian point 1.

Mapping and Survey System.

  • Alternate designation for Apollo MSS manned lunar orbiter.

MAQSAT.

  • European technology satellite. 4 launches, 1997.10.30 (MAQSAT-H/TEAMSAT) to 2005.02.12 (Maqsat 3). MAQSATs were mass model and technology satellites built by Kayser-Threde, Munich, and lofted during the test flights of the Ariane 5.

Marine Observation Satellite.

  • Japanese earth sea satellite. 2 launches, 1987.02.19 (MOS-1) to 1990.02.07 (MOS-1b). The MOS 1A and 1B satellites, also known as Momo 1A and 1B, were Japan's first Earth resources satellites.

Mariner 10.

  • American Mercury probe. One launch, 1973.11.03.

Mariner 1-2.

  • American Venus probe. 2 launches, 1962.07.22 (Mariner 1) to 1962.08.27 (Mariner 2). The world's first successful interplanetary spacecraft.

Mariner 3-4.

  • American Mars flyby probe. 2 launches, 1964.11.05 (Mariner 3) to 1964.11.28 (Mariner 4). This spacecraft completed the first successful flyby of the planet Mars, returning the first pictures of the Martian surface.

Mariner 5.

  • American Venus probe. One launch, 1967.06.14. Mariner 5 was a refurbished backup spacecraft for the Mariner 4 Mars mission converted to fly a Venus mission.

Mariner 6-7.

  • American Mars flyby probe. 2 launches, 1969.02.25 (Mariner 6) to 1969.03.27 (Mariner 7). Mariner 6 and 7 comprised a dual-spacecraft mission to Mars.

Mariner 8-9.

  • American Mars orbiter. 2 launches, 1971.05.09 (Mariner H) to 1971.05.30 (Mariner 9). The Mariner Mars 71 mission was planned to consist of two spacecraft on complementary missions.

Mariner Mark II.

  • Manufacturer's designation for CRAF comet probe.

Mariner R.

  • American Venus probe. Study 1961. Planned 1961 JPL crash program to beat the Soviet Union in launching the first probe to another planet.

Marisat.

  • American communications satellite. 3 launches, 1976.02.19 (Marisat 1) to 1976.10.14 (Marisat 3). Maritime communications.

Mark 1 Mod III.

  • American pressure suit, operational 1956. While the USAF concentrated on partial pressure suits, the US Navy worked on omni-environmental full pressure suits to combine altitude and immersion protection.

Mark I ELSS.

  • American space suit, tested 1958-59. The USAF Mark I Extravehicular and Lunar Surface Suit was tested during 1958-59, and led to subsequent development of more refined and satisfactory RX-series "Moon Suits" for NASA.

Mark IV Model 3 Type I.

  • American pressure suit, operational 1958. )roduction suit which US Navy aircrew wore on high altitude flights during its cold weather operations.

Mark IV USAF.

  • Manufacturer's designation for A-P 22S-3 space suit.

Mark Ridge Suit.

  • American pressure suit, tested 1933. The first full pressure suit was made by a London diving suit firm for the American balloonist Mark Ridge.

Marpost.

  • Russian manned Mars expedition. Study 2000. In December 2000 Leonid Gorshkov of RKK Energia proposed a manned Mars orbital expedition as an alternative to Russian participation in the International Space Station.

Marquardt Space Sled.

  • Alternate designation for Space Sled space suit.

Mars 1975.

Mars 1986.

  • Russian manned Mars expedition. Studied 1978-1986. NPO Energia resumed study of a Mars project once development began of the new Energia booster in place of the cancelled N1.

Mars 1989.

  • Russian manned Mars expedition. Study 1989. In 1989 yet another Mars project was proposed by NPO Energia.

Mars 1994.

  • Russian manned Mars expedition. Study 1994. Soviet / Russian design for a Mars expedition powered by RD-0410 bi-modal nuclear thermal engines. A crew of five would complete the trip to Mars and back in 460 days.

Mars 1M.

  • Russian Mars flyby probe. 2 launches, 1960.10.10 (Mars probe 1M s/n 1 failure.) to 1960.10.14 (Mars probe 1M s/n 2 failure.). Mars probe intended to photograph Mars on a flyby trajectory.

Mars 2MV-1.

  • Russian Venus probe. 2 launches, 1962.08.25 (Sputnik 19) to 1962.09.01 (Sputnik 20).

Mars 2MV-2.

  • Russian Venus probe. One launch, 1962.09.12, Sputnik 21.

Mars 2MV-3.

  • Russian Venus probe. One launch, 1962.11.04, Sputnik 24. Mars probe intended to make a soft landing on Mars.

Mars 2MV-4.

  • Russian Mars flyby probe. 2 launches, 1962.10.24 (Sputnik 22) to 1962.11.01 (Mars 1). Mars probe intended to photograph Mars on a flyby trajectory.

Mars 3MV-4A.

  • Russian Mars flyby probe. 2 launches, 1964.11.30 (Zond 2) to 1965.07.18 (Zond 3). Mars probe intended to photograph Mars on a flyby trajectory. Elaboration of station systems and scientific research in interplanetary space.

Mars 5M.

  • Russian Mars lander. Cancelled 1978. The 5M was a second attempt by the Lavochkin bureau to design and fly a Soviet Martian soil return mission. Design and development was undertaken from 1974 to 1978.

Mars 5NM.

  • Russian Mars lander. Cancelled 1974. The 5NM was the first attempt by the Lavochkin bureau to design and fly a Soviet Martian soil return mission. Design and development was undertaken from 1970 to 1974.

Mars Climate Orbiter.

  • Alternate designation for MCO mars orbiter.

Mars Cycler.

  • American manned Mars flyby. Study 1989. As part of a space infrastructure, it was proposed that four space stations be placed in cyclical orbits. These would allow departures for a six-month journey to Mars every 26 months.

Mars Direct.

  • American manned Mars expedition. Study 1991. In 1991 Martin Marietta and NASA Ames (Zubrin, Baker, and Gwynne) proposed 'Mars Direct' - a Mars expedition faster, cheaper, and better than the standard NASA plan.

Mars Evolution 1988.

  • American manned Mars expedition. Study 1988. In 1988 NASA made four case studies of a rapid response to the threat of a Soviet manned expedition to Mars.

Mars Evolution 1989.

  • American manned Mars expedition. Study 1989. In 1989 NASA's Mars Evolution case study examined one approach to develop a permanent, largely self-sufficient Mars outpost with significant scientific research capability.

Mars Excursion Module.

  • Alternate designation for MEM manned mars lander.

Mars Expedition 88.

  • American manned Mars expedition. Study 1988. In 1988, in response to a perceived Soviet plan to start a new space race to Mars, NASA made in depth case studies of a rapid US response.

Mars Expedition 89.

  • American manned Mars expedition. Study 1989. The primary objective of the 1989 Mars Expedition case study was to determine how to accomplish a single human expedition to the surface of Mars as early in the 21st century as practical.

Mars Expedition NASA Lewis 1960.

  • American manned Mars expedition. Study 1960. The first NASA study of a manned Mars expedition outlined an opposition-class, nuclear thermal rocket powered spacecraft that would take seven astronauts to the planet's surface for 40 days.

Mars Expeditionary Complex.

  • Manufacturer's designation for MEK manned mars expedition.

Mars Exploration Rover.

  • Manufacturer's designation for MER mars lander.

Mars Express.

  • European Mars orbiter. One launch, 2003.06.02. The European Space Agency's Mars Express orbiter, designed to be built more quickly than any other comparable planetary mission, was a resounding success.

Mars Global Surveyor.

  • American Mars orbiter. One launch, 1996.11.07. Mars Global Surveyor was a polar orbiting spacecraft designed to monitor Martian global weather and provide comprehensive maps of surface topography and the distribution of minerals.

Mars M1.

  • Russian Mars orbiter. 5 launches, 1996.11.16 (Mars-96 (Mars 8)) to (Mars-96 (Mars 8)).

Mars M-69.

  • Russian Mars orbiter. 2 launches, 1969.03.27 (M-69 s/n 521) to 1969.04.02 (M-69 s/n 522). Mars probe intended to enter Martian orbit and comprehensively photograph Mars.

Mars M-71.

  • Russian Mars lander. 3 launches, 1971.05.10 (Cosmos 419) to 1971.05.28 (Mars 3). Mars spacecraft built by Lavochkin for 1971 campaign. The spacecraft consists of a bus/orbiter module and an attached descent/lander module.

Mars M-73.

  • Russian Mars lander. 4 launches, 1973.07.21 (Mars 4) to 1973.08.09 (Mars 7). The M-73 spacecraft series was built for 1973 Mars missions.

Mars Observer.

  • American Mars orbiter. One launch, 1992.09.25. Mars Observer was a NASA mission to study the surface, atmosphere, interior and magnetic field of Mars from Martian orbit.

Mars Odyssey.

  • American Mars orbiter. One launch, 2001.04.07, 2001 Mars Odyssey. Mars Odyssey had the primary science mission of mapping the amount and distribution of chemical elements and minerals that make up the Martian surface.

Mars Oz.

  • Australian manned Mars expedition. Study 2006. 2001 design study by the Mars Society Australia that incorporated many innovative elements to produce a minimum-mass non-nuclear Mars expedition concept.

Mars Pathfinder.

  • American Mars rover. 3 launches, 1996.12.04 (Mars Pathfinder) to (Mars Pathfinder). Mars lander with surface rover. Landed a mini-rover to the Mars surface. Test of airbag and rover technologies. First successful Mars landing mission since Viking.

Mars Piloted Orbital Station.

  • Alternate designation for Marpost manned mars expedition.

Mars Polar Lander.

  • American Mars lander. One launch, 1999.01.03. The Mars Polar Lander had the mission of studying Martian volatiles (frozen water and carbon dioxide) and climate history. The Martian polar regions were the best places to conduct these studies.

Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter.

  • American Mars orbiter. One launch, 2005.08.12. Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter was the first spacecraft designed from the beginning for aerobraking to place it into the desired orbit around Mars.

Mars Science Laboratory.

  • Alternate designation for MSL mars rover.

Mars Science Laboratory.

  • American Mars lander. need summary - see links

Mars Semi-Direct 1991.

  • American manned Mars expedition. Study 1991. Mars Semi-Direct was a NASA concept bridge between Zubrin's Mars Direct and NASA's Design Reference Mission 1.0. It was essentially a low-cost version of Boeing's STCAEM.

Mars Society Mission.

  • American manned Mars expedition. Study 1999. In 1999 the Mars Society, noting certain defects in NASA's Design Reference Mission, requested California Institute of Technology to develop an alternative scenario to meet these concerns.

Mars Together.

  • Russian Mars orbiter. Study 1994. In 1994-95, RKK Energia, and NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory analyzed the project 'Mars Together'.

Mars via Solar Sail.

  • British manned Mars expedition. Study 1982. In 1982 a minimum-mass approach to a Mars expedition was proposed, using aerocapture at Mars and the use of a long-duration solar sail cargo transport.

Marsokhod.

  • Russian manned Mars rover. Study 1961. Surface transports were part of all Soviet Mars expeditions.

Martian Piloted Complex.

  • Alternate designation for MPK manned mars expedition.

Martin Astrorocket.

  • American manned spaceplane. Study 1962. Early two-stage-to-orbit shuttle study, using storable propellants, Dynasoar-configuration delta wing orbiter.

Martin Project 7969.

  • American manned spacecraft. Study 1958. Martin's proposal for the Air Force manned space project was a zero-lift vehicle launched by a Titan I with controlled flight in orbit. The spacecraft would be boosted into a 240 km orbit for a 24 hour mission.

Mavr.

  • Russian manned Mars flyby. Study 1963. A variation of the TMK-1 scenario by Maksimov's unit would still use a single N1 launch. However a flyby of Venus would be undertaken on the return voyage from Mars.

Mayak.

  • Russian communications satellite. Study 1990. In 1990 the Applied Mechanics NPO announced that it was developing a successor to the Molniya series of spacecraft.

Mayflower.

  • American manned spaceplane. Study 2004. X-Prize suborbital seaplane-spacecraft of Advent Launch Services of Houston, Texas. Reached the stage of engineering tests by 2003.

MB-1.

  • American pressure suit, tested 1957. MB-1 & 2 were experimental test pilot's partial pressure suits using the K-1 helmet.

MC-1.

  • American pressure suit, operational 1956. Modified S-2 partial pressure capstan suit with chest breathing bladder, 12 sizes, high altitude, fighters and bombers, smaller capstan in torso area, pressure gloves, K-1 or MB-5 helmet, David Clark Company.

MC-2.

  • American pressure suit, operational 1958. The XMC-2 full pressure suit developed in the mid-1950s jointly by Wright Field personnel and the David Clark Company for X-15 pilots.

MC-3.

  • American pressure suit, operational 1957. A capstan partial pressure suit with horizontal shoulder zipper, sewn breaklines, no anti-G, height/weight sizing criteria, used on bomber and reconnaissance aircraft, came in 12 sizes.

MC-3A.

  • American pressure suit, operational 1958. A modified MC-3 suit with vertical shoulder laces and adjustable break lines. Produced by David Clark and Berger Brothers. MA-2 helmet by ILC Dover.

MC-4A.

  • American pressure suit, operational 1958. A modified MC-4 with height/weight fit for fighter aircraft, anti-G suit. Suits produced by David Clark, Berger Brothers and Seymour Wallace.

McDonnell Project 7969.

  • American manned spacecraft. Study 1958. McDonnell's design for the Air Force initial manned space project was a ballistic vehicle coordinated with Faget's NACA proposal and resembling the later Soviet Soyuz descent module.

McDonnell Spaceplane 1963.

  • American manned spaceplane. Study 1963. In June 1962 NASA funded studies with several contractors on Operations and Logistics for Space Stations.

MCO.

  • American Mars orbiter. One launch, 1998.12.11, Mars Climate Orbiter. The Mars Climate Orbiter was to have accomplished mapping and weather studies of Mars and served as a relay for data from the Mars Polar Lander.

MDPB.

  • American manned space station module. Study 2015. Propulsion module for space stations based on Bigelow Nautilus inflatable habitats.

MDS.

  • Japanese technology satellite. One launch, 2002.02.04. MDS (Mission Demonstration Satellite) was a technology demonstrator to flight-qualify commercial subsystems.

Me-163.

  • German manned rocketplane. Flown 1941-1945. The world's first and only operational pure rocket fighter. Awesome performance, but killed more of its pilots than the enemy.

Mech.

Mech-K.

  • Code name for Almaz-T civilian surveillance radar satellite.

Mega Rover.

  • American manned lunar rover. Study 1992. The Mega Rover was conceived to support a crew of six over thousands of kilometers of traverses. Variants had masses as great as 45 metric tons, exclusive of the descent and landing system.

Megsat.

  • Italian communications technology satellite. 2 launches, 1999.04.28 (Megsat-0) and 2000.09.26 (MegSat-1). The first private Italian satellites, Megsats were microsatellites designed to transmit scientific and commercial data.

MEK.

  • Russian manned Mars expedition. Study 1969. The Mars Expeditionary Complex (MEK) was designed to take a crew of from three to six to Mars and back with a total mission duration of 630 days.

MEM.

  • American manned Mars lander. Study 1967. The Mars Excursion Module was designed by North American for the Marshall Spaceflight Center in an October 1966-August 1967 study.

MEMS.

  • American communications technology satellite. 2 launches, 2000.01.27 (Picosat 1) to (Picosat 2). DARPA/Aerospace Corp. MEMS (Micro Electro-mechanical Systems) were 0.

MEPSI.

  • American tether technology satellite. One launch, 2002.11.24. MEPSI (Micro-Electromechanical-based Picosat Satellite Inspection Experiment) consisted of two 1 kg boxes attached to each other by a 15-m tether.

MER.

  • American Mars lander. 2 launches, 2003.06.10 (Spirit (Mars Exploration Rover A, MER-2)) to 2003.07.08 (Opportunity (Mars Exploration Rover B, MER-1)). NASA's rover mission design for the 2003 Mars launch opportunity.

Mercury.

  • American manned spacecraft. 18 launches, 1960.01.21 (Mercury LJ-1B) to 1963.05.15 (Mercury MA-9). America's first man-in-space project. The capsule had to be as small as possible to match the orbital payload capability of America's first ICBM, the Atlas.

Mercury Capsule.

  • American manned spacecraft module. 18 launches, 1960.01.21 (Mercury LJ-1B) to 1963.05.15 (Mercury MA-9). Reentry capsule.

Mercury ECS.

  • Mercury ECS Development Diary

Mercury ELINT.

  • American military naval signals reconnaisance satellite. 3 launches, 1994.08.27 (USA 105) to 1998.08.12 (Mercury ELINT). Class of heavy signals intelligence satellites introduced at the end of the 1990's.

Mercury Escape Tower.

  • Mercury Escape Tower Development Diary

Mercury Heat Shield.

  • Mercury Heat Shield Development Diary

Mercury Mark I.

  • American manned spacecraft. Study 1959. Proposed derivatives of the basic one-crew Mercury capsule for investigation of earth orbit rendezvous, lifting re-entry and land landing.

Mercury Parachute.

  • Mercury Parachute Development Diary

Mercury Retropack.

  • American manned spacecraft module. 18 launches, 1960.01.21 (Mercury LJ-1B) to 1963.05.15 (Mercury MA-9).

Mercury Retrorockets.

  • Mercury Retrorockets Development Diary

Mercury Space Suit.

  • American space suit, operational 1960. The Mercury spacesuit was a custom-fitted, modified version of the Goodrich U.S. Navy Mark IV high altitude jet aircraft pressure suit.

MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry and Ranging mission.

  • Alternate designation for Messenger mercury probe.

Meridian.

  • Russian new-generation military 12-hour elliptical orbit communications satellite designed to replace the Molniya series. Operational, first launch 2006.12.24.

Merkur.

  • Alternate designation for Tekos materials science satellite.

Mesbah.

  • Iranian technology satellite. Study 2006. Technology satellite with imaging and communications payloads. Planned as the operational payload of the Iranian Shahab-3 orbital launch vehicle. The satellite would be cube-shaped, 50 cm on a side.

Mesbah-2.

  • Iranian civilian store-dump communications satellite. One launch, 2005.10.27, Sinah-1. Prototype of a store-forward communications system satellite for survivable communications. To be launched by a foreign launch vehicle, originally slated for 2005.

Messenger.

  • American Mercury probe. One launch, 2004.08.03. NASA probe, launched in 2004 with the challenging mission of comprehensively mapping Mercury from orbit between March 2011 and March 2012.

Meteor.

  • Russian earth weather satellite. 11 launches, 1964.08.28 (Cosmos 44) to 1969.02.01 (Meteor). The first Soviet weather satellite. Development began with a decree of 30 October 1960.

Meteor (USA).

  • American earth weather satellite. One launch, 1995.10.23, Meteor RV. Meteor commercial microgravity recoverable spacecraft built by EER Systems. Destroyed in failure of first test flight of Conestoga commercial launch vehicle.

Meteor M 11F614.

  • Russian earth weather satellite. 25 launches, 1969.03.26 (Meteor 1-01) to 1977.04.05 (Meteor 1-27). Acquisition of meteorological information needed for use by the weather service.

Meteor-2.

  • Russian earth weather satellite. 22 launches, 1975.07.11 (Meteor 2-01) to 1993.08.31 (Meteor 2-21). Successor to the Meteor-1 weather satellite. The Meteor-2 had a longer design operational life (one year vs.

Meteor-3.

  • Russian earth weather satellite. 7 launches, 1984.11.27 (Cosmos 1612) to 1994.01.25 (Meteor 3-06). Meteor-3 began in 1972 as an improved replacement for the Meteor-2 weather satellite.

Meteor-3M.

  • Russian earth weather satellite. One launch, 2001.12.10. The Meteor-3 weather satellite was to be followed in 1996 by the first of the Meteor-3M class, which was finally put into orbit in 2001. No further launches, and succeeded by the Meteor-M in 2010.

Meteor-M.

  • New-generation Russian weather satellite, successor to the Meteor-3M, with new electronics and designed for launch by the Soyuz ST launch vehicle rather than the discontinued Tsiklon-3 and non-Russian Zenit-2. First launched in 2009.

Meteoroid Technology Satellite.

  • Alternate designation for MTS earth micrometeoroid satellite.

Meteor-Priroda.

  • Code name for Resurs-O1 earth land resources satellite.

Meteor-Priroda.

  • Russian earth land resources satellite. 5 launches, 1974.07.09 (Meteor 1-18) to 1981.07.10 (Meteor 1-31).

Meteosat.

  • European earth weather satellite. 7 launches, 1977.11.23 (Meteosat 1) to 1997.09.02 (Meteosat 7).

Metop.

  • European earth weather satellite. One launch, 2006.10.19. MetOp was Europe's first polar-orbiting satellite dedicated to operational meteorology.

METSAT.

  • Indian earth weather satellite. One launch, 2002.09.12. METSAT was an Indian (ISRO) meteorological, geostationary satellite designed to simultaneously obtain atmospheric cloud cover, water vapor, and temperature data.

MFS.

  • American manned lunar flyer. Study 1965. Bell Aerosystems designed a Manned Flying System for Apollo as a tool for lunar surface exploration.

Michelle-B.

  • American manned spacecraft. Study 2004. X-Prize suborbital ballistic spacecraft concept of TGV Rockets, Bethesda, Maryland. As of 2005, flight testing of the Michelle-B was expected to begin no earlier than 2007.

MIcro-Measurements Of Satellite Acceleration.

  • Alternate designation for Mimosa earth atmosphere satellite.

Microsat.

  • American military communications satellite. 7 launches, 1991.07.17 (Microsat 1) to (Microsat 7). Satellites used in a DARPA test of an LEO quick-reaction network for global communications.

Microsat SSTL.

  • Manufacturer's designation for MicroSat-70 technology satellite.

MicroSat SSTL.

  • British technology satellite. 3 launches, 1981.10.06 (CERISE) to 1990.01.22 (Oscar 14). Original version of the Surrey Microsat bus.

MicroSat-100.

  • British microsatellite bus. 9 launches, 1995.07.07 (CERISE) to 2009.07.29. Enlarged version of the basic Surrey Microsat bus.

MicroSat-70.

  • British technology satellite. 14 launches, 1981.10.06 (Oscar 9) to 2002.11.28 (Picosat). Basic Surrey Microsat bus.

Microsatellite Technology Experiment.

  • Alternate designation for Mitex military anti-satellite system.

Microstar.

  • Manufacturer's satellite bus designation for Teledesic and Orbcomm communications satellite.

Microstar.

  • American communications technology satellite. 22 launches, 1995.04.03 (Orbcomm F1) to 2008.10.19 (Formosat 3F). Small satellite bus, specially designed for multiple launch by Pegasus or Taurus family launch vehicles.

Microvariability and Oscillations Of STars.

  • Alternate designation for Most visible astronomy satellite.

Midas.

  • American military early warning satellite. 18 launches, 1960.02.26 (Midas 1) to 1966.10.05 (Midas 12). Part of a then-secret USAF program known as WS-117L, the MIDAS (Missile Defense Alarm System) program began in November 1958.

Midcourse Space Experiment.

  • Alternate designation for MSX military strategic defense satellite.

Midstar.

  • American technology satellite. One launch, 2007.03.09.

MiG 105-11.

  • Russian manned spaceplane. 8 launches, 1976.10.11 to 1978.09.15 . Atmospheric flight test version of the Spiral OS manned spaceplane. The 105-11 incorporated the airframe and some of the systems of the planned orbital version.

MightySat 1.

  • American military technology satellite. One launch, 1998.12.04.

Mikron.

  • Code name for MS-1 earth land resources satellite.

Military Strategic and Tactical Relay System.

  • Alternate designation for Milstar military communications satellite.

Milstar.

  • American military communications satellite. 6 launches, 1994.02.07 (USA 99) to 2003.04.08 (USA 169). Milstar was a series of advanced US military communications satellites designed to provide global jam-resistant communications for military users.

Mimosa.

  • Czech earth atmosphere satellite. One launch, 2003.06.30. Satellite by the Czech Astronomical Institute for study of the density of the upper atmosphere using the sensitive Macek accelerometer.

Mini Space Station.

  • European manned space station. Study 2020. Potential European independent space station consisting of two docked ATV's with additional life support systems.

Minibus.

  • British technology satellite. Study 1999. UoSAT-12 was the first test of the Minibus platform, at 325 kg a larger spacecraft than earlier 50 kg Surrey UoSATs. It carried a mobile radio experiment (MERLION), a GPS receiver, and imaging cameras.

Minisat.

  • American technology satellite. One launch, 1997.04.21. The Minisat spacecraft were built for the Spanish space Agency by CASA.

Minisat SSTL.

  • Manufacturer's designation for MiniSat-400 technology satellite.

MiniSat-400.

  • British technology satellite. 2 launches, 1999.04.21 (UoSAT-12) to 2005.12.28 (Giove-A). Basic Surrey Minisat bus.

Mini-shuttle.

  • American manned rocketplane. Study 1972. In August 1972 it was proposed to test a subscale version of the shuttle to test the aerodynamics. The 13,750 kg vehicle would be 11 m long and have a wingspan of 7 m.

MiniSil.

  • Project for On-Board Autonomy technology satellite. Launched 2009.11.02,

MIP.

  • Indian lunar impact probe. One launch, 2008.10.22. Moon Impact Probe, released from Chandraayan-1 in lunar orbit. The MIP fired its own deorbit motor and impacted the moon near the Shackleton Crater at the south pole.

Mir.

  • Russian manned space station. One launch, 1986.02.20. Improved model of the Salyut DOS-17K space station with one aft docking port and five ports in a spherical compartment at the forward end of the station.

Mir complex.

  • Russian manned space station. Assembled 1986 to 1996. Designation given to the entire Mir space station.

Mir Modules-FGB.

  • Russian manned space station. Study 1985. Space station modules derived from the Chelomei TKS ferry. See entries for Kvant-2, Priroda, Spektr, and Kristal for details on each.

Mir-2.

  • Russian manned space station. Study 1989. The Mir-2 space station was originally authorized in the February 1976 resolution setting forth plans for development of third generation Soviet space systems.

Mir-2 KB Salyut.

  • Russian manned space station. Cancelled 1988. Alternative design for the Mir-2 space station by KB Salyut. If Polyus had successfully made it to orbit, it might have been the core for such a station.

Miranda.

  • British technology satellite. One launch, 1974.03.09. Satellite technology. Anticipated life: longer than 50 years.

Mirka.

  • German re-entry vehicle technology satellite. One launch, 1997.10.09. German miniature re-entry vehicle attached to exterior of Russian Resurs satellite. After release from Resurs landed in Kazakhstan Oct 23.

Mir-Shuttle Docking Module.

  • Russian manned space station. One launch, 1995.11.12. A specialized SO docking module was originally designed for docking the Buran space shuttle with the Mir-2 space station.

Missile Defense Alarm System.

  • Alternate designation for Midas military early warning satellite.

Misty.

  • American nuclear detection surveillance satellite. 2 launches, 1990.02.28 (USA 53) to 1999.05.22 (USA 144).

MITA.

  • Italian technology satellite. One launch, 2000.07.15. MITA was an Italian Space Agency experimental microsatellite built by Carlo Gavazzi Space of Milano and carried the NINA particle detector and an experimental attitude control system.

Mitex.

  • American military anti-satellite system. 3 launched, 2006.06.21 (USA 187) to (USA 189).

MK ZPS.

  • American space suit, tested 1985. NASA Zero Pre-breathe full pressure Suit developed to preclude the need for denitrogenation prior to EVA.

MK-700.

  • Russian manned Mars flyby. Study 1972. Chelomei was the only Chief Designer to complete an Aelita draft project and present it to the Soviet government.

MKBS.

  • Russian manned space station. Cancelled 1974. The culmination of ten years of designs for N1-launched space stations, the MKBS would be cancelled together with the N1.

MM.

  • American manned Mars orbiter. Study 1968. The Mission Module (MM) could be modified according to requirements of a particular interplanetary manned mission.

MOBEV.

  • American manned lunar rover. need summary - see links

MOBEV F1B.

  • American manned lunar flyer. Study 1966. The MOBEV F1B one-man pogo flying vehicle was the selected configuration for the one-man pogo application from three alternatives. Maximum operational mass with astronaut and payload, 258 kg.

MOBEV F2B.

  • American manned lunar flyer. Cancelled 1968. The F2B was the MOBEV selected configuration for a multi-man surface-to-surface flying vehicle. Maximum operational mass with 2 astronauts and payload, 844 kg.

MOBEV F2E.

  • American manned lunar flyer. Study 1966. The MOBEV selected return to orbit vehicle, F2E, was provided with six degree of freedom control for rendezvous as well as normal attitude control. Maximum operational mass with 2 astronauts and payload, 1364.5 kg.

MOBEV R0AE.

  • American lunar rover. Study 1966. The MOBEV R0AE was based on the cancelled Surveyor Lunar Roving Vehicle, originally conceived for the Apollo site selection program.

MOBEV R0CE.

  • American lunar rover. Study 1966. The MOBEV R0CE utilized a Surveyor probe from a lunar orbiting vehicle. The rover would operate in lunar day or night and have a total range capability of 200 km over a 90-day period.

MOBEV R0DE.

  • American lunar rover. Study 1966. Robotic vehicle delivered to the lunar surface with a LM-Shelter or a LM-Truck-Shelter and used during and after the manned mission to explore areas prior to committing a man.

MOBEV R1B.

  • American manned lunar rover. Study 1966. Early manned operations would utilize the basic Apollo LM or an augmented version of it. The augmented version would a small mobility unit.

MOBEV R1CB.

  • American manned lunar rover. Study 1966. The MOBEV R1CB Base Support Vehicle -- Special Purpose was a manned lunar tractor, which provided base support capability in terms of earth moving, towing, and general utility within close proximity of the base.

MOBEV R1DE.

  • American manned lunar rover. Study 1966. The MOBEV R1DE recommended Lunar Station Vehicle was a Cabined LSSM, a manned exploration vehicle designed to provide a shirt-sleeve (open spacesuit faceplate) environment.

MOBEV R2C(1)E.

  • American manned lunar rover. Study 1966. The MOBEV R2C(1)E manned Mobile Laboratory Vehicle (MOLAB) was to be used for exploration of the moon. The MOLAB provided complete life support capabilities for its two-man crew during a 14-day, 400-km mission.

MOBEV R3DE.

  • American manned lunar rover. Study 1966. The MOBEV R3DE Extended Traverse Vehicle was a 90-Day MOBEX, a manned mobile laboratory used for exploration of the moon.

MOBEV RIB(1)E.

  • American manned lunar rover. Study 1966. The MOBEV RIB(1)E recommended Lunar Station Vehicle was a Greater Versatility LSSM, an exploration vehicle designed for both manned and unmanned operation.

Mobile Command Module.

  • Alternate designation for MOCOM manned lunar rover.

Mobile Equipment Transporter.

  • Alternate designation for Apollo MET space suit.

Mobile LM Shelter.

  • Alternate designation for MOLEM manned lunar rover.

Mobile Lunar Laboratory.

  • Manufacturer's designation for Molab manned lunar rover.

MOCAN.

  • American manned lunar rover. Study 1966. The MOCAN was a manned Lunar Rover using the planned Boeing pressurized Apollo Multipurpose Mission Module (CAN) as the basic structure and MOLAB wheels

MOCOM.

  • American manned lunar rover. Study 1966. Third generation versions of the CM were studied by North American in 1966 to further modify a CM shelter to provide mobility. Essentially the CM was mounted on a four-wheel chassis.

MOD-1.

Model 4.

  • American pressure suit, operational 1950. The Model 4 Full Pressure Suit was developed for D-558-2 Douglas Skyrocket test pilots. It was first flown by Navy test pilot Marion Carl for a 26 km altitude record flight.

Model 671.

  • Manufacturer's designation for D-558-3 manned rocketplane.

Moderate Capacity Mobile Laboratory.

  • Alternate designation for Molab manned lunar rover.

Modularised Space Station.

  • American manned space station. Study 1972. Space station design of 1972 using modules sized for transport in the Space Shuttle payload bay. could be carried inside the Shuttle orbiter payload bay.

MOK.

  • Code name for MKBS manned space station.

MOL.

  • American manned space station. Cancelled 1969. MOL (Manned Orbiting Laboratory) was the US Air Force's manned space project after Dynasoar was cancelled, until it in turn was cancelled in 1969. The earth orbit station used a helium-oxygen atmosphere.

MOL LM.

  • American manned space station module. Cancelled 1969. The Laboratory Module consisted of a forward unpressurized section 2.43 m long, followed by an aft pressurized section, a 3.37 m long cylinder with 2.79 m diameter hemispherical bulkheads at each end. Space station military.

MOL MM.

  • American manned space station module. Cancelled 1969. The MOL Mission Module took up most of the spacecraft. It had a length of 11.24 m and was divided into two major bays, the forward section 4.42 m long, and the aft section 6.82 m long.

MOL Space Suit.

  • American space suit. Cancelled 1969. Space suit designed to support launch/re-entry and Extra-Vehicular Activity (EVA) aboard the USAF Manned Orbiting Laboratory. Developed from 1965-1969, when MOL was cancelled.

Molab.

  • American manned lunar rover. Cancelled 1968. The moderate capacity mobile laboratory (MOLAB) concept was studied in two NASA/MT contracts to determine configurations and capabilities of vehicles in the 2950 to 3850 kg class.

MOLEM.

  • American manned lunar rover. Study 1966. Third generation versions of LM derivative equipment were studied by Grumman in a report delivered on 10 May 1966.

Molniya-1.

  • Russian military communications satellite. 37 launches, 1964.06.04 (Molniya-1 s/n 2 Failure) to 1975.09.02 (Molniya 1-31). This was the first Soviet communications satellite, using the twelve-hour elliptical orbit later dubbed a 'Molniya orbit'.

Molniya-1M.

  • Alternate designation for Molniya-2 communications satellite.

Molniya-1T.

  • Russian military communications satellite. 63 launches, 1976.01.22 (Molniya) to 2004.02.18 (Molniya-1T). This was a modernized Molniya-1 communications satellite with the 'Beta' retransmitter which began flight tests in 1970.

Molniya-2.

  • Russian communications satellite. 20 launches, 1971.11.24 (Molniya 2-01) to 2005.06.21 (Molniya 2-17). Molniya-2 was the elliptical orbit component of the Soviet YeSSS communications satellite system.

Molniya-2M.

  • Alternate designation for Molniya-3 communications satellite.

Molniya-3.

  • Russian communications satellite. 55 launches, 1974.11.21 (Molniya 3-01) to 2003.06.19 (Molniya 3-53). Development of the Molniya-2M communications satellite, later called Molniya-3, began in 1972. Flight trials began in November 1974.

Molniya-Yu.

  • Russian tracking network technology satellite. Study 1969. This was a modification of the Molniya-1 satellite to test deep space radio-based tracking methods for the Soviet Lunar program.

Monitor.

  • Russian earth land resources satellite. 2 launches, 2003.06.30 (Monitor-E/SL) and 2005.08.26 (Monitor-E).

MOOSE.

  • American manned rescue spacecraft. Study 1963. MOOSE was perhaps the most celebrated bail-out from orbit system of the early 1960's. The suited astronaut would strap the MOOSE to his back, and jump out of the spacecraft or station into free space.

MORAD.

  • American manned spacecraft. Study 1961. MORAD (Manned Orbital Rendezvous and Docking) would require the use of the Mercury-Atlas and Scout in the 1961- 1963 period.

MORL.

  • American manned space station. Study 1962. In June 1964 Boeing and Douglas received Phase I contracts for Manned Orbital Research Laboratory station designs. The recommended concept was a 13.

MORL Mars Flyby.

  • American manned Mars flyby. Study 1965. Near-term manned Mars flyby spacecraft proposed by Douglas in 1965 for flight as early as 1973.

Morphlab.

  • American manned lunar rover. Study 2004. Morphlab (Modular Roving Planetary Habitat, Laboratory, and Base) was a lunar exploration system proposed by the University of Maryland.

MOSAP.

  • American manned lunar rover. Study 1989. MOSAP (MObile Surface APplication traverse vehicle) was the pressurized lunar rover that was the key to NASA's 90-Day-Study moon base concept of 1989. It would greatly extend the range of manned lunar expeditions.

MOSES.

  • American manned rescue spacecraft. Study 1975. The General Electric MOSES space rescue concept of the early 1980's took advantage of large re-entry capsules already developed for classified US military projects.

Most.

  • Canadian visible astronomy satellite. One launch, 2003.06.30. MOST was a suitcase-sized microsatellite designed to probe stars and extrasolar planets by measuring tiny light variations undetectable from Earth.

MoTV.

  • American space tug. Study 2003. SpaceDev design for a low-cost, restartable hybrid propulsion space tug or upper stage.

MPEC.

  • American military technology satellite. One launch, 1991.04.28, USA 70. Spacecraft engaged in research and exploration of the upper atmosphere or outer space.

MPK.

  • Russian manned Mars expedition. Study 1956. This first serious examination in the Soviet Union of manned flight to Mars was made by M Tikhonravov.

MRC.

MRC DM.

  • British manned spacecraft module. Study 1987. Reusable re-entry capsule.

MRC SM.

  • British manned spacecraft module. Study 1987. Expendable equipment section.

MRSV.

  • American manned spacecraft. Study 1959. Advanced Research Projects Agency representatives visited Army Ordnance Missile Command to discuss studies of a Maneuverable Recoverable Space Vehicle (MRSV).

MS-1.

  • Ukrainian earth land resources satellite. 2 launches, 2004.12.24 (Mikron) to 2007.04.17 (MisrSat 1). Ukrainian microsatellite bus that could be equipped with imaging or other scientific or technical equipment.

MSG.

  • European earth weather satellite. 2 launches, 2002.08.28 (MSG 1) and 2005.12.21 (MSG 2). MSG (Meteosat Second Generation 1) was a European (EUMETSAT consortium) geostationary weather satellite.

MSL.

  • American Mars rover. Heavy, radioisotope-powered robotic Mars rover planned for an October 2010 arrival at Mars. It would carry instruments to definitively search for life in the soil.

MSTI.

  • American military strategic defense satellite. 3 launches, 1992.11.21 (MSTI) to 1996.05.17 (MSTI-3). BMDO technology demonstration; Miniature Seeker Technology Demonstration.

MSTS.

  • American manned lunar rover. Study 1999.

M-Suit.

  • American space suit, tested 1998. In the fall of 1998, two soft suit prototypes were delivered to NASA by two companies, ILC Dover and David Clark. ILC Dover's M-Suit operated at a pressure of 0.26 atmospheres and weighed 30 kg.

MSX.

  • American military strategic defense satellite. One launch, 1996.04.24.

MTI.

  • American military surveillance satellite. One launch, 2000.03.12. The Multispectral Thermal Imager (MTI) was a space-based research and development project sponsored by the U.

MTKVA.

  • Russian manned spaceplane. Study 1974. Manned lifting body spaceplane, designed by Soviet engineers as a recoverable spacecraft in the early 1970's.

MTS.

  • American earth micrometeoroid satellite. One launch, 1972.08.13, Explorer 46. Micrometeoroid tests.

Mu-Labsat.

  • Japanese technology satellite. One launch, 2002.12.14. Technology satellite, which released two tiny subsatellites in an experiment to test an onboard tracking imager for inspector satellites.

Multi-Directional Propulsion Module.

  • Alternate designation for MDPB manned space station module.

Multi-module orbital base.

  • Alternate designation for MKBS manned space station.

Multiple Access Communications Satellites.

  • Alternate designation for MACSAT military communications satellite.

Multiple Docking Adapter.

  • Alternate designation for Skylab MDA manned space station module.

Multipurpose Satellite Gals.

  • Russian earth resources radar satellite. Study 1983. Heavy radar satellite based on the DOS 17K space station bus and using a KRT-30, a 30 m diameter radiotelescope.

Multi-Role Recovery Capsule.

  • British manned spacecraft. Study 1987. Britain was the only European Space Agency member opposed to ESA's ambitious man-in-space plan, and the British conservative government refused to approve the November 1987 plan.

Munin.

  • Swedish technology satellite. One launch, 2000.11.21. Small 6 kg Munin nanosatellite was built by Swedish students in collaboration with the Swedish Institute for Space Physics (IRF) and carried a particle detector, a spectrometer, and an auroral camera.

MURP.

  • American manned spaceplane. Study 1969. The McDonnell Douglas Space Shuttle Phase A studies were conducted under contract NAS9-9204. Their Class I vehicle was dubbed MURP - Manned Upper Reusable Payload.

MuSat.

  • Argentinan earth magnetosphere satellite. One launch, 1996.08.29, Microsat. MuSat-1 Victor was the first Argentine-built satellite.

Muses-B.

  • Manufacturer's designation for Haruka radio astronomy satellite.

Muses-C.

  • Alternate designation for Hayabusa asteroid probe.

Musketball.

  • American technology satellite. One launch, 1971.08.07. Space craft engaged in investigation of spaceflight techniques and technology.

Musson.

  • Code name for Geo-IK earth geodetic satellite.

MX-2145.

  • American manned combat spacecraft. Study 1953. In May 1953 the Air Force funded Boeing to study their MX-2145 boost-glide vehicle as a successor to the B-58 supersonic medium-range bomber. This was a competitor to Bell's BOMI.

MX-324.

  • American manned rocketplane. Flown 1944. First U.S. military rocket-powered plane; built by Northrop.

Mylar.

  • American technology satellite. One launch, 1971.08.07. Space craft engaged in investigation of spaceflight techniques and technology.

Myriade.

  • Micro-satellite product line developed jointly by EADS Astrium and the French Space Agency CNES beginning in 1998. Operational, first launch 2004.12.18.

N1 Block D.

  • Russian space tug. 4 launches, 1969 to 1972. Upper stage / space tug - out of production. Block D adapted as lunar crasher stage

N1 Block Sr.

  • Russian space tug. Study 1971. Upper stage / space tug - developed 1971-1974 to support manned lunar expedition. Replaced Blok R/Blok S previously under development.

N-4.

  • Russian cosmic ray astronomy satellite. 4 launches, 1965.07.16 (Proton 1) to 1966.07.06 (Proton 3). Physics experiments. Space station "Proton 1". Investigation of ultra-high-energy cosmic particles.

N-6.

  • Russian cosmic ray astronomy satellite. One launch, 1968.11.16, Proton 4. Cosmic ray measurements. Study of the nature of high and ultra-high energy cosmic rays and their interaction with atomic nuclei. Mass announced at time of launch 17,000 kg.

NAA Manned Bombardment and Control Vehicle.

  • American manned combat spacecraft. Study 1963. In the early 1960's, one configuration studied by North American Aviation for the USAF space bomber study was this 12-m-diameter flying saucer design.

NAA RTTOCV.

  • American manned spaceplane. Study 1963. North American Aviation's Reusable Ten Ton Orbital Carrier Vehicle design of 1963 had as a standard payload a lenticular 12-man orbital transfer vehicle spaceplane for space station logistics and crew transfer.

Nadezhda.

  • Ukrainian navigation satellite. 10 launches, 1982.06.29 (Cosmos 1383) to 2002.09.26 (Nadezhda-M).

Nanosail.

  • American technology satellite. Launched 2008.08.03,

Nanosat 01.

  • Spanish technology satellite. One launch, 2004.12.18. Experimental nanosat built by the Spanish space agency (INTA).

Nanosat SSTL.

  • Manufacturer's designation for SNAP technology satellite.

Nanosputnik.

  • Russian technology satellite. One launch, 2005.02.28. Nanosatellite delivered by Progress M-52 to the International Space Station. 30 cm long, it was released from during a spacewalk on 28 March 2005.

Naryad.

  • Code name for IS-MU military anti-satellite system.

NASA ACRV.

  • American manned spaceplane. Study 1986. The early Space Station proposals assumed the facility would be equipped with a 'safe haven' where the crew would wait for a rescue Shuttle in case of emergency.

NASA Mark III.

  • American space suit, tested 1992. The NASA Mark III was an advanced NASA space suit design of the 1990's.

NASA Mars Expedition 1971.

  • American manned Mars expedition. Study 1971. Final NASA Mars expedition before the 1980's. The spacecraft would use shuttle hardware, including SSME engines in the rocket stages.

NASA Mars Flyby 1965.

  • American manned Mars flyby. Study 1965. Mars flyby mission designed by NASA Huntsville in 1965 to use existing Apollo hardware, allowing a manned flyby of Mars by 1975.

NASA-LANL Manned Mars Mission 1985.

  • American manned Mars flyby. Study 1985. Joint Los Alamos/NASA design for a quick Mars flyby mission using hardware planned for development by NASA in the 1990's.

NASDA Japanese Experiment Module.

  • Japanese manned space station module. Launched to ISS in three sections, 2008-2009. The Japanese Experiment Module (JEM) has been a rare island of stability in the often tumultuous Space Station program.

NATO 1.

  • British military communications satellite. 4 launches, 1969.11.22 (Skynet 1A) to 1971.02.03 (NATO 2). Military communications.

NATO 3.

  • British military communications satellite. 4 launches, 1976.04.22 (NATO 3A) to 1984.11.14 (NATO 3D). Military communications.

Nauka.

  • Russian earth magnetosphere satellite. 45 launches, 1968.03.21 (Nauka) to 1979.08.17 (Cosmos 1122 Nauka). The Nauka containers were flown as piggy-back payloads aboard Zenit reconnaissance satellites. They served a dual purpose.

Nautilus.

  • American manned space station module. Study 2013. Inflatable pressurized habitat module for use in manned space stations, lunar, or interplanetary spacecraft or bases. Developed by Bigelow Aerospace using private funds.

Navesnoy otsek.

  • Alternate designation for Zarya NO manned spacecraft module.

Navigator.

  • American outer planets probe. Study 1962. 1962 JPL concept for a dedicated spacecraft to be launched by a Saturn C-2 or RIFT booster on missions to Mercury and Jupiter. Never went beyond preliminary study stage.

Navigator bus.

  • Satellite bus developed by Lavochkin 2000-2010 for use by a variety of earth-resource and scientific satellites. Dry mass 850 kg, propellant up to 540 kg, and payload up to 2600 kg. Solar panels provided 600-1100 watts maximum over a five-year designed operational life. Stabilized to within 2.5 deg by a hydrazine monopropellant system.

Navstar.

Navy SLV.

  • American manned lunar lander. Study 1961. The spacecraft for a US Navy lunar landing program that was to place a naval aviator on the moon by 1967.

NAZ-3.

  • Russian space emergency kit, operational 1968. The NAZ-3 emergency-landing kit was used in cosmonaut training in all seasons and extremes of temperature, and on all manner of terrain: mountains, steppes, tundra, desert, taiga, and in water.

NEAP.

  • American asteroid probe. Study 2002. Near Earth Asteroid Prospector (NEAP) was SpaceDev's first conceived commercial deep-space mission. The mission was planned as the first deep-space mission defined and executed by a non-governmental entity.

NEAR.

  • American asteroid probe. One launch, 1996.02.17. NEAR (Near Earth Asteroid Rendezvous) was the first spacecraft ever to orbit and then (improvisationally) land on an asteroid.

Near Earth Asteroid Rendezvous.

  • Alternate designation for NEAR asteroid probe.

Negev 5.

  • Israeli manned spacecraft. Study 2004. X-Prize suborbital balloon-launched ballistic spacecraft concept of IL Aerospace Technologies (ILAT), Israel.

Neman.

  • Alternate designation for Yantar-4KS1 military surveillance satellite.

Neptune.

  • American manned space station. Study 2018. A unique aspect of the Neptune stage-and-a-half commercial launch vehicle concept was that the main rocket structure, once in orbit, could act as a small space station.

Nerva.

  • American space tug. Study 1980. Upper stage / space tug - Development 1971.

Nerva 2/NTR.

  • American space tug. Study 2005. Upper stage / space tug - study completed 1991. Late 1980's update of 1960's Nerva design.

New Horizons.

  • American outer planets probe. One launch, 2006.01.19. New Horizons was the first spacecraft targeted on Pluto, the last unvisited body of the nine original planets known at the beginning of the space age. Pluto Flyby.

New Shepard.

  • American manned spacecraft. Flight tests begun 2006. Vertical takeoff/vertical landing suborbital tourist spacecraft being developed by Blue Origin and scheduled to begin commercial operation in 2010.

Next Generation Space Telescope.

  • Manufacturer's designation for WST visible astronomy satellite.

NF-104.

  • American manned rocketplane. Study 1959. The NF-104 aerospace trainer was a modified F-104A fighter, incorporating an LR-121 liquid fuel rocket engine in addition to the conventional J-79 turbojet engine.

NGST.

  • Code name for WST visible astronomy satellite.

Nika-T.

  • Russian materials science satellite. Study 1998. By the late 1990's the Foton Design Bureau anticipated testing a much more capable microgravity spacecraft as a follow-on to the successful Foton program.

Nimbus.

  • American earth weather satellite. 8 launches, 1964.08.28 (Nimbus 1) to 1978.10.13 (Nimbus 7).

NOAA KLM.

Nomad.

  • American earth rover. Study 1998. NOMAD was an unmanned rover developed by the Robotics Institute of Carnegie Mellon University to evaluate and demonstrate a robot capable of long distance and long duration planetary exploration.

Nonweiler Waverider.

  • British manned spaceplane. Study 1951. The Nonweiler Waverider of the 1950`s was the original caret wing waverider concept. Developed by Professor Terence R F Nonweiler, of Queen's University, Belfast.

Noordung.

  • Slovenian manned space station. Study 1928. Hermann Noordung (pseudonym for Capt. Potocnik of the Austrian Imperial Army) expanded the ideas of Hermann Oberth on space flight in a detailed description of an orbiting space observatory.

Nord.

  • Russian communications satellite. Study 1992. The Lavochkin NPO proposed the Nord highly elliptical communications systems in 1992. Nord was described as a 4-satellite network of 2,300-kg spacecraft launched by the Rus booster.

Northrop ALSS Rover.

  • American manned lunar rover. Study 1964. Northrop completed Molab Studies under a Apollo Logistic Support Systems contract in March 1964.

Northrop LBEC.

  • American manned rescue spacecraft. Study 1976. Northrop, building on its work on the HL-10 and M2-F3 lifting bodies, proposed a lifting body three-crew lifeboat. The piloted spacecraft would use a parasail for recovery.

Northrop LSS Lunar Rover RV-1.

  • American lunar rover. Study 1963. The Northrop Lunar Logistic System RV-1 unmanned lunar rover design of January 1963 had 3 wheels, rigidly mounted, and a range of 80 km.

Northrop LSS Lunar Rover RV-1A.

  • American manned lunar rover. Study 1963. The Northrop Lunar Logistic System RV-1A crewed rover of January 1963 had 4 tracks and a range of 2900 km on a 27 day traverse.

Northrop LSS Lunar Rover RV3 RV4.

  • American lunar rover. Study 1963. The unmanned portion of the January 1963 Northrop Lunar Logistic System had 4 articulated wheels and a range of 240 km.

Northrop LSS Lunar Rover RV5.

  • American manned lunar rover. Study 1963. This Northrop Lunar Logistic System design of January 1963 was a 3 wheel open cart and had a range of 30 km with a crew of 2. It could also tow the RV6 50 kg, 2 to 4 wheeled dolly or trailer.

Northrop LSS Lunar Rover RV7.

  • American manned lunar rover. Study 1963. The Northrop Lunar Logistic System RV7 was a lunar rover design of January 1963. The one-crew vehicle was designed for scooping and dozing operations.

Northrop LSS Lunar Rover RV8.

  • American manned lunar rover. Study 1963. The Northrop Lunar Logistic System RV8 was a lunar rover design of January 1963. Dual single-crew vehicles were designed to be operated separately or together as a system.

Northrop Molab.

  • American manned lunar rover. Study 1964. The Northrop Molab lunar rover design of March 1964 had 4 wheels, each a flexible torus or controlled flexible disc. It could accommodate a crew of 2 on a 14 day traverse.

Northrop Project 7969.

  • American manned spacecraft. Study 1958. Northrop's proposal for the Air Force initial manned space project was a boost-glide vehicle based on work done for the Dynasoar project.

Nose-Cone-Test.

  • American re-entry vehicle technology satellite. Suborbital.

NOSS.

  • American military naval signals reconnaisance satellite. 22 launches, 1971.12.14 (OPS 7898 P/L 1) to 1993.08.02 (TLD). Ocean surveillance; aka White Cloud type spacecraft; Navy Ocean Surveillance Satellite; PARCAE.

NOSS-2.

  • American military naval signals reconnaisance satellite. 5 launches, 1990.06.08 (USA 59) to 1996.05.12 (USA 122). New generation of NOSS naval reconnaissance satellites.

NOSS-2 subsatellite.

  • American military naval signals reconnaisance satellite. 6 launches, 1990.06.08 (USA 60) to 1991.11.08 (USA 77).

NOSS-3.

  • American military naval signals reconnaisance satellite. Operational, first launch 2001.09.08.

NOSS-Subsat.

  • American military naval signals reconnaisance satellite. 27 launches, 1976.04.30 (SSU 1 (NOSS 1)) to 1996.05.12 (USA 121). Detected the location of naval vessels using radio interferometry.

Nova.

  • Code name for TIP navigation satellite.

Nozomi.

  • Japanese Mars orbiter. One launch, 1998.07.03.

NPG.

  • Russian manned space station. Cancelled 1986. A later version of the 37K design for military experiments, the NPG Retained Payload, would be mounted in the payload bay of Buran and connected to the orbiter's cockpit area by an access tunnel.

NRL ELINT.

  • American military naval signals reconnaisance satellite. 6 launches, 1962.12.13 (Black Sphere) to 1969.09.30 (Surcal). NRL ELINT satellite.

NTS.

  • American navigation technology satellite. 2 launches, 1974.07.14 (NTS 1) and 1977.06.23 (NTS 2). Demonstrated navigation technologies.

NUSAT.

  • American military target satellite. One launch, 1985.04.29. Air traffic control radar calibration.

OAO.

  • American visible astronomy satellite. 4 launches, 1966.04.08 (OAO 1) to 1972.08.21 (OAO 3).

OAST-Flyer.

  • American technology satellite. One launch, 1996.01.11. GPS receiver, amateur radio tests; examined effect of solar radiation on satellite explosive devices; deployed from STS 72 1/14/96; retrieved 1/16/96.

Oblik.

  • Code name for Zenit-8 military surveillance satellite.

Obzor.

  • Russian earth resources radar satellite. Study 1992. The Arsenal Design Bureau proposed converting its military ocean reconnaissance spacecraft bus (EORSAT) into a civil remote sensing platform.

OCO.

  • Orbiting Carbon Observatory. Launched 2009.02.24,

OCSE.

  • American technology satellite. One launch, 2000.01.27. Optical Calibration Sphere Experiment, a 3.5m diameter inflatable sphere built by L'Garde Inc. for calibrating the lasers at the AFRL Starfire Optical Range.

ODERACS.

  • American military target satellite. 12 launches, 1994.02.03 (ODERACS A) to 1995.02.03 (ODERACS IIF). Orbital Debris Radar Calibration Spheres were small, low-earth orbiting calibration targets for ground based radar and optical systems.

Odin.

  • Swedish infrared astronomy satellite. One launch, 2001.02.20. Odin was a Swedish dual disciplinary (astrophysics and atmospheric science) spacecraft. The 250 kg, 340 W spacecraft had a pointing accuracy of 15 arcsec and a data storage capacity of 100 MB.

Odyssey.

  • American communications satellite network. Operations were planned in 1997 to begin by the end of 1998. However in the event the entire enterprise was cancelled when the dot-com / MEO satellite bubble burst.

OEX Target.

  • American technology satellite. One launch, 1985.11.27. Shuttle autopilot software test target.

Ofeq 1-2.

  • Israeli technology satellite. 2 launches, 1988.09.19 (Ofeq-1) to 1990.04.03 (Ofeq-2). Ofeq, meaning 'Horizon', was a technology demonstration satellite developed by IAI (Israel Aircraft Industries) for ISA (Israel Space Agency).

Ofeq 3.

  • Israeli military surveillance satellite. 4 launches, 1995.04.05 (Ofeq-3) to 2006.04.25 (EROS-B). Ofeq 3 was Israel's second-generation imaging surveillance satellite.

Ofeq 5.

  • Israeli military surveillance satellite. Operational, first launch 2002.05.28. Ofeq-5 was said to be about 33% heavier than its predecessors.

OFO.

  • American biology satellite. One launch, 1970.11.09. The Frog Otolith Experiment Package (FOEP) contained all apparatus necessary to assure survival of two frogs.

OGCh.

  • Russian military orbital bombing system. 24 launches, 1965.03.05 (FOBS) to 1971.08.08 (Cosmos 433).

OGO.

  • American earth magnetosphere satellite. 6 launches, 1964.09.05 (OGO 1) to 1969.06.05 (OGO 6).

Ohsumi.

  • Japanese technology satellite. 4 launches, 1966.09.26 (Ohsumi 1) to 1969.09.22 (Ohsumi 4). Small engineering test satellites lofted by Japan's first indigenous launch vehicle.

OICETS.

  • Code name for Kirari communications satellite.

Okean-3.

  • Manufacturer's designation for Okean-O earth resources radar satellite.

Okean-E.

  • Ukrainian earth resources radar satellite. 2 launches, 1979.02.12 (Cosmos 1076) to 1980.01.23 (Cosmos 1151). First prototype of Okean series. Development of methods for obtaining operational information on the Pacific Ocean.

Okean-O.

  • Ukrainian earth resources radar satellite. One launch, 1999.07.17.

Okean-O1.

  • Ukrainian earth resources radar satellite. 9 launches, 1986.07.28 (Cosmos 1766) to 2004.12.24 (Sich-1M). Third generation Soviet oceanographic research satellite, equipped with a side-looking radar, radiometer, and multi-spectral scanner.

Okean-OE.

  • Ukrainian earth resources radar satellite. 2 launches, 1983.09.28 (Cosmos 1500) to 1984.09.28 (Cosmos 1602).

OK-M.

  • Russian manned spaceplane. Study 1984. 1980's design for a spaceplane, smaller than Buran, to replace Soyuz and Progress spacecraft for space station crew rotation/replenishment tasks.

OK-M1.

  • Russian manned spaceplane. Study 1984. The OK-M1 manned spaceplane was designed by NPO Molniya as a follow-on to the OK-M of NPO Energia. The OK-M1 was an integrated part of a unique launch vehicle, the MMKS reusable multi-module space system.

OK-M2.

  • Russian manned spaceplane. Study 1984. The OK-M2 was a manned spaceplane, a straight delta wing joined to a broad fuselage with an upturned nose.

Oko.

  • Russian military early warning satellite. 86 launches, 1972.09.19 (Cosmos 520) to 2010.09.30. Work on the Soviet Union's first infrared ICBM launch detection satellite began in 1967 as the USK - space system to observe rocket launches.

Oktant, Kobalt-M.

  • Code name for Yantar-4K1 military surveillance satellite.

Oleg.

  • Alternate designation for Spektr manned space station.

OlympicSat.

  • Chinese technology satellite. One launch, 2004.04.18, Naxing 1. It was announced in July 2001 would China will launch two small satellites on one rocket. The first would be an engineering test satellite developed by Tsinghua University.

Olympus.

  • European communications technology satellite. One launch, 1989.07.12. This communications technology demonstration satellite tested direct television broadcast beams and was also equipped with conventional communications transponders.

Omega.

  • Russian technology satellite. 2 launches, 1963.04.13 (Cosmos 14) to 1963.12.13 (Cosmos 23). Early Cosmos satellite, evidently using the Yuzhnoye DS satellite bus. Payload developed by the VNIIEM to test electric gyrodyne orientation systems.

Omid.

  • Iranian technology satellite. 2 launches, 2008.08.16 (Omid) and 2009.02.02. First Iranian-built, Iranian-launched satellite.

OMV.

  • American space tug. Cancelled 1987. The Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle (OMV) was an important component in NASA's future Space Station plans in the 1980s.

Onyx.

  • Code name for Lacrosse civilian surveillance radar satellite.

OP.

  • Russian manned space station. Study 1962. Korolev's next attempt to win military support for development of the N-I was his fantastic 'Orbitalniy Poyas' (OP -Orbital Belt) scheme of 20 April 1962.

OPAL.

  • American technology satellite. One launch, 2000.01.27. Stanford University Orbiting Picosat Automated Launcher.

Opportunity.

  • Alternate designation for MER mars lander.

OPS.

  • Manufacturer's designation for Almaz and Almaz OPS manned space station.

OPS + TKS.

  • Russian manned space station. Cancelled 1976. Designation give to combined TKS+OPS Almaz station.

OPS-2.

  • Manufacturer's designation for Almaz OPS-2 manned space station.

Optical Inter-Orbit Communications Engineering Test Satellite.

  • Alternate designation for Kirari communications satellite.

Orbcomm.

  • American communications technology satellite. 31 launches, 1991.07.17 (Orbcomm-X) to 2008.06.19 (Orbcomm FM36). Orbcomm was a commercial venture to provide global messaging services using a constellation of 26 low-Earth orbiting satellites.

Orbiscal.

  • American earth ionosphere satellite. 7 launches, 1968.08.16 (AVL-802 Grid Sphere 7-1) to (AVL-802 Grid Sphere 7-1). Investigate effects of ionosphere on radio signals.

Orbital Escape System.

  • American manned rescue spacecraft. Study 1966.

Orbital Express Astro.

  • American rendezvous technology satellite. One launch, 2007.03.09, Astro. The active satellite of the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency's Orbital Express program.

Orbital Manoeuvring Vehicle.

  • Manufacturer's designation for OMV space tug.

Orbital Re-entry Experiment Vehicle.

  • Alternate designation for OREX re-entry vehicle technology satellite.

Orbital Scanner.

  • American navigation technology satellite. Study 1969.

Orbital Test Satellite.

  • Alternate designation for OTS communications technology satellite.

Orbital Transfer Vehicle.

  • Manufacturer's designation for OTV space tug.

Orbital Vehicle.

  • Indian manned spacecraft. Study 2015. Design of an Indian manned spacecraft began in October 2006. Dependent on a full funding decision at the end of 2008, planned first flight of the two-man capsule was 2015.

Orbital Workshop.

  • American manned space station. Study 1965. The Orbital Workshop (OWS) was a 1960's NASA program to create an embryonic space station in orbit using the spent S-IVB rocket stage of a Saturn IB.

Orbitalnky Poyas - Orbital Belt.

  • Alternate designation for OP manned space station.

Orbiting and Retrievable Far and Extreme UV Spectrometer.

  • Alternate designation for ORFEUS ultraviolet astronomy satellite.

Orbiting Astronomical Observatory.

  • Alternate designation for OAO visible astronomy satellite.

Orbiting Frog Otolith.

  • Alternate designation for OFO biology satellite.

Orbiting Geophysical Laborator.

  • Alternate designation for OGO earth magnetosphere satellite.

Orbiting Satellite Carrying Amateur Radio.

  • Alternate designation for Oscar amateur radio communications satellite.

Orbiting Work Shop.

  • Alternate designation for Skylab OWS manned space station module.

Orbview.

  • American civilian surveillance satellite. 2 launches, 2001.09.21 (Orbview-4) and 2003.06.26 (Orbview 3).

Orbview-2.

  • American civilian surveillance satellite. One launch, 1997.08.01. The SeaStar satellite carries the SeaWiFS instrument which was designed to monitor the color of the world's oceans.

Oreol.

  • Code name for DS-U2-GKA earth magnetosphere satellite.

Oreol-3.

  • Alternate designation for AUOS technology satellite.

OREX.

  • Japanese re-entry vehicle technology satellite. One launch, 1994.02.03. NASDA ballistic capsule used to test materials and acquire data related to atmospheric re-entry for use in design of Japanese HOPE spaceplane. Launch vehicle H-2.

ORFEUS.

  • American ultraviolet astronomy satellite. One launch, 1996.11.19. ORFEUS was a German astronomical satellite. It was deployed by the shuttle remote manipulating system arm and retrieved after six days of free flight.

Orion.

  • Code name for Zenit-4MT military surveillance satellite.

Orion.

  • American manned spacecraft. In development. NASA's Crew Excursion Vehicle for the 21st Century

Orion CM.

  • American manned spacecraft module. Orion re-entry vehicle (crew module). A 25% scale-up of the Apollo capsule of the 1960's.

Orion LAS.

  • American manned spacecraft module. Orion launch abort system; consists of launch escape tower, adapter cone, and boost protective cover. Provides emergency crew escape during early boost phase of ascent to orbit.

Orion Mars.

  • American manned Mars expedition. Study 1968. Nuclear pulse spacecraft for manned mission to Mars.

Orion SA.

  • American manned spacecraft module. Orion spacecraft adapter. Transition section between Service Module and Ares booster.

Orion SM.

  • American manned spacecraft module. Orion service module. Masses estimated based on delta-V released by NASA.

Orizont.

  • Romanian manned spacecraft. Study 2004. X-Prize suborbital ballistic spacecraft concept of Aeronautics and Cosmonautics Romanian Association. Reached the stage of engineering tests by 2003.

Orlan.

  • Russian space suit, operational 1978. The Orlan spacesuit was used for Russian EVA's on Salyut, Mir, and the International Space Station. It was designed by the Zvezda OKB, and derived from the Kretchet suit intended for use on the lunar surface.

Orlets.

  • Code name for Yantar-6K military surveillance satellite.

Orlets-1.

  • Alternate designation for Yantar-4K1 military surveillance satellite.

Orlets-1.

  • Russian military surveillance satellite. 8 launches, 1989.07.18 (Cosmos 2031) to 2006.09.14 (Cosmos 2423). Multi-purpose satellite, designed for both close-look and survey missions, equipped with a panoramic camera, equipped with 8 film return capsules.

Orlets-2.

  • Russian military surveillance satellite. 4 launches, 1986.10.22 (GVM) to 2000.09.25 (Cosmos 2372).

Orsted.

  • Danish earth magnetosphere satellite. One launch, 1999.02.23.

Oryol V3.

  • Alternate designation for OK-M1 manned spaceplane.

OS.

  • Russian manned space station. Study 1960. In 1960 Korolev proposed a military orbital station (OS), with a crew of 3 to 5, orbiting at 350 to 400 km altitude.

OS-1 (1965).

  • Russian manned space station. Reached mock-up stage, 1965.

OS-1 (1969).

  • Russian manned space station. Study 1969. By 1969 the giant OS-1 space station had evolved to this configuration.

OS-1 Lunar.

  • Russian manned lunar orbiter. Study 1969. A version of the OS-1 station was proposed for use in lunar orbit. No other details beyond this sketch.

OS-1962.

  • Russian manned space station. Study 1962. On 10 March 1962 Korolev approved the technical project "Complex docking of spacecraft in earth orbit - Soyuz". This contained the original Soyuz L1 circumlunar design.

Oscar.

  • International series of amateur radio communications satellites. Operational, first launch 1961.12.12. Launched in a variety of configurations and by many nations.

OSO.

  • American solar satellite. 9 launches, 1962.03.07 (OSO 1) to 1975.06.21 (OSO 8). The Orbiting Solar Observatories, developed for NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, were designed primarily as stabilized platforms for solar-oriented scientific instruments.

OSOAVIAKHIM.

  • Russian manned balloon. Flown 1934.

Osumi.

  • Japanese technology satellite. One launch, 1970.02.11, Ohsumi 5. Engineering test for the launching of scientific satellites. Injection point 29.7 N, 145.8 E.

OTS.

  • European communications technology satellite. Study 1978. Communications experiments satellite of the European Space Agency.

Otsek komponentov dozapravki.

  • Russian name (component module) for Progress M OKD manned spacecraft module.

OTV.

  • American space tug. Studied 1985-1989. The Orbital Transfer Vehicle was reusable space tug, powered by Lox/LH2 engines and equipped with an aerobrake allowing it to be returned for refueling and reuse at an orbiting space station.

Outpost.

  • American manned space station. Study 1958. In 1958, the year after Sputnik 1, Krafft Ehricke, then with General Dynamics' Convair Division, designed a four-man space station known as Outpost.

Outpost on the Moon.

  • American manned lunar base. Study 1987. Former astronaut Sally Ride was asked to head a task force to formulate a new NASA strategic plan in August 1986.

OV-099.

  • Manufacturer's designation for Challenger manned spaceplane.

OV1.

  • American earth magnetosphere satellite. 27 launches, 1965.01.21 (OV1-1) to 1971.08.07 (OV1-21P).

OV-101.

  • Manufacturer's designation for Enterprise manned spaceplane.

OV-102.

  • Manufacturer's designation for Columbia manned spaceplane.

OV-103.

  • Manufacturer's designation for Discovery manned spaceplane.

OV-104.

  • Manufacturer's designation for Atlantis manned spaceplane.

OV-105.

  • Manufacturer's designation for Endeavour manned spaceplane.

OV2.

  • American earth magnetosphere satellite. 6 launches, 1965.10.15 (OV2-01) to 1968.09.26 (OV2-05). OV2 satellites were built for the USAF Office of Aerospace Research, and flew as secondary payloads on Titan IIIC test flights.

OV3.

  • American earth magnetosphere satellite. 6 launches, 1966.04.22 (OV3-01) to 1967.12.05 (OV3-06). The OV3 GUS General Utility Satellite were built for the Air Force as part of the OV3 satellite series.

OV4.

  • American technology satellite. 3 launches, 1966.11.03 (OV4-03) to (OV4-01T). Whispering gallery experiments.

OV5.

  • American earth magnetosphere satellite. 8 launches, 1967.04.28 (OV5-03) to 1969.05.23 (OV5-09). OV5 was a version of the USAF Environmental Research Satellites dedicated to radiation research and VLF plasma wave detection.

Owl.

  • American earth ionosphere satellite. 2 launches, 1967.05.18 (Transit 16) to 1967.09.25 (Transit 17).

P 11.

  • American technology satellite. One launch, 1963.03.18, P-11.

P 72.

  • American military technology satellite. One launch, 1975.04.13. Unknown satellite lost on a single Atlas launch failure. Evidently not repeated.

P 76.

  • American communications technology satellite. One launch, 1976.05.22. Communications propagation experiments.

P 90.

  • Code name for APEX technology satellite.

P-14.

  • American solar satellite. 3 launches, 1961.02.24 (Explorer) to 1961.05.24 (Explorer). Magnetic field data.

P87-2.

P91-1.

  • Alternate designation for ARGOS ion engine technology satellite.

PAC.

  • American technology satellite. One launch, 1969.08.09. Package Attitude Control; semi-active gravity gradient stabilization tests.

PAET.

  • American military technology satellite. One launch, 1971.06.20. Suborbital.

Pageos.

  • American earth geodetic satellite. 3 launches, 1966.06.24 (Pageos 1) to (Pageos canister half). 100 foot diameter. balloon.

Pallada.

  • Russian communications satellite. Study 1993. The Pallada network was devised by the Moscow Radio Communications Research Institute for Commonwealth of Independent States communications services, including voice, telegraph, fax, and data transmissions.

PAMS.

  • American technology satellite. One launch, 1996.05.19. Passive attitude control technology test. Deployed from shuttle STS-77 on 5/22/96; Re-entered Oct 26.

PAN.

  • Classified communications satellite, perhaps providing services for the CIA to replace channels hosted on the US Navy's UHF Follow-On series. Stationed in geostationary orbit at 34 deg E.

Paracone.

  • American manned rescue spacecraft. Study 1963. The Douglas Paracone was one of the most minimal schemes for bail-out from orbit. The objective was to hit a continental land mass; for such purposes totally manual re-entry operations were used.

PARCAE.

  • Alternate designation for NOSS military naval signals reconnaisance satellite.

Parom.

  • Russian logistics spacecraft. Study 2009. In its latest iteration, RKK Energia's Parom was a reusable interorbital tug intended to transport cargo containers and the Kliper manned ferry from low earth orbit to the International Space Station.

Parus.

  • Russian navigation satellite. Operational, first launch 1974.12.26. Military satellite which provided navigation information and store-dump radio communications to Soviet naval forces and ballistic missile submarines.

Passive Aerodynamically Stabilized Magnetically Damped Satellite.

  • Alternate designation for PAMS technology satellite.

Pathfinder.

  • American manned spaceplane. Study 2003. Pioneer Rocketplane planned in the late 1990's to produce the Pathfinder aerial propellant transfer spaceplane.

Pchela.

  • Code name for Strela-2 military store-dump communications satellite.

PDP.

  • American earth magnetosphere satellite. One launch, 1985.07.29. Plasma Diagnostics Package; released by STS 51F 8/1/85, retrieved 8/2/85.

Pegasus.

  • American earth micrometeoroid satellite. 3 launches, 1965.02.16 (Pegasus 1) to 1965.07.30 (Pegasus 3). Pegasus satellites consisted of vast detector panels deployed from Saturn IV stages on Saturn I test flights.

Pegasus VTOVL.

  • American manned spacecraft. Study 1966. Bono design for semi-single-stage-to-orbit ballistic VTOVL launch vehicle.

Pegsat.

  • American earth magnetosphere satellite. One launch, 1990.04.05. Chemical release experiment.

Pehuensat.

  • Argentinan technology satellite. One launch, 2007.01.10. Experimental satellite developed by the Universidad Nacional del Comahue and AMSAT-LU. The satellte remained attached to the PSLV's Dual Launch Adapter.

Penguin.

  • Russian anti-zero-G suit, tested 1975. Prophylactic Body-Loading Suit, in use from 1978-; looked like the standard Russian blue in-flight suit, but had additional elastic bands and pulleys that created artificial force against which the body could work.

Peole.

  • French communications satellite. One launch, 1970.12.12. Gathered data from meteorological balloon system.

Personal Rescue Enclosure.

  • Alternate designation for Rescue Ball manned rescue spacecraft.

Pezzi Suit.

  • Italian pressure suit, used 1934-37. The first Italian pressure suit was used between 1934 and 1937 by Italian pilots Pezzi and Negroni to break altitude records with the Caproni 161, 161bis and 113 aircraft.

PFS.

  • American lunar orbiter. 2 launches, 1971.07.26 (Apollo 15 Subsatellite) to 1972.04.16 (Apollo 16 Subsatellite). Released from Apollo; particles and fields experiments. Lunar Orbit (Selenocentric).

PHAFO.

  • American pressure suit, tested 1977. Prototype High Altitude Flying Outfit. Prototype partial pressure suit by David Clark to integrate altitude, thermal, immersion, chemical defense and anti-G protection.

PH-D Proposal.

  • American manned Mars orbiter. Study 1981. 1981 Mars orbiter expedition design, using Phobos and Deimos as bases, and using solar electric propulsion.

Phobos Expedition 88.

  • American manned Mars expedition. Study 1988. Human Expedition to Phobos was one of four in-depth NASA case studies in 1988 in response to a perceived imminent Soviet manned Mars program.

Phoenix.

  • American Mars lander. One launch, 2007.08.04. Mars lander based on surplus hardware from the cancelled Mars Surveyor 2001 and the failed Mars Polar Lander (whence the Phoenix designation).

Phoenix Mars Lander.

  • American Mars lander.

Phoenix Mars Scout.

Picosat.

  • American tether technology satellite. One launch, 2001.09.07. Picosat 7/Picosat 8 were ejected from the Mightysat II.1 satellite. The 0.25 kg satellites were connected by a 30 m tether and were deployed a year after launch.

Pilot.

  • American technology satellite. 6 launches, 1958.07.25 (Pilot 1) to 1958.08.28 (Pilot 6). Pilot launches were deep-black tests of the US Navy's 1950's reconnaissance satellite and ASAT designs.

Piloted Gliding Spacecraft.

  • Alternate designation for PKA manned spaceplane.

Pilotiruemiy korabl.

  • Alternate designation for PK manned spacecraft.

Pion.

  • Russian earth atmosphere satellite. 6 launches, 1989.05.25 (Pion) to 1992.08.19 (Pion 2). Deployed from Resurs F1, which carried two passive separable "Pion" probes to investigate upper atmospheric density.

Pioneer 0-1-2.

  • American lunar orbiter. 3 launches, 1958.08.17 (Pioneer (1)) to 1958.11.08 (Pioneer 2). Pioneers 0, 1 and 2 were the first U. S. spacecraft to attempt to leave Earth orbit.

Pioneer 10-11.

  • American outer planets probe. 2 launches, 1972.03.03 (Pioneer 10) to 1973.04.06 (Pioneer 11). Pioneers 10 and 11 were the first spacecraft to fly by Jupiter (Pioneer 10 and 11) and Saturn (Pioneer 11 only).

Pioneer 12.

  • American Venus probe. One launch, 1978.05.20, Pioneer Venus Orbiter. Pioneer Venus Orbiter. Part of the Pioneer program Pioneer Venus Orbiter was designed to perform long-term observations of the Venusian atmosphere and surface features.

Pioneer 13.

  • American Venus probe. 5 launches, 1978.08.08 (Pioneer Venus 2) to (Pioneer Venus Probe 4). The Pioneer Venus Multiprobe consisted of a bus which carried one large and three small atmospheric probes.

Pioneer 3-4.

  • American lunar flyby probe. 2 launches, 1958.12.06 (Pioneer 3) to 1959.03.03 (Pioneer 4). Smaller than the previous Pioneers, Pioneer 3 and 4 each carried only a single experiment to detect cosmic radiation.

Pioneer 5.

  • American solar satellite. One launch, 1960.03.11. Pioneer 5 was designed to provide the first map of the interplanetary magnetic field. The vehicle functioned for a record 106 days, and communicated with Earth from a record distance of 36.2 million km.

Pioneer 6-7-8-9-E.

  • American solar satellite. 5 launches, 1965.12.16 (Pioneer 6) to 1969.08.27 (Pioneer E). Pioneers 6, 7, 8, and 9 were created to make the first detailed, comprehensive measurements of the solar wind, solar magnetic field and cosmic rays.

Pioneer P 3.

  • American lunar orbiter. 4 launches, 1959.11.26 (Pioneer (P 3)) to 1960.12.15 (Pioneer (P 31)). The least successful lunar spacecraft; none even achieved orbit in four attempts.

Pioneer XP.

  • American manned spaceplane. Study 2004. X-Prize suborbital spaceplane concept of Pioneer Rocketplane, Solvang, California. No backing forthcoming.

Pioneering the Space Frontier.

  • American manned Mars expedition. Study 1986. In 1984 a National Commission on Space was formed, with ex-NASA Administrator Thomas Paine at its head.

Pirs-1.

  • Russian military naval surveillance radar satellite. 2 launches, 1987.02.02 and 1987.07.10 .

Pirs-2.

  • Russian military naval radar satellite. Cancelled 1988. The Pirs-2 was the second phase nuclear-powered active-radar naval targeting spacecraft.

PIX.

  • American technology satellite. One launch, 1978.03.05. Plasma Interaction Experiment.

PK.

  • Russian manned spacecraft. Study 2018. This conical, six-crew space capsule represented the Russian Space Agency's preferred design to support Russian spaceflight in the 2018-2068 period.

PKA.

  • Russian manned spaceplane. Study 1959. In 1957, in response to the USAF Dynasoar project, Soviet aviation bureaus were tasked with producing draft project designs for a manned spaceplane.

Planck.

  • Space observatory designed to observe the fine detail of the cosmic microwave background. Planck reached the Earth-Sun L2 Lagrangian point in July 2009, and had successfully completed a second all-sky survey by February 2010. Launched 2009.05.14,

Planetary Atmosphere Experiment Test.

  • Alternate designation for PAET military technology satellite.

Planetary Mission Module.

  • American manned Mars orbiter. Study 1969. NASA had the long range goal of sending men to explore the planet Mars.

Planetary Society Mars Expedition 1983.

  • American manned Mars expedition. Study 1983. Chemically-powered Mars flyby-rendezvous landing mission designed by SAIC under contract to the Planetary Society in 1983.

Planet-B.

  • Alternate designation for Nozomi mars orbiter.

Plasma Diagnostics Package.

  • Alternate designation for PDP earth magnetosphere satellite.

Plazma-A.

  • Russian ion engine technology satellite. 2 launches, 1987.02.02 (Cosmos 1818) to 1987.07.10 (Cosmos 1867). In 1987 two experimental Plazma-A satellites (Cosmos 1818 and 1867) were launched with new-generation Topaz reactors.

PLR.

  • American manned lunar rover. Study 1992. A May 1992 USRA study by students at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University sketched out a design for a Pressurized Lunar Rover (PLR).

PMG.

  • American tether technology satellite. 2 launches, 1993.06.26 (PMG) and (PMG). Plasma Motor Generator

POGS.

Polar.

  • American earth magnetosphere satellite. One launch, 1996.02.24. Polar was designed to measure the entry, energization, and transport of plasma into the magnetosphere as part of the International Solar Terrestrial Program (ISTP).

Polar Beacon Experiment & Auroral Research.

  • Alternate designation for Polar Bear earth magnetosphere satellite.

Polar Bear.

  • American earth magnetosphere satellite. One launch, 1986.11.14. also known as STP P87-1, a military mission designed to study communications interference caused by solar flares and increased auroral activity.

Polar Platform.

  • American manned space station. Study 1984. In order to increase the Space Station's and Space Shuttle's appeal, NASA tried to involve as many users as possible.

Polyot.

  • Russian military anti-satellite system. 2 launches, 1963.11.01 (Polet 1; Polyot 1) to 1964.04.12 (Polet 2; Polyot 2). First prototype model of Chelomei's ASAT, used in an interceptor control and propulsion test.

Polyus.

  • Russian military anti-satellite system. One launch, 1987.05.15. The Polyus military testbed was put together on a crash basis as an answer to America's Star Wars program.

Posadochnaya stuplen.

  • Russian name (landing stage) for LEK PS manned spacecraft module.

Potok.

  • Russian military communications satellite. 10 launches, 1982.05.18 (Cosmos 1366) to 2000.07.04 (Cosmos 2371). Potok was one element of the second generation global command and control system (GKKRS) developed according to a decree of 17 February 1976.

Power Tower Space Station - 1984.

  • American manned space station. Study 1984. The NASA Concept Definition Team eventually selected the Boeing/Grumman 'Power Tower' design as its baseline.

PPM.

  • American space tug. Study 1968. The Primary Propulsion Module was the definitive 1960's design for a nuclear thermal rocket stage suitable for interplanetary operations.

PRE.

  • Manufacturer's designation for Rescue Ball manned rescue spacecraft.

Predvestnik.

  • Russian civilian surveillance satellite. Study 1998. The Predvestnik satellites were planned to form a space-based earthquake prediction system.

PreSat.

  • American technology satellite. Launched 2008.08.03,

Pressurized Lunar Rover - Dual Hull.

  • American manned lunar rover. Study 1992. An alternate April 1992 USRA study by students at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University sketched out a design for a Pressurized Lunar Rover (PLR) using dual hulls.

Priborniy otsek.

  • Russian name (equipment module) for Vostok PO manned spacecraft module.

Priborno-agregatniy otsek.

  • Russian name (equipment-propulsion module) for Soyuz TM PAO manned spacecraft module.

Primary Propulsion Module.

  • Alternate designation for PPM space tug.

Prime.

  • American manned spaceplane. 3 launches, 1966.12.21 (Prime 1) to 1967.04.19 (Prime 3). The Prime (Precision Recovery Including Maneuvering Entry) project was the second part of the USAF START program.

Priroda.

  • Russian manned space station. One launch, 1996.04.23. Priroda was the last Mir module launched. It was originally an all-Soviet remote sensing module for combined civilian and military surveillance of the earth.

PRISM.

  • Japanese military surveillance radar satellite. One launch, 2009.01.23. Remote sensing picosatellite built by the University of Tokyo, with a 10-cm aperture Earth imager on a 1-meter deployable boom.

Prisma.

  • Prototype Research Instruments and Space Mission technology Advancement satellite to test space rendezvous and formation-flight technologies. Consisted of 140 kg primary satellite and 40 kg target. Launched 2010.06.15.

PROBA.

  • European earth land resources satellite. One launch, 2001.10.22. Proba (PRoject for On-Board Autonomy, 1) was a European Space Agency technology development minisatellite with a mass of 94 kg.

Prognoz.

  • Russian earth magnetosphere satellite. 10 launches, 1972.04.14 (Prognoz 1) to 1985.04.26 (Intercosmos 23). This spacecraft, built by Lavochkin, was launched from 1972 for study of geomagnetic fields, radiation, and solar physics.

Prognoz SPRN.

  • Russian military early warning satellite. 15 launches, 1975.10.08 (Cosmos 775) to 2008.06.26 (Cosmos 2397). Development began of the Soviet Union's Prognoz geosynchronous ballistic missile early warning satellite in 1980.

Prognoz-M.

  • Russian earth magnetosphere satellite. 2 launches, 1995.08.02 (Interbol 1) to 1996.08.29 (Interbol 2). Interbol was originally an Intercosmos project with a launch planned for the late 1980's.

Program 102.

  • Alternate designation for Ferret military naval signals reconnaisance satellite.

Program 35.

  • American earth weather satellite. 5 launches, 1962.05.24 (P 35-1) to 1963.09.27 (P 35-1). First US weather satellite, classified for many years. Predecessor to the DMSP series of military satellites.

Program 366.

  • Alternate designation for Chalet military naval signals reconnaisance satellite.

Program 417, Program 35.

Program 437.

  • America's second operational anti-satellite system, launched on sub-orbital trajectories by Thor LV-2D's operated by the US Air Force from Johnson Atoll in the Pacific. Operational 1964-1970.

Program 472.

  • Manufacturer's designation for Rhyolite military naval signals reconnaisance satellite.

Program 505.

  • American military anti-satellite system. Operational 1962 to 1966. America's first ASAT system was Program 505, which used prototype Nike Zeus DM-15S anti-ballistic missiles, operated from Kwajalein Atoll by the U.S. Army.

Program 661A.

  • American ion engine technology satellite. Study 1961. In November of 1961, Electro-Optical Systems was awarded a contract by the U. S. Air Force to develop a 8.9 mN, cesium-contact ionization IPS for three sub-orbital flight tests.

Program 720.

  • Alternate designation for Rhyolite military naval signals reconnaisance satellite.

Program 770.

  • Code name for Ferret military naval signals reconnaisance satellite.

Program 922.

  • American military anti-satellite system. Study 1968. Program 922 was a non-nuclear sub-orbital ASAT in development in the late 1960's.

Program II.

  • Manufacturer's designation for DMSP Block 4A earth weather satellite.

Progress.

  • Russian logistics spacecraft. 43 launches, 1978.01.20 (Progress 1) to 1990.05.06 (Progress 42). Progress took the basic Soyuz 7K-T manned ferry designed for the Salyut space station and modified it for unmanned space station resupply.

Progress GO.

  • Russian manned spacecraft module. 43 launches, 1978.01.20 (Progress 1) to 1990.05.06 (Progress 42). Igla automatic rendezvous and docking system. Cargo section.

Progress M.

  • Russian logistics spacecraft. Operational, first launch 1989.08.23 (Progress M-1). Progress M was an upgraded version of the original Progress. New service module and rendezvous and docking systems were adopted from Soyuz T.

Progress M GO.

  • Russian manned spacecraft module. Operational, first launch 1989.08.23 (Progress M-1). Two Kurs-type rendezvous antennas. Cargo section.

Progress M OKD.

  • Russian manned spacecraft module. Operational, first launch 1989.08.23 (Progress M-1). Fuel module for refueling space stations. Refuelling section.

Progress M PAO.

  • Russian manned spacecraft module. Operational, first launch 1989.08.23 (Progress M-1). Improved PAO service module derived from Soyuz 7K-S with pressure-fed main engines and unitary RCS/main engine propellant feed system. Equipment-engine section.

Progress M VBK.

  • Russian manned spacecraft module. Two launched, 1993-1994. This payload return capsule was brought to the Mir space station aboard a Progress M freighter. It was loaded by the cosmonauts aboard the station, then reinstalled in the Progress M. Ballistic landing capsule - return of experimental materials from Mir space station.

Progress M1.

  • Russian logistics spacecraft. 11 launches, 2000.02.01 (Progress M1-1) to 2004.01.29 (Progress M1-11). Progress M1 was a modified version of the Progress M resupply spacecraft capable of delivering more propellant than the basic model to the ISS or Mir.

Progress M2.

  • Russian logistics spacecraft. Cancelled 1993. As Phase 2 of the third generation Soviet space systems it was planned to use a more capable resupply craft for the Mir-2 space station.

Progress M-SO.

  • Russian docking and airlock module for the International Space Station. First launch 2001.09.14. Delivered to the station by the Progress service module, which was jettisoned after docking.

Progress OKD.

  • Russian manned spacecraft module. 43 launches, 1978.01.20 (Progress 1) to 1990.05.06 (Progress 42). Fuel module for refueling space stations. Refuelling section.

Progress PAO.

  • Russian manned spacecraft module. 43 launches, 1978.01.20 (Progress 1) to 1990.05.06 (Progress 42). Derived from Soyuz 7K-OK basic PAO service module with pump-fed main engines and separate RCS/main engine propellant feed system. Equipment-engine section.

Project 581.

  • Chinese technology satellite. Study 1959. First Chinese satellite project, with the objective of placing a satellite in orbit by 1959.

Project 714.

Project 7969.

  • American manned spacecraft. Study 1959. North American was the final selected vendor for Manned-In-Space-Soonest. The 1360-kg ballistic capsule would be launched by an Atlas booster to an 185-km altitude orbit.

Project 921-1.

  • Alternate designation for Shenzhou manned spacecraft.

Project 921-1.

  • Chinese manned spacecraft. Study 1992. See Shenzhou

Project 921-2.

  • Chinese manned space station. Study 2007. Phase 2 of China's Project 921 was to culminate in orbiting of an 8-metric ton man-tended mini-space station.

Project 921-3.

Project Deimos.

  • American manned Mars expedition. Study 1964. Project Deimos was a Mars expedition proposed by Philip Bono in the mid-1960's. It would use the huge Rombus single-stage-to-orbit booster, refueled in earth orbit, as the propulsion system to Mars and back.

Project Gemini AMU Space Suit, 1966.

  • Alternate designation for G4C AMU space suit.

Project Horizon.

  • The project summary of the US Army's 1959 plan to place a military base on the moon by 1965!

Project Mer.

  • American manned spacecraft. Study 1956. April 1958 design of the Navy Bureau of Aeronautics for a Manned Earth Reconnaissance spacecraft - consisting of a cylindrical fuselage and telescoping, inflatable wings for flight in the atmosphere.

Project Selena.

  • American manned lunar base. Study 1964. Bono's enormous ROMBUS booster could fly all the way to the lunar surface and back if low Earth orbit rendezvous and propellant transfer were used. He therefore proposed using the booster to establish a lunar base.

Prospector.

  • American lunar rover. Study 1961. The Prospector spacecraft was a NASA/JPL unmanned lunar rover of the early 1960's.

Prospero.

  • British earth micrometeoroid satellite. 2 launches, 1970.09.02 (R-2) to 1971.10.28 (Prospero). Tested space equipment for future satellites and conducted a scientific experiment to measure the incidence of micro-meteoroids.

Proteus.

  • Proteus

PS Model.

  • Russian amateur radio communications satellite. 2 launches, 1997.10.05 (Sputnik-40) to 1998.10.25 (Spoutnik-41). Two subscale models of Sputnik 1, were built by students for hand-launch from Mir on fortieth anniversary of Sputnik 1.

PS-1.

  • Alternate designation for Sputnik 1 technology satellite.

PS-2.

  • Alternate designation for Sputnik 2 biology satellite.

Quad.

  • American manned lunar lander. Study 2009. Prototype lunar lander developed by Armadillo Aerospace with private funds. Quad was the only entry in the 2006 competition for the X-Prize Cup Lunar Lander challenge.

QuickBird.

  • American civilian surveillance satellite. One launch, 2001.10.18. The QuickBird commercial imaging satellite was owned by DigitalGlobe (formerly EarthWatch) and used a Ball BCP2000 bus with a launch mass of 1028 kg and a dry mass of about 995 kg.

QuikScat.

  • American earth sea satellite. One launch, 1999.06.20. Built under a NASA rapid delivery contract. Carried the SeaWinds scatterometer for remote sensing of ocean winds.

QZS.

  • QZS

R.

  • Alternate designation for Raketoplan manned spaceplane.

Radar Evaluation Pod.

  • American logistics spacecraft. One launch, 1965.08.21, Gemini 5 REP. The Radar Evaluation Pod was a small reflecting target released from Gemini spacecraft to test the rendezvous radar.

Radarsat.

  • Canadian earth resources radar satellite. Two launches, 1995.11.04 (Radarsat) and 2007.12.14 (Radarsat). Canada's Radarsat was a radar satellite featuring variable resolution, and different view angles at a number of preset positions.

Radcal.

  • American military target satellite. One launch, 1993.06.25. Radar calibration.

RADCAT.

  • American military technology satellite. 2 launches, 1968.08.16 (Radcat) and 1972.10.02 (RADCAT). Space craft engaged in investigation of spaceflight techniques and technology.

Radiation Experiment.

  • Alternate designation for REX earth ionosphere satellite.

Radiation Meteoroid.

  • Alternate designation for RM earth micrometeoroid satellite.

Radio.

  • Russian amateur radio communications satellite. 9 launches, 1978.10.26 (Radio Sputnik 1) to 1994.12.26 (Radio-ROSTO RS-15).

Radio Astronomy Explorer.

  • Alternate designation for RAE radio astronomy satellite.

Radio Test Spacecraft.

  • American tracking network technology satellite. One launch, 1961.11.01, Mercury-Scout 1. Small satellite was to have verified the readiness of the worldwide Mercury tracking network

Radiobook.

  • Russian communications satellite. Study 1991. The Radiobook network would utilize from 24 to 36 micro-satellites (10 kg or less) in a packet radio network, which could be launched with small boosters, including air-launched missiles.

RADOSE.

  • American earth magnetosphere satellite. One launch, 1963.06.15. Radiation dosimeter measurements.

Radsat.

  • American military technology satellite. One launch, 1972.10.02. Space craft engaged in investigation of spaceflight techniques and technology.

Raduga.

  • Code name for DS-P1-Yu military target satellite.

Raduga.

  • First Soviet geosynchronous communications satellite. Operational, first launch 1974.03.26. A single orbital group of two Radugas could handle all communications of the Russian eastern regions.

Raduga-1.

  • Russian communications satellite. 8 launches, 1989.06.21 (Raduga 1-1) to 2007.12.09 (Raduga-1). The Raduga-1 geosynchronous communications satellite was to have been the basis for the YeSSS-2 second generation Unified Satellite Communication System.

RAE.

  • American radio astronomy satellite. 2 launches, 1968.07.04 (Explorer 38) to 1973.06.10 (Explorer 49).

RAE Orbital Fighter.

  • British manned spaceplane. This Royal Aircraft Establishment Orbital Fighter proposal of the 1960's envisioned a two stage vehicle. A ramjet powered first stage would release a second stage orbiter similar to, but smaller than, the US Dynasoar.

RAF Jerkin System.

  • British pressure suit, operational 1955. The RAF Jerkin System comprised a pressure vest used with a P/Q mask and anti-G suit. Several variations included unsleeved, sleeved and integrated garments proven for short term protection to 18 km.

Raketoplan.

  • Russian manned spaceplane. Developed from 1959, including suborbital hardware tests, before cancellation in 1964.

Ranger 1-2.

  • American lunar impact probe. 2 launches, 1961.08.23 (Ranger 1) to 1961.11.18 (Ranger 2).

Ranger 3-4-5.

  • American lunar lander. 3 launches, 1962.01.26 (Ranger 3) to 1962.10.18 (Ranger 5).

Ranger 6-7-8-9.

  • American lunar impact probe. 4 launches, 1964.01.30 (Ranger 6) to 1965.03.21 (Ranger 9). After a series of failures with the more ambitious early Ranger spacecraft, the design was simplified and the lander was deleted.

Ratler.

  • American earth rover. Tested 1995. Robotic All Terrain Lunar Exploration Rover demonstrated the use of existing technology for lunar exploration missions.

RD-301.

  • Russian space tug. Study 1975. Upper stage / space tug using high energy propellants. To have been launched by Proton; ground tested but never flown.

Recoverable Test Satellite.

  • Alternate designation for FSW military surveillance satellite.

Re-Entry Escape System.

  • American manned rescue spacecraft. Study 1963. One crew lifting re-entry capsule. No abort capability. Mass per crew 1171 kg.

Re-Entry Glider-Six Crew.

  • American manned rescue spacecraft. Study 1963. A six-man parasail escape system was studied as an elaboration of the single-crew system. It was to provide rescue from manned spacecraft as well as stations.

Reentry Vehicle.

  • Alternate designation for Big Gemini RV manned spacecraft module.

Reflektor.

  • Russian technology satellite. One launch, 2001.12.10. The 8 kg Reflektor was built by NII KP in Russia for space debris studies in a joint experiment with the Air Force Research Lab.

Reimei.

  • Japanese technology satellite. One launch, 2005.08.23. Plasma Science Technology. INDEX, renamed Reimei ("Dawn") after launch, was a test satellite with new lightweight satellite components, and a demonstration auroral imager payload.

Relay.

  • American communications technology satellite. 2 launches, 1962.12.13 (Relay 1) and 1964.01.21 (Relay 2).

Relay Mirror Experiment.

  • Alternate designation for RME military strategic defense satellite.

Remova.

  • Russian logistics spacecraft. Study 1962. Remova was a Soviet Manned Maneuvering Unit design that first appeared in a German book in 1967. It was said that the study was made at the beginning of the 1960's.

Republic Moon Suit.

  • American pressure suit, tested 1966. This was a Republic Aviation design for a hard space suit for extended operations on the lunar surface.

Republic Project 7969.

  • American manned spacecraft. Study 1958. Republic's studies for the Air Force or NACA initial manned space project started at the beginning of 1958. Their unique concept was a lifting re-entry vehicle, termed the Ferri sled.

Rescue Ball.

  • American manned rescue spacecraft. Study 1984. The Personal Rescue Enclosure (PRE) Rescue Ball was an 86 cm diameter high-tech beach ball for transport of astronauts from a spacecraft in distress to the space shuttle.

Rescue Gemini.

  • American manned rescue spacecraft. Study 1966. A version of Gemini was proposed for rescue of crews stranded in Earth orbit. This version, launched by a Titan 3C, used a transtage for maneuvering.

Resupply Module.

  • Alternate designation for Apollo RM logistics spacecraft.

Resurs F1-14F40.

  • Russian earth land resources satellite. 7 launches, 1986.07.16 (Cosmos 1762) to 1988.02.18 (Cosmos 1920). The Resurs-F earth resource satellite was based on the recoverable Zenit-4 spy satellite.

Resurs F1-14F43.

  • Russian earth land resources satellite. 18 launches, 1988.05.31 (Cosmos 1951) to 1993.08.24 (Resurs F-19). A decree of 5 May 1977 authorized development of three earth resource satellites.

Resurs F1-17F41.

  • Russian earth land resources satellite. 29 launches, 1979.09.05 (Cosmos 1127) to 1986.05.28 (Cosmos 1746). The 17F41 was the first of 4 models of the Resurs-F to fly.

Resurs F1M.

  • Russian earth land resources satellite. 2 launches, 1997.11.17 (Resurs F-1M) to 1999.09.28 (Resurs F-1M). Variant of the Resurs-F recoverable earth resources satellite. See Resurs F1-17F40 for a full technical description.

Resurs F2.

  • Russian earth land resources satellite. 11 launches, 1987.12.26 (Cosmos 1906) to 1995.09.26 (Resurs F2 N.10). Adaptation of recoverable Vostok spacecraft for remote sensing.

Resurs-O1.

  • Russian earth land resources satellite. 4 launches, 1985.10.03 (Cosmos 1689) to 1998.07.10 (Resurs-O1 No. 4). A decree of 5 May 1977 authorized development of three earth resource satellites.

Resurs-O2.

  • Ukrainian earth land resources satellite. Study 1980.

Resurs-OE.

  • Russian earth land resources satellite. 2 launches, 1980.06.18 (Meteor 1-30) to 1983.07.24 (Cosmos 1484). Modified Meteor; prototype for Resurs-O1.

Resurs-Spektr.

  • Russian civilian surveillance satellite. Study 1994.

Resurs-T.

  • Designation for civilian missions of Zenit-2M and Zenit-8 military surveillance satellites.

Retropack.

Reusable Orbital Carrier.

  • American manned spaceplane. Study 1964. The Reusable Orbital Carrier (ROC) was a 1964 Lockheed study of a sled-launched HTHL TSTO. The second stage orbiter rocketplane would use Lox/LH2 propulsion to orbit and make an unpowered glide return and landing.

Reusable Transport Spacecraft - Vertical Landing.

  • Alternate designation for MTKVA manned spaceplane.

REX.

  • American earth ionosphere satellite. 2 launches, 1991.06.29 (REX) and 1996.03.09 (REX-II). The REX satellites were designed to study scintillation effects of the Earth's atmosphere on RF transmissions.

Rhyolite.

  • American military naval signals reconnaisance satellite. 4 launches, 1970.06.19 (Rhyolite 1) to 1978.04.07 (Rhyolite 4).

Rib Stiffened Expandable Escape System.

  • American manned rescue spacecraft. Study 1968. This Rockwell concept was stowed in a canister. In an emergency, the articulated rib-truss structure would be deployed into a mechanically rigid aeroshell shape.

Ride Report.

  • American manned Mars expedition. Study 1987. Former astronaut Sally Ride was asked to head a task force to formulate a new NASA strategic plan in August 1986.

Rigidsphere.

  • American military target satellite. One launch, 1971.08.07. Space craft engaged in investigation of spaceflight techniques and technology.

RISP.

  • American lunar flyby probe. Study 1959. The Recoverable Interplanetary Space Probe was a 1957 proposal of the MIT Instrumentation Laboratory.

RKK Energia.

  • Manufacturer's designation for Marpost manned mars expedition.

RM.

  • American earth micrometeoroid satellite. 2 launches, 1968.08.16 (RM-18) and 1970.11.09 (RM-1; RMS). Spacecraft engaged in research and exploration of the upper atmosphere or outer space.

RME.

  • American military strategic defense satellite. One launch, 1990.02.14, USA 52. The Relay Mirror Experiment (RME) was launched as a dual payload with LACE.

Robo.

  • American manned combat spacecraft. Study 1955. Hypersonic manned rocket bomber project of the 1950's. Predecessor to Dynasoar.

Robotic Satellite Servicer.

  • American logistics spacecraft. Studied for ISS, but cancelled when the station's free-flying space platforms were deleted.

Rocket Bomber.

  • Alternate designation for Robo manned combat spacecraft.

Rocket Chair.

  • American manned lunar lander. Study 2005. In 2005 SpaceDev resurrected the 1960 NASA Langley individual crew lunar lander concept.

Rocketplane XP.

  • American manned spaceplane. Study 2015. The Rocketplane XP Vehicle was a proposed suborbital manned spaceplane with accommodations for four crew.

Rockwell SHS.

  • American manned rescue spacecraft. Study 1976. The Rockwell Spherical Heat Shield escape concept used a return capsule shell like a Vostok capsule cut in half. Two crew could be returned in a pressurized environment. Mass per crew 220 kg.

ROCSAT.

  • Taiwanese earth sea satellite. 3 launches, 1999.01.27 (ROCSAT-1) to 2008.10.01 (ROCSAT 2). Taiwan's ROCSAT (Republic of China Satellites) were built for Taiwan's National Space Program Office.

ROentgen SATellite.

  • Alternate designation for ROSAT x-ray astronomy satellite.

Rohini.

  • Indian earth land resources satellite. 2 launches, 1980.07.18 (Rohini RS-1) and 1983.04.17 (Rohini 3). Experimental-technology mission.

Rohini 1A.

  • Indian technology satellite. One launch, 1979.08.10.

Rohini 2.

  • Indian technology satellite. One launch, 1981.05.31.

Romb.

  • Alternate designation for Taifun-2 military target satellite.

Romb.

  • Russian military target satellite. Study 1971. Radar reflective subsatellites, released by Taifun-1, Taifun-2, and Taifun-3 spacecraft, for calibration of PVO air and space defense radars.

ROS-17K.

ROSAT.

  • German x-ray astronomy satellite. One launch, 1990.06.01. West German extreme UV, X-ray telescope; all-sky survey.

Rosetta.

  • European comet probe. One launch, 2004.03.02. European comet orbiter/landing mission.

Roton.

  • American manned spacecraft. Study 2000. The Roton was a piloted commercial space vehicle design intended to provide rapid and routine access to orbit for both its two-person crew and their cargo.

Rotor.

  • Code name for Zenit-4M military surveillance satellite.

Rover First.

  • American manned lunar rover. Study 1992. Boeing updated their Apollo-era MOLAB pressurized rover concept in 1992. The concept, dubbed "Rover First," was smaller than the traditional pressurized rovers, and did not require a separate landing vehicle.

RP.

  • Russian military anti-satellite system. Study 1985. For interception of enemy ICBM's during boost phase NPO Energia developed a space based rocket interceptor (RP) similar to American 'Brilliant Pebble' systems.

RP-318.

  • Russian manned rocketplane. Korolev adapted his SK-9 glider in 1936 as the first rocked-powered aircraft in the Soviet Union.

RS-300.

  • American technology satellite bus, first launched 2007.03.09. Ball Aerospace's RS-300 was a small, low-cost spacecraft aimed at cost-capped principle investigator led missions for Earth or space science.

RSS-52.

  • Alternate designation for M-42 and M-44 manned rocketplanes.

Rubicon.

  • American manned spacecraft. Study 2004. X-Prize suborbital ballistic spacecraft concept of STC.

Rubin.

  • German technology microsatellite. 8 launches, the first on 2000.07.15 (Rubin). Rubin was developed by OHB and students of the Hochschule Bremen.

RX-Series.

  • American space suit, tested 1964. RX-1 Litton full pressure hardsuit, weighed 40 kg, rolling convolute joint technology, 2-plane enclosure, modular sizing, 1964. Followed by RX-2, 40 kg. in 1964 and RX-2A, 36 kg in 1964.

Ryusei.

  • Code name for OREX re-entry vehicle technology satellite.

S-1.

  • American earth magnetosphere satellite. 2 launches, 1959.07.16 (Explorer) to 1959.10.13 (Explorer 7). Magnetic field, solar flare data.

S-100.

  • American pressure suit, operational 1965. Pressure suit which introduced many modifications from the early MC-3A capstan suits.

S1010.

  • American pressure suit, operational 1968. A special variant of the S901, designated the S1010 PPA, was developed specifically for use in the U-2R aircraft in the mid-1960s.

S1024.

  • Manufacturer's designation for A-P22S-6 space suit.

S1024B.

  • Manufacturer's designation for A-P22S-6A space suit.

S-1029.

  • American pressure suit, tested 1965. Developmental bladder type partial pressure suit.

S1030.

  • American pressure suit, operational 1970. Upgraded SR-71 full pressure suit, link net with integrated subsystems.

S1030A.

  • Manufacturer's designation for EES space suit.

S1031.

  • American pressure suit, operational 1980. The S1010 and several S1010 dash variants were later replaced by a further advanced model, the S1031 PPA. The S1031 special projects full pressure suit came in 12 sizes and was used in the TR-1 and U-2R.

S1032.

  • Manufacturer's designation for Shuttle LES space suit.

S1034.

  • American pressure suit, operational 1991.

S1035.

  • Manufacturer's designation for ACES space suit.

S1035X.

  • Manufacturer's designation for D-1 space suit.

S-15.

  • American solar satellite. One launch, 1961.04.27, Explorer 11. Gamma ray data.

S-2.

  • American earth magnetosphere satellite. One launch, 1959.08.07, Explorer 6. First Earth photo; radiation data.

S-2 Pressure Suit.

  • American pressure suit, operational 1953. The S-2 was a modified capstan partial pressure suit evolved from the T-1 with no anti-G and no chest bladder. It was produced in 12 sizes for bomber aircraft.

S-30.

  • American earth ionosphere satellite. One launch, 1960.11.03, Explorer 8. Ionospheric research.

S-4.

  • American pressure suit, operational 1955. The S-4 was a modified S-2 partial pressure suit, no anti-G, chest bladder incorporated for ease of breathing.

S-46.

  • American earth magnetosphere satellite. One launch, 1960.03.23, Explorer.

S-55.

  • American earth micrometeoroid satellite. 4 launches, 1961.06.30 (Explorer (13) S 55) to 1964.11.06 (Explorer 23). Micrometeoroid research.

S-56.

  • American earth atmosphere satellite. 2 launches, 1960.12.04 (Explorer (9) S 56) to 1961.02.16 (Explorer 9). 12 foot diameter. balloon; atmospheric density studies.

S73-7 Cal Balloon.

  • American military target satellite. One launch, 1974.04.10.

S80/T.

  • French communications technology satellite. Study 1992. Experimental communications satellite.

S901/970.

  • American pressure suit, operational 1962. A-12, F-12A and SR-71 full pressure suit; integrated subsystems, parachute harness, automatic flotation system, urine collection device, redundant pressure control and breathing system, thermal protective garment.

S-939.

  • American space suit, cancelled 1962. Full Pressure Suit for the X-20A Dyna-Soar program.

SA-200.

  • The Spectrum Astro SA-200 satellite bus provided a flexible platform for satellites launched by the Pegasus booster. 4 launches, 2000.07.19 (Mightysat 2.1) to 2009.05.05.

SA-200HP.

SA-200LL.

  • Manufacturer's designation for Swift gamma ray astronomy satellite.

SA-200S.

  • Manufacturer's designation for HESSI solar satellite.

SabreRocket.

  • American manned spaceplane. Study 2004. X-Prize suborbital spaceplane concept of Panaero, Fairfax, Virginia. It envisioned conversion of a Sabre-40 business jet to rocket power.

SAC-A.

  • Argentinan technology satellite. One launch, 1998.10.29. The Scientific Applications Satellite-S (SAC-A) was a small, ejectable, low cost Argentinean satellite that was launched during the STS-88 Space Shuttle Endeavour mission.

SAC-B.

  • Argentinan solar satellite. One launch, 1996.11.04. SAC-B, an Argentine / US mission, was designed to study solar physics and astrophysics through the examination of solar flares, gamma-ray burst sources and the diffuse soft X-ray cosmic background.

SAC-C.

  • Argentinan earth land resources satellite. One launch, 2000.11.21. The SAC-C Satelite de Aplicaciones Cientificas C was developed by the Argentine space agency CONAE and built by the Argentine company INVAP.

SACI.

  • Brazilian technology satellite. 2 launches, 1999.10.14 (SACI 1) and 1999.12.11 (SACI-2). INPE experimental scientific satellites; carried a magnetometer, particle detectors and an atmospheric experiment.

Saenger I.

  • German manned spaceplane. Study 1964. MBB design for a vertical-launch, horizontal landing two-stage winged launch vehicle.

Safe Haven.

  • European manned space station. Study 2020. The ATV could evolve towards an unmanned free-flying laboratory providing a better microgravity level than the ISS.

Safir.

  • German civilian store-dump communications satellite. One launch, 1998.07.10. Relay satellite built by OHB System of Bremen.

Safir Iran.

  • Iranian technology satellite. Study 2005. Minimum satellite equipped like the first Sputnik with only a transmitter to confirm that it achieved orbit. Planned for launch by the Iranian Shahab-3 launcher in early 2005.

SAGE.

  • American earth atmosphere satellite. One launch, 1979.02.18. Studied dust, liquid droplets in upper atmosphere.

SAINT.

  • American military anti-satellite system. Cancelled 1963.

SAINT II.

  • American manned combat spacecraft. Cancelled 1961. At the beginning of the 1960's, the USAF examined a number of approaches to a manned spacecraft designed to rendezvous with, inspect, and then, if necessary, destroy enemy satellites.

Salkeld Shuttle.

  • American manned spaceplane. Study 1965. 1965 concept for a manned spaceplane equipped with drop tanks, which would be air-launched from a C-5

Salyut 1.

  • Russian manned space station. 2 launches, 1971.04.19 (Salyut 1) and 1972.07.29 (Zarya s/n 122). Salyut 1 was the first DOS long duration orbital station.

Salyut 4.

  • Russian manned space station. 2 launches, 1973.05.11 (Cosmos 557) to 1974.12.26 (Salyut 4). Four of the initial DOS-1 versions of a civilian Soviet space station were built using converted Almaz military stations.

Salyut 6.

  • Russian manned space station. One launch, 1977.09.29. The Salyut 6 space station was the most successful of the DOS series prior to Mir. It was aloft for four years and ten months, completing 27,785 orbits of the earth.

Salyut 7.

  • Russian manned space station. One launch, 1982.04.19. Salyut 7 was the back-up article for Salyut 6 and very similar in equipment and capabilities.

Samolyot 5.

  • Russian manned rocketplane. Cancelled 1949. Bisnovat was assigned the project to develop an all-Soviet equivalent to the 346 supersonic rocketplane being developed by the German Roessing team in OKB-2.

Samos.

  • American military surveillance satellite. 17 launches, 1960.10.11 (Samos 1) to 1962.11.11 (Samos 11). First generation photo surveillance; return of camera and film by capsule; program still partially classified, evidently due to embarrassment.

SAMPEX.

  • American earth magnetosphere satellite. One launch, 1992.07.03.

San Marco.

  • Italian earth atmosphere satellite. 5 launches, 1964.12.15 (San Marco 1) to 1988.03.25 (San Marco D/L). Atmospheric density studies.

Sapphire.

  • American technology satellite. One launch, 2001.09.30. SAPPHIRE (a US DoD-funded microsatellite) was built by Stanford University students and carried experimental infrared horizon sensors, a voice synthesizer and a digital camera.

SARA.

  • French radio astronomy satellite. One launch, 1991.07.17. Radioastronomy.

SAR-Lupe.

  • German military surveillance radar satellite. 5 launches, 2006.12.19 (SAR-Lupe 1) to 2008.07.22 (SAR-Lupe 5). Germany's first satellite-based radar reconnaissance system. It consisted of five identical small satellites and a ground segment.

SAS.

  • Italian solar satellite. 3 launches, 1970.12.12 (Explorer 42) to 1975.05.07 (Explorer 53).

Satélite de Aplicaciones Científicas.

  • Alternate designation for SAC-B solar satellite.

SATEC.

  • Brazilian technology satellite.

Satelite de Aplicaciones/Cientifico-A.

  • Alternate designation for SAC-A technology satellite.

Satelite de Coleta de Dados.

  • Alternate designation for SCD communications technology satellite.

SAtellite INTerceptor.

  • Alternate designation for SAINT military anti-satellite system.

Satellite Italiano Ricerca Industriale Orientata.

  • Alternate designation for Sirio communications technology satellite.

Satellite pour Astronomie Radio Amateur.

  • Alternate designation for SARA radio astronomy satellite.

Satellite Probatoire d'Observation de la Terre.

  • Alternate designation for SPOT-1-2-3 earth land resources satellite.

Satrec.

  • The South Korean Satrec Initiative built on earlier Kitsat technology to develop 100-kg and 200-kg satellite buses for national and international customers.

Saturn II Stage Wet Workshop.

  • American manned space station. Study 1964. Wernher von Braun made a rough sketch of a space station based on fitting out of an expended Saturn II stage in orbit on 24 November 1964.

Saturn MS-IVB-1.

  • American space tug. Study 1965. Upper stage / space tug - Marshall studies, 1965. Launched by Saturn V. S-IVB structurally strengthened to handle larger payloads, otherwise unchanged

Saturn MS-IVB-1A.

  • American space tug. Study 1966. Upper stage / space tug - Boeing study 1967. Launched by Saturn V. S-IVB with 16.5 foot stretch, 350,000 pounds propellant, standard J-2 engine.

Saturn MS-IVB-2.

  • American space tug. Study 1965. Upper stage / space tug - Douglas study, 1965. Launched by Saturn V. S-IVB with 315 k high pressure 3000 psia engine, 350,000 pounds propellant

Saturn MS-IVB-3B.

  • American space tug. Study 1967. Upper stage / space tug - Boeing study, 1967. Launched by Saturn V. S-IVB with 16.5 foot stretch, 350,000 pounds propellant, 1 x 400,000 pound thrust toroidal engine.

Saturn MS-IVB-4(S)B.

  • American space tug. Study 1967. Upper stage / space tug - studied by Boeing in 1967. Standard S-IVB but with structural strength increased from 78% to 217% depending on station, resulting in 11.8% increase in empty weight.

Saturn MS-IVB-x.

  • American space tug. Study 1965. Upper stage / space tug - studied by NASA Marshall in 1965. Launched by Saturn V. S-IVB structurally strengthened to handle larger payloads, otherwise unchanged

Saturn S-N C-3BN.

  • American space tug. Study 1961. Upper stage / space tug - Study 1961. Launched by Saturn C-5N-3. Nuclear upper stage considered in lieu of S-IVB in final Saturn C-3B study in November 1961.

Saturn S-N C-5N.

  • American space tug. Study 1961. Upper stage / space tug - Study 1961. Launched by Saturn C-5N-3. Nuclear upper stage considered in lieu of S-IVB in final Saturn C-5 study in November 1961.

Saturn S-N V-25(S)U.

  • American space tug. Study 1968. Upper stage / space tug - study 1969. Launched by Saturn V-25(S)U. Version of Nerva studied by Boeing for manned Mars expedition.

SaudiComsat.

  • Saudi military communications satellite. 5 launched, 2007.04.17.

Saudisat.

  • Saudi amateur radio communications satellite. 7 launches, 2000.09.26 (SaudiSat 1A) to 2007.04.17 (Saudisat 2).

SAVER.

  • American manned rescue spacecraft. Study 1966. The Rockwell SAVER concept provided return of a single crew member in his ejection seat. A nosecap only the size of the seat absorbed most of the re-entry heat.

SAX.

  • Italian x-ray astronomy satellite. One launch, 1996.04.30, Beppo SAX. Satellite per Astronomia a raggi X; X-ray celestial observatory

SBD.

  • American technology satellite. One launch, 2001.09.21. SBD, the Orbital Corporation Special Bus Design, was a 73 kg test version of an enlarged Microstar bus.

Sbracyvaemiy oporniy konus.

SCATHA.

  • American communications technology satellite. One launch, 1979.01.30.

SCD.

  • Brazilian communications technology satellite. 3 launches, 1993.02.09 (SCD-1) to 1998.10.23 (SCD-2). Environmental data relay.

SCE.

Science and Applications Manned Space Platform.

  • American manned space station. Study 1980. While NASA/Johnson was studying the Space Operations Center concept, the Marshall Space Flight Center was lobbying for its own station -- the Science and Applications Manned Space Platform (SAMSP).

Science and Technology Satellite.

  • Alternate designation for STSat technology satellite.

SCISAT.

  • Canadian earth atmosphere satellite. One launch, 2003.08.13.

Score.

  • American communications technology satellite. One launch, 1958.12.18. Signal Communication by Orbiting Relay Equipment; first communications satellite; transmitted taped messages for 13 days.

SDI.

  • American military strategic defense satellite. 18 launches, 1986.09.05 (USA 19) to 1989.03.24 (USA 36). SDIO sensor tests.

SDO.

  • NASA's Solar Dynamics Observatory mission was to observe the Sun for a five year period from an inclined geosynchronous orbit. From there the satellite could constantly download data to the White Sands ground station, while minimizing the time spent in Earth's shadow. The satellite's three instruments measured the extreme ultraviolet radiation output, returning up to 150 million bits of data per second. Launched 2010.02.11,

SDS.

  • American military communications satellite. 7 launches, 1976.06.02 (SDS no. 1) to 1987.02.12 (USA 21). SDS satellites, put into Molniya-type orbits, provided data relay services for optical reconnaissance and other military spacecraft.

SDS-2.

  • American military communications satellite. 4 launches, 1989.08.08 (USA 40) to 1996.07.03 (USA 125).

SDS-3.

  • American military communications satellite, provided data relay services for optical reconnaissance and other military spacecraft. Operational, first launch 2000.12.06.

SDS-C.

  • Manufacturer's designation for CAPRICORN military communications satellite.

Seasat.

  • American earth resources radar satellite. One launch, 1978.06.27. Seasat was the first satellite designed for remote sensing of the Earth's oceans with synthetic aperture radar (SAR).

SeaStar; SeaWiFS.

  • Alternate designation for Orbview-2 civilian surveillance satellite.

SECOR.

  • American earth geodetic satellite. 13 launches, 1962.01.24 (Secor) to 1969.04.14 (SECOR 13).

SECS.

  • Alternate designation for GLOMR military store-dump communications satellite.

SECS/OTS.

  • British military communications satellite. Study 1990. United Kingdom military communications satellite; 1 deg W. Owner/operator: UK Ministry of Defense. Expected operational life 10 years.

SEDS.

  • American tether technology satellite. 4 launches, 1993.03.30 (SEDS 1) to 1994.03.10 (SEDS 2 Deployer).

SEDSAT.

  • American technology satellite. One launch, 1998.10.24. The SEDSAT micro-satellite was built by the Huntsville, Alabama chapter of SEDS (the Students for the Exploration and Development of Space).

SEEDS.

  • Japanese technology satellite. One launch, 2008.04.28. Nihon University at Tokyo nanosat.

Self-Deploying Space Station.

  • American manned space station. Study 1963. The first space station designs using the Saturn V launch vehicle involved spinning stations, providing artificial G for the crew.

SEP Tug.

  • American space tug. Study 1986. In 1986, Graeme Aston of NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory proposed a lunar transportation system based on a solar-electric propulsion (SEP) space tug for ferrying moon base elements and cargo between Earth and lunar orbit.

SERT.

  • American ion engine technology satellite. One launch, 1970.02.04. Electric ion engine tests.

SERVIS.

  • Japanese technology satellite. First launch 2003.10.30.

SESP.

  • American military technology satellite. 3 launches, 1971.06.08 (SESP 70-1) to 1976.07.08 (SESP 74-2). Space craft engaged in investigation of spaceflight techniques and technology.

Sever.

  • Russian manned spacecraft. Study 1959. Sever was the original OKB-1 design for a manned spacecraft to replace the Vostok. It was designed to tackle such problems as maneuvering in orbit, rendezvous and docking, and testing of lifting re-entry vehicles.

Sfera.

  • Russian earth geodetic satellite. 18 launches, 1968.02.20 (Cosmos 203) to 1978.12.26 (Cosmos 1067). The Sfera geodetic system covered a broad development for solving problems in geodetics, continental drift, and precise location of cartographic points.

SFU.

  • Japanese materials science satellite. One launch, 1995.03.18. Carried materials, astronomy, biological experiments; released and later retrieved by space shuttle.

Sharik.

  • Russian nickname (sphere) for Vostok SA manned spacecraft module.

Shelter Module.

Shenlong.

  • Chinese spaceplane. Study 2007. Chinese spaceplane photographed under the belly of an H-6 medium bomber in 2007. Probably a subscale drop test model of a potential space combat system.

Shenzhou.

  • Chinese manned spacecraft. Operational, first launch 1999.11.19. The Chinese Shenzhou manned spacecraft resembled the Russian Soyuz spacecraft, but was of larger size and all-new construction.

Shenzhou Circumlunar.

  • Chinese manned lunar flyby spacecraft. In January and February 2003 Chinese sources began discussing plans for a Chinese manned circumlunar mission by 2008. Nothing came of these plans.

Shenzhou OM.

  • Chinese manned spacecraft module. Operational, first launch 1999.11.19. The orbital module provided quarters for the crew during the space mission, and could be fitted out with different internal and external equipment according to mission requirements.

Shenzhou RV.

  • Chinese manned spacecraft module. Operational, first launch 1999.11.19. The re-entry vehicle was conceptually based on the Soyuz, but was not a copy.

Shenzhou SM.

  • Chinese manned spacecraft module. Operational, first launch 1999.11.19. The service module, developed by the Shanghai Academy of Space Technology, provides the electrical power, attitude, control and propulsion for the spacecraft in orbit.

Shi Jian 1.

  • Alternate designation for SJ communications technology satellite.

Shi Jian 6.

  • Alternate designation for SJ-6 military naval signals reconnaisance satellite.

Shiyan.

  • Chinese civilian surveillance satellite. 2 launches, 2004.04.18 (Tansuo 1) to 2008.11.05 (Shiyan Weixing 3). The first 'Experiment Satellite', with a mass of 204 kg, was China's first transmission-type small satellite capable of stereo mapping.

Shiyan Weixing.

  • Chinese resources. One launch, 2004.11.18. Remote Sensing Technology.

Shiyong Tongbu Tongxin Weixing.

  • Alternate designation for DFH-2 military communications satellite.

Shu Guang Yi Hao.

  • Manufacturer's designation for Shuguang 1 manned spacecraft.

Shuguang 1.

  • Chinese manned spacecraft. Cancelled 1972. Shuguang-1 (Dawn-1) was China's first manned spacecraft design. The two-man capsule would have been similar to the American Gemini capsule and been launched by the CZ-2 booster.

Shuttle EMU.

  • American space suit, operational 1980. Space Shuttle Extravehicular Mobility Unit reusable suit. For a particular crew member and mission it was tailored from a stock of standard-size parts. Certified for eight EVA's.

Shuttle LES.

  • American space suit, operational 1986. After the Challenger disaster, it was decided to provide the crew with pressure suits to be worn during launch and re-entry.

Shuttle MMU.

  • American space mobility device, tested 1984. The MMU Manned Maneuvering Unit was designed for maneuvering by astronauts untethered from the shuttle. It was used on several satellite retrieval missions in the early 1980's.

Shuttle Pallet Satellite).

  • Alternate designation for SPAS military strategic defense satellite.

Sich-1.

  • Alternate designation for Okean-O1 earth resources radar satellite.

Sich-2.

  • Alternate designation for Okean-O earth resources radar satellite.

Signal.

  • Russian communications satellite. Study 1995. The RKK Energia and Polyot PO teamed up with other industries to propose the Signal constellation of low earth orbit communications satellites.

Signe.

  • French technology satellite. One launch, 1977.06.17.

Siluet.

  • Code name for Yantar-1KFT military surveillance satellite.

Simplesat.

  • American visible astronomy satellite. One launch, 2001.08.20. Simplesat was intended to test methods for building cheap astronomical satellites and controlling them from a inexpensive ground stations.

Simsat.

  • Russian technology satellite. 2 launched, 2000.05.16. 660 kg dummy satellite.

Singleton.

  • American military naval signals reconnaisance satellite. 3 launches, 1988.09.05 (USA 32) to 1992.04.25 (USA 81). Signals intelligence satellite; possibly some kind of imaging also done. On-board propulsion boosts spacecraft to 800 km operating orbit.

Sirio.

  • Italian communications technology satellite. 2 launches, 1977.08.25 (Sirio 1) and 1982.09.09 (Sirio 2). SIRIO was a spin stabilized geostationary experimental communications satellite with a nominal life of two years.

SIRTF.

  • American infrared astronomy satellite. One launch, 2003.08.25. The SIRTF (Space Infrared Telescope Facility) was planned as a 1 meter class, cryogenically cooled space telescope to be operated as an observatory for infrared astronomy.

Sistem avariyovo spaceniya.

  • Alternate designation for TKS SAS manned spacecraft module.

S-IVB Advanced Station.

  • American manned space station. Study 1970. Follow-on to Skylab proposed by Douglas. The station would still use the S-IVB stage as the basis, but would be much more extensively outfitted for larger crews.

S-IVB IU.

  • American manned space station module. One launch, 1973.05.14. Used for guidance during orbital insertion only.

SJ.

  • Chinese communications technology satellite. First launch 1979.07.28. SJ (Shijian) series were Chinese scientific research, technological experiment and military operational satellites of a variety of configurations.

SJ-11.

SJ-12.

SJ-6.

  • Chinese military naval signals reconnaisance satellite. Operational, first launch 2004.09.08.

SK-1.

  • Manufacturer's designation for Sokol SK-1 space suit.

Skif-DM.

  • Code name for Polyus military anti-satellite system.

Skif-DM.

  • Russian materials science satellite. Cancelled 1992. In 1990 KB Salyut proposed using the back-up of the Polyus 'star wars' test bed as a huge zero-gravity materials production facility.

Skipper.

  • Russian technology satellite. One launch, 1995.12.28. Aerobraking investigation; satellite provided by Russia, instruments by Utah State University; solar array shorted immediately following deployment and ended mission.

Skylab.

  • American manned space station. One launch, 1973.05.14. First US space station. The project began life as the Orbital Workshop- outfitting of an S-IVB stage with a docking adapter with equipment launched by several subsequent S-1B launches.

Skylab AM.

  • American manned space station module. One launch, 1973.05.14. Airlock for EVA's, mounting of STS and TNL.

Skylab AME.

  • American space mobility device, tested 1974. Another of the EVA maneuvering units tested by the Skylab astronauts within the capacious station.

Skylab AMU.

  • American space mobility device, tested 1973. One of several extravehicular mobility devices tested by the Skylab astronauts within the spacious station.

Skylab ATM.

  • American manned space station module. One launch, 1973.05.14. Solar Telescope module.

Skylab Lunar Orbit Station.

  • American manned lunar orbiter. Study 1970. McDonnell Douglas (Seal Beach, CA) did a study on modifying the to modify the Skylab as a moon-orbiting observatory and station

Skylab MDA.

  • American manned space station module. One launch, 1973.05.14. Docking module for two CSM, one ATM.

Skylab OWS.

  • American manned space station module. One launch, 1973.05.14. Main laboratory.

Skylab Reboost Module.

  • American logistics spacecraft. Cancelled 1980. Module developed for Shuttle to deliver to Skylab to boost it to a higher orbit for use during the Shuttle program.

Skynet.

  • British military communications satellite. 2 launches, 1974.01.19 (Skynet 2A) and 1974.11.23 (Skynet 2B).

Skynet 5.

  • British military communications satellite. One launch, 2008.06.12. The Skynet 5 program contract was signed by the EADS subsidiary Paradigm Secure Communications Ltd and the UK MOD in October 2003.

SLOSHSAT.

  • Dutch technology satellite. One launch, 2005.02.12. Test satellite to study the sloshing of fluids in zero gravity, developed by the Netherlands Aerospace Laboratory. Equipped with a tank with 33.5 liters of water and an attitude control system.

SM Logistic Lander.

  • Alternate designation for Apollo SMLL lunar logistics spacecraft.

Small Astronomy Satellite.

  • Alternate designation for SAS solar satellite.

Small Expendable-tether Deployer System..

  • Alternate designation for SEDS tether technology satellite.

Small Scientific Satellite.

  • Alternate designation for SSS earth magnetosphere satellite.

Small Self-Contained Payloads.

  • Manufacturer's designation for GAS technology satellite.

SMART-1.

  • European lunar orbiter. One launch, 2003.09.27, Insat 3E. ESA's SMART-1 was to test miniaturization technology while exploring the Moon from orbit.

SME.

  • American solar satellite. One launch, 1981.10.06. The Solar Mesosphere Explorer satellite was developed to investigate the processes that create and destroy ozone in the Earth's upper atmosphere.

SMEX.

  • Manufacturer's designation for SWAS infrared astronomy satellite and TRACE solar satellite.

SMEX.

  • SMall EXplorers series of satellites.

SMM.

  • American solar satellite. One launch, 1980.02.14. The Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) was intended primarily to study solar flares and related phenomena.

SMS.

  • American earth weather satellite. 2 launches, 1974.05.17 (SMS 1) and 1975.02.06 (SMS 2). Synchronous Meteorological Satellite.

SNAP.

  • British technology satellite. One launch, 2000.06.28. Basic Surrey Nanosat bus.

Snapshot.

  • American ion engine technology satellite. One launch, 1965.04.03. Carried SNAP-9A nuclear power source. The on-board reactor provided electrical power for a 2.2-lb ion engine.

SNOE.

  • American technology satellite. One launch, 1998.02.26.

SOHLA.

  • Japanese military surveillance radar satellite. One launch, 2009.01.23. Satellite built by the Space Oriented Higashi-osaka Leading Association, Osaka, carrying a cloud cover imager.

SOHO.

  • European solar satellite. One launch, 1995.12.02. SOHO was a component of the Collaborative Solar-Terrestrial Research (COSTR) Program of the International Solar Terrestrial Physics (ISTP) Program.

SOICAL.

  • American military target satellite. 2 launches, 1969.09.30 (SOICAL Cone) and (SOICAL Cylinder). Space craft engaged in investigation of spaceflight techniques and technology.

Sokol.

  • Alternate designation for Potok military communications satellite.

Sokol SK-1.

  • Russian space suit, operational 1961 for the Vostok spacecraft.

Sokol-K1.

  • Russian space suit, operational 1971. After the Soyuz 11 tragedy, in which all three unsuited cosmonauts died in a decompression accident, the Soviets scrambled to produce new IVA suits.

Sokol-KV2.

  • Russian space suit, operational 1990. Improved version of the Sokol IVA suit developed for use aboard Soyuz T.

Solar.

  • Japanese solar satellite. One launch, 1991.08.30. X-ray imaging of Sun.

Solar and Heliospheric Observatory.

  • Alternate designation for SOHO solar satellite.

Solar Anomalous and Magnetospheric Particle Explorer.

  • Alternate designation for SAMPEX earth magnetosphere satellite.

SOLAR B.

  • Code name for Hinode solar satellite.

Solar Maximum Mission.

  • Alternate designation for SMM solar satellite.

Solar Mesosphere Explorer.

  • Alternate designation for SME solar satellite.

Solaris X.

  • American manned spacecraft. Study 2004. X-Prize suborbital ballistic spacecraft concept of Interorbital Systems of Mojave, California.

Solrad.

  • Alternate designation for GRAB military naval signals reconnaisance satellite.

Solrad.

  • American solar satellite. 4 launches, 1968.03.05 (Explorer 37) to 1976.03.15 (Solrad 11B). SOLRAD was Satellite Techniques' first major project and NRL's first post-Vanguard satellite.

Solwind.

  • American earth magnetosphere satellite. One launch, 1979.02.24. Ionosphere and magnetosphere studies; destroyed 9/13/85 (while still functioning) as part of ASAT test.

SO-M.

  • Manufacturer's designation for Prognoz earth magnetosphere satellite.

SO-M2.

  • Manufacturer's designation for Prognoz-M earth magnetosphere satellite.

SORCE.

  • American solar satellite. One launch, 2003.01.25.

Sortie Vehicle.

  • American manned spacecraft. Study 1982.

SOURCE.

  • need summary - see links

SovCanStar.

  • Russian communications satellite. Study 1990. One of the early Russian-Western satellite programs was SovCanStar, a 1990 joint venture with Canada.

Soyuz 7K-L1.

  • Russian manned lunar flyby spacecraft. 12 launches, 1967.03.10 (Cosmos 146) to 1970.10.20 (Zond 8). The Soyuz 7K-L1, a modification of the Soyuz 7K-OK, was designed for manned circumlunar missions.

Soyuz 7K-L1 PAO.

  • Russian manned spacecraft module. 12 launches, 1967.03.10 (Cosmos 146) to 1970.10.20 (Zond 8). Modification of Soyuz 7K-OK basic PAO service module with pump-fed main engines and separate RCS/main engine propellant feed system. Equipment-engine section.

Soyuz 7K-L1 SA.

  • Russian manned spacecraft module. 12 launches, 1967.03.10 (Cosmos 146) to 1970.10.20 (Zond 8). Increased heat shield protection and presumably reaction control system propellant for re-entry from lunar distances. Reentry capsule.

Soyuz 7K-L1 SOK.

  • Russian manned spacecraft module. 12 launches, 1967.03.10 (Cosmos 146) to 1970.10.20 (Zond 8). Separates before trans-lunar injection. Jettisonable support cone.

Soyuz 7K-L1A.

  • Russian manned lunar orbiter. 2 launches, 1969.02.21 (N-1 3L) to 1969.07.03 (N-1 5L). Hybrid spacecraft used in N1 launch tests.

Soyuz 7K-L1E.

  • Russian manned lunar orbiter. 2 launches, 1969.11.28 (Soyuz 7K-L1E s/n 1) and 1970.12.02 (Cosmos 382). Modification of Soyuz circumlunar configuration used in propulsion tests of the Block D stage.

Soyuz 7K-L1S.

  • Alternate designation for Soyuz 7K-L1A manned lunar orbiter.

Soyuz 7K-LOK.

  • Russian manned lunar orbiter. 2 launches, 1971.06.26 (N-1 6L) to 1972.11.23 (LOK). The two-crew LOK lunar orbiting spacecraft was the largest derivative of Soyuz developed.

Soyuz 7K-LOK BO.

  • Russian manned spacecraft module. 2 launches, 1971.06.26 (N-1 6L) to 1972.11.23 (LOK). Living section.

Soyuz 7K-LOK SA.

  • Russian manned spacecraft module. 2 launches, 1971.06.26 (N-1 6L) to 1972.11.23 (LOK). Increased heat shield protection and presumably reaction control system propellant for re-entry from lunar distances. Reentry capsule.

Soyuz 7K-MF6.

  • Russian manned spacecraft. One launch, 1976.09.15, Soyuz 22. Soyuz 7K-T modified with installation of East German MF6 multispectral camera. Used for a unique solo Soyuz earth resources mission.

Soyuz 7K-MF6 BO.

  • Russian manned spacecraft module. One launch, 1976.09.15, Soyuz 22. MKF6 Camera replaced docking system and Igla automatic rendezvous and docking system deleted. Four windows, BO separated after retrofire. Living section.

Soyuz 7K-MF6 PAO.

  • Russian manned spacecraft module. One launch, 1976.09.15, Soyuz 22. Soyuz 7K-OK basic PAO service module with pump-fed main engines and separate RCS/main engine propellant feed system. Equipment-engine section.

Soyuz 7K-MF6 SA.

  • Russian manned spacecraft module. One launch, 1976.09.15, Soyuz 22. Post-Soyuz 11 modification for crew of two in spacesuits. Reentry capsule.

Soyuz 7K-OK.

  • Russian manned spacecraft. 17 launches, 1966.11.28 (Cosmos 133) to 1970.06.01 (Soyuz 9). Development of a three-manned orbital version of the Soyuz, the 7K-OK was approved in December 1963.

Soyuz 7K-OK BO.

  • Russian manned spacecraft module. 17 launches, 1966.11.28 (Cosmos 133) to 1970.06.01 (Soyuz 9). Heavy-duty male/female docking system with no internal transfer tunnel. Igla automatic rendezvous and docking system. Living section.

Soyuz 7K-OK PAO.

  • Russian manned spacecraft module. 17 launches, 1966.11.28 (Cosmos 133) to 1970.06.01 (Soyuz 9). Soyuz 7K-OK basic PAO service module with pump-fed main engines and separate RCS/main engine propellant feed system. Equipment-engine section.

Soyuz 7K-OK SA.

  • Russian manned spacecraft module. 17 launches, 1966.11.28 (Cosmos 133) to 1970.06.01 (Soyuz 9). Post-Soyuz 1 modification, allowing crew of three without spacesuits. Analogue sequencer and computers operate spacecraft. Reentry capsule.

Soyuz 7K-OK Tether.

  • Russian manned spacecraft. Study 1965. Korolev was always interested in application of artificial gravity for large space stations and interplanetary craft. He sought to test this in orbit from the early days of the Vostok program.

Soyuz 7K-OKS BO.

  • Russian manned spacecraft module. 2 launches, 1971.04.23 (Soyuz 10) to 1971.06.06 (Soyuz 11). Lightweight male/female docking system with roller-type probe, internal transfer tunnel. Living section.

Soyuz 7K-OKS PAO.

  • Russian manned spacecraft module. 2 launches, 1971.04.23 (Soyuz 10) to 1971.06.06 (Soyuz 11). Soyuz 7K-OK basic PAO service module with pump-fed main engines and separate RCS/main engine propellant feed system. Equipment-engine section.

Soyuz 7K-OKS SA.

  • Russian manned spacecraft module. 2 launches, 1971.04.23 (Soyuz 10) to 1971.06.06 (Soyuz 11). Post-Soyuz 1 modification, allowing crew of three without spacesuits. Analogue sequencer and computers operate spacecraft. Reentry capsule.

Soyuz 7K-S.

  • Russian manned spacecraft. 3 launches, 1974.08.06 (Cosmos 670) to 1976.11.29 (Cosmos 869). The Soyuz 7K-S had its genesis in military Soyuz designs of the 1960's.

Soyuz 7K-T.

  • Russian manned spacecraft. 23 launches, 1972.06.26 (Cosmos 496) to 1981.05.14 (Soyuz 40).

Soyuz 7K-T BO.

  • Russian manned spacecraft module. 23 launches, 1972.06.26 (Cosmos 496) to 1981.05.14 (Soyuz 40). Lightweight male/female docking system with roller-type probe, internal transfer tunnel (Collar Length: 0.22 m. Probe Length: 0. Living section.

Soyuz 7K-T PAO.

  • Russian manned spacecraft module. 23 launches, 1972.06.26 (Cosmos 496) to 1981.05.14 (Soyuz 40). Soyuz 7K-OK basic PAO service module with pump-fed main engines and separate RCS/main engine propellant feed system. Equipment-engine section.

Soyuz 7K-T SA.

  • Russian manned spacecraft module. 23 launches, 1972.06.26 (Cosmos 496) to 1981.05.14 (Soyuz 40). Post-Soyuz 11 modification for crew of two in spacesuits. Reentry capsule.

Soyuz 7K-T/A9.

  • Russian manned spacecraft. 8 launches, 1974.05.27 (Cosmos 656) to 1978.06.27 (Soyuz 30). Version of 7K-T for flights to Almaz. Known difference with the basic 7K-T included systems for remote control of the Almaz station and a revised parachute system.

Soyuz 7K-TK.

  • Russian manned spacecraft. Cancelled 1966. To deliver crews to the Soyuz R 11F71 station Kozlov developed the transport spacecraft 11F72 Soyuz 7K-TK.

Soyuz 7K-TM.

  • Russian manned spacecraft. 4 launches, 1974.04.03 (Cosmos 638) to 1975.07.15 (Soyuz 19 (ASTP)). The Soyuz 7K-T as modified for the docking with Apollo.

Soyuz 7KT-OK.

  • Russian manned spacecraft. 2 launches, 1971.04.23 (Soyuz 10) to 1971.06.06 (Soyuz 11). This was a modification of Soyuz 7K-OK with a lightweight docking system and a crew transfer tunnel.

Soyuz A.

  • Russian manned spacecraft. Study 1962. The 7K Soyuz spacecraft was initially designed for rendezvous and docking operations in near earth orbit, leading to piloted circumlunar flight.

Soyuz A BO.

  • Russian manned spacecraft module. Study 1962. Original design with notional docking system with no probe and internal transfer tunnel. Living section.

Soyuz A PAO.

  • Russian manned spacecraft module. Study 1962. Soyuz 7K-OK basic PAO service module with pump-fed main engines and separate RCS/main engine propellant feed system but with no base flange for a shroud. Equipment-engine section.

Soyuz A SA.

  • Russian manned spacecraft module. Study 1962. Original Soyuz design, allowing crew of three without spacesuits. Reentry capsule.

Soyuz ASTP BO.

  • Russian manned spacecraft module. 4 launches, 1974.04.03 (Cosmos 638) to 1975.07.15 (Soyuz 19 (ASTP)). Universal docking system designed for ASTP with three petaled locating system and internal transfer tunnel. No automated rendezvous and docking system. Living section.

Soyuz ASTP PAO.

  • Russian manned spacecraft module. 4 launches, 1974.04.03 (Cosmos 638) to 1975.07.15 (Soyuz 19 (ASTP)). Soyuz 7K-OK basic PAO service module with pump-fed main engines and separate RCS/main engine propellant feed system. Equipment-engine section.

Soyuz ASTP SA.

  • Russian manned spacecraft module. 4 launches, 1974.04.03 (Cosmos 638) to 1975.07.15 (Soyuz 19 (ASTP)). Post-Soyuz 11 modification for crew of two in spacesuits. Reentry capsule.

Soyuz B.

  • Russian space tug. Study 1962. In the definitive December 1962 Soyuz draft project, the Soyuz B (9K) rocket acceleration block would be launched into a 225 km orbit by a Soyuz 11A511 booster.

Soyuz Circumlunar.

  • Alternate designation for DSE-Alpha manned lunar flyby spacecraft.

Soyuz Kontakt.

  • Russian manned spacecraft. Cancelled 1974. Modification of the Soyuz 7K-OK spacecraft to test in earth orbit the Kontakt rendezvous and docking system.

Soyuz M.

  • Alternate designation for Soyuz 7K-TM manned spacecraft.

Soyuz OB-VI.

  • Russian manned space station. Cancelled 1970. In December 1967 OKB-1 chief designer Mishin managed to have Kozlov's Soyuz VI project killed. In its place he proposed to build a manned military station based on his own Soyuz 7K-OK design.

Soyuz P.

  • Russian manned combat spacecraft. Study 1963. In December 1962 Sergei Korolev released his draft project for a versatile manned spacecraft to follow Vostok. The Soyuz A was primarily designed for manned circumlunar flight.

Soyuz PPK.

  • Russian manned combat spacecraft. Study 1964. The Soyuz 7K-PPK (pilotiruemiy korabl-perekhvatchik, manned interceptor spacecraft) was a revised version of the Soyuz P manned satellite inspection spacecraft.

Soyuz R.

  • Russian manned spacecraft. Cancelled 1966. A military reconnaissance version of Soyuz, developed by Kozlov at Samara from 1963-1966. It was to consist of an the 11F71 small orbital station and the 11F72 Soyuz 7K-TK manned ferry.

Soyuz T.

  • Russian manned spacecraft. 18 launches, 1978.04.04 (Cosmos 1001) to 1986.03.13 (Soyuz T-15). Soyuz T had a long gestation, beginning as the Soyuz VI military orbital complex Soyuz in 1967.

Soyuz T BO.

  • Russian manned spacecraft module. 18 launches, 1978.04.04 (Cosmos 1001) to 1986.03.13 (Soyuz T-15). Lightweight male/female docking system with flange-type probe, internal transfer tunnel. Igla automatic rendezvous and docking system. Living section.

Soyuz T PAO.

  • Russian manned spacecraft module. 18 launches, 1978.04.04 (Cosmos 1001) to 1986.03.13 (Soyuz T-15). Improved PAO service module derived from Soyuz 7K-S with pressure-fed main engines and unitary RCS/main engine propellant feed system. Equipment-engine section.

Soyuz T SA.

  • Russian manned spacecraft module. 18 launches, 1978.04.04 (Cosmos 1001) to 1986.03.13 (Soyuz T-15). Significantly improved Soyuz re-entry capsule, based on development done in Soyuz 7K-S program. Accommodation for crew of three in spacesuits. Reentry capsule.

Soyuz TM.

  • Russian manned spacecraft. 34 launches, 1986.05.21 (Soyuz TM-1) to 2002.04.25 (Soyuz TM-34).

Soyuz TM BO.

  • Russian manned spacecraft module. 34 launches, 1986.05.21 (Soyuz TM-1) to 2002.04.25 (Soyuz TM-34). Lightweight male/female docking system with flange-type probe, internal transfer tunnel. Kurs automatic rendezvous and docking system . Living section.

Soyuz TM PAO.

  • Russian manned spacecraft module. 34 launches, 1986.05.21 (Soyuz TM-1) to 2002.04.25 (Soyuz TM-34). Further improvement of Soyuz T PAO service module with pressure-fed main engines and unitary RCS/main engine propellant feed system. Equipment-engine section.

Soyuz TM SA.

  • Russian manned spacecraft module. 34 launches, 1986.05.21 (Soyuz TM-1) to 2002.04.25 (Soyuz TM-34). Significantly improved Soyuz re-entry capsule, based on development done in Soyuz 7K-S program. Accommodation for crew of three in spacesuits. Reentry capsule.

Soyuz TMA.

  • Russian three-crew manned spacecraft. Operational, first launch 2002.10.30. Designed for use as a lifeboat for the International Space Station. After the retirement of the US shuttle in 2011, Soyuz TMA was the only conveying crews to the ISS. Except for the Chinese Shenzhou, it became mankind's sole means of access to space.

Soyuz TMA BO.

  • Russian manned spacecraft module. Operational. First launch 2002.10.30. Lightweight male/female docking system with flange-type probe, internal transfer tunnel. Kurs automatic rendezvous and docking system with two Kurs antennae, no tower. Living section.

Soyuz TMA PAO.

  • Russian manned spacecraft module. Operational. First launch 2002.10.30. Further improvement of Soyuz T PAO service module with pressure-fed main engines and unitary RCS/main engine propellant feed system. Equipment-engine section.

Soyuz TMA SA.

  • Russian manned spacecraft module. Operational. First launch 2002.10.30. Reentry capsule.

Soyuz V.

  • Russian logistics spacecraft. Cancelled 1964. In the definitive December 1962 Soyuz draft project, the Soyuz B (9K) rocket acceleration block would be launched into a 225 km orbit by a Soyuz 11A511 booster.

Soyuz VI.

  • Russian manned combat spacecraft. Cancelled 1965. To determine the usefulness of manned military space flight, two projects were pursued in the second half of the 1960's.

Space Activity Suit.

  • American space suit, tested 1971. Prototype for a Mechanical Counter Pressure suit made up of six layers of elastic material accompanied by a full bubble helmet.

Space Base.

  • American manned space station. Study 1970. Growth of Space Station into a 50 man Space Base was a required capability in the Phase B NASA Space Station studies of 1969-1970.

Space Based Laser.

  • American military anti-satellite system. Study 1996. The Operational SBLOV (Space Based Laser Orbital Vehicle) was the final space based chemical laser system envisioned at the end of the SDI / Star Wars program.

Space Biotechnological Complex.

  • Russian materials science satellite. Study 1992. In 1991 the Salyut Design Bureau proposed a Space Biotechnological Complex, for production of pharmaceutical products in zero gravity.

Space Complex for a Piloted Expedition to Mars.

  • Alternate designation for KK manned mars expedition.

Space Cruiser.

  • American manned combat spacecraft. Study 1973. The space cruiser was a US Navy design for a single-place crewed space interceptor designed to destroy Soviet satellites used to track the location of US warships.

Space Electric Rocket Test.

  • Alternate designation for SERT ion engine technology satellite.

Space Flyer Unit.

  • Alternate designation for SFU materials science satellite.

Space Infrared Telescope Facility.

  • Alternate designation for SIRTF infrared astronomy satellite.

Space Laser Demo.

  • American military anti-satellite system. Study 1996. By 1996 the Star Lite space laser was replaced by the more refined and slightly heavier SLD (Space Laser Demo), weighing 17.4 metric tons). Two versions of the 20 meter long spacecraft were envisioned.

Space Operations Center.

  • American manned space station. Study 1979. The Space Operations Center was proposed by NASA's Johnson Spaceflight Center in 1979.

Space Recovery Experiment.

  • Alternate designation for SRE re-entry vehicle technology satellite.

Space Sled.

  • American space mobility device, tested 1965. Marquardt developed a sled design in the mid-1960's for maneuvering in the vicinity of a spacecraft. The space sled approach was dropped in preference to the shuttle manned maneuvering unit.

Space Station.

  • American manned space station. Study 1969.

Space Station 1984.

  • American manned space station. Design as of 1984. President Reagan finally approved a space station project for NASA in January 1984.

Space Station Designs - 1982.

  • American manned space station. Study 1982. NASA regarded a permanently manned space station as the next 'logical step' in manned spaceflight after the Space Shuttle entered service in April 1981.

Space Station Fred.

  • American manned space station. Design as of 1991. Following the collapse of the Space Station Freedom project, NASA unveiled its new Space Station design in March 1991.

Space Station Freedom.

  • American manned space station. Design as of 1988. NASA's first detailed cost assessment for the US space station caused a political uproar in Congress, where many politicians had started to express doubt about the project.

Space Station Options 1993.

  • American manned space station. Study 1993. Following the collapse of Space Station Fred, NASA quickly formed a Space Station redesign team which identified three major redesign options in April 1993....

Space Technology Research Vehicle.

  • Alternate designation for STRV technology satellite.

Space Tug.

  • American space tug. Study 1971. The original Boeing Space Tug design of the early 1970's was sized to be flown either in a single shuttle mission or as a Saturn V payload. Optimum mass was found to be 20.6 metric tons regardless.

Spacebus.

  • British manned spaceplane. Study 1990. 50 passenger orbiter portion of a two-stage vehicle proposed by David Ashford of Bristol Spaceplanes Ltd. in the 1980`s / 1990's.

Spacebus 100.

  • French communications satellite. 12 launches, 1975.08.26 (Symphonie 2) to 1994.01.24 (Eutelsat II F5). 3-axis stabilized using bipropellant thrusters (750 kg propellant - unified with apogee insertion and maneuvering propulsion) and momentum wheels.

Spacebus 2000.

  • French communications satellite. 5 launches, 1994.01.24 (Turksat 1A) to 1997.01.30 (Nahuel 1A).

Spacebus 300.

  • French communications satellite. 5 launches, 1987.11.21 (TVSAT 1) to 1990.07.24 (TDF 2). 3-axis stabilized using bipropellant thrusters (1220 kg propellant - unified with apogee insertion and maneuvering propulsion) and momentum wheels.

Spacebus 3000.

  • French communications satellite bus. Operational, first launch 1996.07.09.

Spacebus 4000.

  • European communications satellite bus. Operational, first launch 2005.02.03. The Spacebus 4000 represented a new larger platform to meet customer demand.

Spacecab.

  • British manned spaceplane. Study 1990. Six passenger orbiter portion of a two-stage vehicle proposed by David Ashford of Bristol Spaceplanes Ltd. in the 1980`s / 1990's. It would serve as the prototype for the even more ambitious Spacebus.

Spacecraft Charging at High Altitude.

  • Alternate designation for SCATHA communications technology satellite.

SpaceDev ILO.

  • American radio astronomy satellite. Study 2003. Unmanned lunar radio astronomy observatory concept, designed to be landed on the South Pole.

Spacedock.

  • American manned space station. Study 1986.

Spacehab.

  • American manned space station module. 14 launches, 1993.06.21 (Spacehab SH-01) to 1999.05.27 (Spacehab-DM). Founded by Bob Citron in 1982, Spacehab Inc. was the only entrepreneurial company to successfully develop a commercial manned spaceflight module.

Spacelab.

  • American manned space station module. 20 launches, 1983.11.28 (Spacelab 1) to 1998.04.17 (Neurolab).

SpaceShipOne.

  • American manned spaceplane. 14 launches, 2003.05.20 to 2004.05.13 . X-Prize suborbital spaceplane concept of Scaled Composites, Mojave, California.

SpaceShipTwo.

  • American manned spaceplane. Study 2009. Development of the much larger SpaceShipTwo suborbital commercial manned spacecraft was announced in July 2005.

Spacewedge.

  • Code name for X-38 manned spaceplane.

Spartan.

  • American solar satellite. 8 launches, 1985.06.17 (Spartan 1) to 1998.10.29 (Spartan 201).

SPAS.

  • American military strategic defense satellite. 6 launches, 1983.06.18 (SPAS-01) to 1997.08.07 (CRISTA).

Spectrum-X.

  • Russian x-ray astronomy satellite.

Spektr.

  • Russian manned space station. One launch, 1995.05.20. Spektr was a module of the Mir space station. It began life as a dedicated military research unit.

Spektr - Original.

  • Russian military anti-satellite system. Study 1989. Chelomei designed a spacecraft bus for space based weapons based on his TKS space tug. This was an alternate / competitive design to the NPO Energia USB.

Spherical Heat Shield escape concept.

  • Alternate designation for Rockwell SHS manned rescue spacecraft.

Sphinx.

  • American military technology satellite. One launch, 1974.02.11. Space Plasma High Voltage Interaction Experiment. Research payload carried on test flight of Titan 3E booster.

SPIKE.

  • American military anti-satellite system. Study 1975. Project SPIKE was a 1970's suborbital conventional warhead ASAT air-launched from an F-106 interceptor. Considerable work was done from the early 1970s under the Missile and Space Defense Program.

Spin-2.

  • Alternate designation for Yantar-1KFT military surveillance satellite.

Spiral EPOS.

Spiral OS.

  • Russian manned spaceplane, developed 1965-1980s, including subscale flight article tests. Evolved into the MAKS spaceplane. The Spiral was an ambitious air-launched manned space system designed in the 1960's.

Spirale.

  • Système Préparatoire Infra-Rouge pour l'ALErte - preparatory infrared warning system. French government program to develop a missile early warning system, using infrared satellite imagery to detect ballistic missile launch and trajectory during boost phase. The demonstrator system included two 120 kilogram (260 lb) microsatellites and an alert and monitoring ground segment.

Spirit.

  • Code name for MER mars lander.

SPK.

  • Russian space mobility device, tested 1990. The Soviet Union developed a manned maneuvering unit and flew it from Mir in 1990.

SPOT-1-2-3.

  • French earth land resources satellite. 3 launches, 1986.02.22 (SPOT 1) to 1993.09.26 (SPOT 3). SPOT was the French government-sponsored civil earth observation program, with support from Belgium and Sweden.

SPOT-4.

  • French earth land resources satellite. One launch, 1998.03.24, SPOT 4. SPOT was the French government-sponsored civil earth observation program. A single SPOT satellite provides complete coverage of the Earth every 26 days.

SPOT-5A-5B.

  • French earth land resources satellite. Two launches, 2002.05.04, 2009.12.18. SPOT was the French government sponsored civil Earth observation program. A single SPOT satellite provided complete coverage of the Earth every 26 days.

SpriteSat.

  • Japanese science. One launch, 2009.01.23. Microsatellite stabilized by a gravity gradient boom to study atmospheric sprites, built by by Tohoku University, Sendai.

SPRN-1.

  • Alternate designation for Oko military early warning satellite.

SPRN-2.

  • Alternate designation for Prognoz SPRN military early warning satellite.

SPS-Sputnik.

  • Russian communications satellite. Study 1995.

Spuskaemiy apparat.

  • Russian name (descent module) for Soyuz TMA SA manned spacecraft module.

Sputnik 1.

  • Russian technology satellite. One launch, 1957.10.04. Tikhonravov's 1.4 metric ton ISZ satellite was to have been launched by the new R-7 ICBM as the Soviet Union's first satellite, during the International Geophysical Year.

Sputnik 2.

  • Russian biology satellite. One launch, 1957.11.03.

Sputnik 3.

  • Russian earth magnetosphere satellite. 2 launches, 1958.04.27 (Sputnik failure) to 1958.05.15 (Sputnik 3). In July 1956 OKB-1 completed the draft project for the first earth satellite, designated ISZ (Artificial Earth Satellite).

SR-3.

  • Alternate designation for Blackstar manned spaceplane.

SRE.

  • Indian re-entry vehicle technology satellite. One launch, 2007.01.10. Indian experimental subscale Discoverer-type re-entry capsule. A testbed for a projected $ 3 billion Indian project to orbit a manned spacecraft by 2014.

SRET.

  • French technology satellite. 2 launches, 1972.04.04 (SRET 1) and 1975.06.05 (SRET 2). Test satellite.

SROSS.

  • Indian earth magnetosphere satellite. 4 launches, 1987.03.24 (SROSS A) to 1994.05.04 (SROSS-C2).

SS.

  • Japanese earth magnetosphere satellite. 6 launches, 1970.09.25 (SS) to 1985.08.18 (SS-11 Suisei). Scientific observations in outer space.

SSETI Express.

  • European civilian surveillance satellite. One launch, 2005.10.27. Student-built technology satellite sponsored by the ESA. It ejected three 1-kg Cubesats after separating from the booster, but then itself lost power less than 14 hours later.

SSF.

  • American military naval signals reconnaisance satellite. 54 launches, 1963.03.18 (P-11 No. 1) to 1989.08.08 (USA 41).

SSS.

  • American earth magnetosphere satellite. One launch, 1971.11.15, Explorer 45. Studies magnetosphere, energetic particles.

SSSat.

  • Japanese technology satellite. One launch, 2006.09.22. Solar sail experiment.

SST.

  • Chinese solar satellite. Study 1998. The SST, an advanced Chinese solar telescope, was to have been part of a sun monitoring system built along the earth's meridian circle at 120 degrees east.

SSTL-100.

SSTL-150.

  • German civilian surveillance satellite. Surrey satellite bus, notably used for the RapidEye constellation of five environmental monitoring satellites. Mass of 152 kg including 12 kg of propellant.

SSTL-300.

ST5.

  • American technology satellite. 3 launched, 2006.03.22 (ST5-A) to (ST5-C).

Stabilo.

  • Romanian manned spacecraft. Study 2013. Stabilo was a suborbital manned system developed by ARCA.

Stacksat P87-2.

  • American technology satellite. 3 launched, 1990.04.11 (USA 56) to (USA 58). The U. S. military's STACKSAT mission involved the launch of three similar spacecraft, POGS, TEX and SCE.

Star bus.

  • American communications satellite bus. Operational, first launch 1997.11.12 (Cakrawarta 1). The Orbital Star bus was designed for reliable and robust performance in a variety of LEO and GEO missions.

Star Lite.

  • American military anti-satellite system. Study 1991. In 1991 the Star Lite space laser experiment was made public. Star Lite would weigh half that of the previously planned Zenith Star with a launch mass of 16.

Starchaser 5.

  • British manned spacecraft. Study 2004. X-Prize suborbital ballistic spacecraft concept of Starchaser Industries, Cheshire, England. The concept used a rocket powered vertical takeoff followed by a parachute descent to land.

Stardust.

  • American comet probe. One launch, 1999.02.07. Stardust was scheduled to encounter comet Wild-2 early in 2004 and collect samples of cometary dust and volatiles while flying through the coma at a distance of 100 km on the sunlit side of the nucleus.

Starfish.

  • American earth magnetosphere satellite. 2 launches, 1962.10.26 (Starfish Radiation 1) and 1965.09.02 (Starfish Radiation 2). Satellite collected artificial radiation data (resulting from atmospheric and exoatmospheric nuclear explosions).

Starflash.

  • American earth magnetosphere satellite. 2 launches, 1964.06.13 (Starflash 1A) and 1964.08.21 (Starflash 1B). Sub-satellite of unknown purpose, released from KH-5 photo reconnaisance satellites on two missions.

Starlette.

  • French earth geodetic satellite. One launch, 1975.02.06. Geodesic satellite.

Starshine.

  • American technology satellite. 2 launches, 1999.05.27 (Starshine) and 2001.09.30 (Starshine 3). The small Starshine satellite, built by NRL, was to be observed by students as part of an educational exercise.

Start.

  • Russian communications technology satellite. One launch, 1993.03.25. Experimental satellite carried on test flight of the Start-1 carrier rocket, a new booster based on SS-25 ICBM.

STCAEM Cryogenic AeroBrake.

  • American manned Mars expedition. Study 1991. The STCAEM cryogenic / aerobrake (CAB) concept was used as the NASA reference vehicle.

STCAEM Cryogenic AeroBrake MTV.

  • American manned Mars orbiter. Study 1991. The Mars Transfer Vehicle (MTV) configuration consisted of a transit habitat sized for four crew, an aerobrake, and a TEl Propulsion system.

STCAEM Cryogenic AeroBrake TMIS.

  • American space tug. Study 1991. The Trans-Mars Injection Stage (TMIS) consisted of a core unit with four advanced space engines (ASE), avionics and cryogenic propellant tanks, and provision for up to four "strap-on" propellant tank sets.

STCAEM MEV.

  • American manned Mars lander. Study 1991. The reference Mars Excursion vehicle (MEV) was a manned lander that could transport a crew of four to the surface.

STCAEM NEP.

  • American manned Mars expedition. Study 1991.

STCAEM NTR.

  • American manned Mars expedition. Study 1991.

STCAEM SEP.

  • American manned Mars expedition. Study 1991. The solar electric propulsion (SEP) Mars transfer concept was the only non-nuclear advanced propulsion option in the STCAEM study.

STELLA.

  • French earth geodetic satellite. One launch, 1993.09.26. Laser reflectors.

STENSAT.

  • American technology satellite. One launch, 2000.01.27. Picosat built by built by the AMSAT-NA (Amateur Satellite, North America) group, and carried an amateur radio transponder.

STEP.

  • American technology satellite. 2 launches, 1995.06.22 (STEP 3) and 2000.06.07 (TSX 5).

Stereo.

  • American solar satellite. 2 launched, 2006.10.26 (Stereo Ahead) and (Stereo Behind).

STEX.

  • American tether technology satellite. One launch, 1998.10.03. STEX's (Space Technology EXperiments) main equipment was provided by the Naval Research Laboratory.

STPSat.

  • American technology satellite. Operational, first launch 2007.03.09.

Strategic Boost Glide Vehicle.

  • Manufacturer's designation for HGV spaceplane.

Strela-1.

  • Russian military store-dump communications satellite. 29 launches, 1964.08.18 (Cosmos 38) to 1965.09.18 (Cosmos 90).

Strela-1M.

  • Russian military store-dump communications satellite. 371 launches, 1970.04.25 (Cosmos 336) to 2005.10.27 (Mozhaets 5).

Strela-2.

  • Russian military store-dump communications satellite. 5 launches, 1965.12.28 (Cosmos 103) to 1968.08.27 (Cosmos 236).

Strela-2M.

  • Russian military store-dump communications satellite. 52 launches, 1970.06.27 (Strela-2) to 1994.12.20 (Cosmos 2298).

Strela-3.

  • Russian military store-dump communications satellite. Operational, first launch 1985.01.15. Said to have initially been developed for the GRU.

Stretched ROhini Satellite Series.

  • Alternate designation for SROSS earth magnetosphere satellite.

Strizh.

  • Russian space suit, operational 1990. The Strizh full-pressure suit was developed for the Buran program. It was qualified to protect the cosmonaut in ejections from the spaceplane at altitudes up to 30 km and speeds of up to Mach 3.

STRV.

  • British technology satellite. 4 launches, 1994.06.17 (STRV-1B) to 2000.11.16 (STRV-1d).

STS External Tank Station.

  • American manned space station. Study 1980. NASA studied several concepts in the 1980's using the 'wet workshop' approach to the capacious External Tank carried into orbit with every shuttle flight.

STSat.

  • South Korean technology satellite. First launch 2003.09.27.

STSS.

  • Space Tracking and Surveillance System for missile launch and flight monitoring using infrared sensors

STTW.

  • Manufacturer's designation for DFH-2 military communications satellite.

Stuhlinger Mars 1957.

  • American manned Mars expedition. Study 1957. In 1954 Ernst Stuhlinger conceived the first Mars expedition using solar-electric propulsion.

Stuhlinger Mars 1962.

  • American manned Mars expedition. By 1962 Ernst Stuhlinger's ion-drive Mars expedition had evolved within the Research Projects Division into five 150 m long spacecraft, housing a total crew of 15. A much shorter 475 day mission time was planned.

STV.

  • European technology satellite. 3 launches, 1968.11.29 (STV 1) to 1970.06.12 (STV 3). Satellite Test Vehicle.

STV 4.

  • French technology satellite. One launch, 1971.11.05.

STW-1.

  • Article Number of DFH-2 military communications satellite.

Submillimeter Wave Astronomy Satellite.

  • Alternate designation for SWAS infrared astronomy satellite.

Suborbital Cabin.

  • Russian manned spacecraft. Study 1956. In 1956 Korolev laid out an outline plan 'Fast Solutions for the Conquest of Space'. Phase I and II of the plan involved experimental manned sub-orbital flights aboard an R-5A single-stage IRBM.

Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship SATellite.

  • Alternate designation for SURFSAT-1 technology satellite.

Sundancer.

  • American manned space station. Study 2010. The Sundancer inflatable space station had provisions for three crew. It was to be launched by 2010 aboard a Falcon 9, Zenit-2, or Atlas V booster.

Sunsat.

  • South African technology satellite. One launch, 1999.02.23. Sunsat was built by students at Stellenbosch University, South Africa and carried a small imager and a message relay payload.

SURCAL.

  • American military target satellite. 15 launches, 1962.01.24 (Surcal) to 1969.09.30 (Surcal).

SURFSAT-1.

  • American technology satellite. One launch, 1995.11.04, SURFSAT. SURFSAT-1 was a small satellite built by undergraduate college students and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory to support experiments by NASA's Deep Space Network.

Surveyor.

  • American lunar lander. 13 launches, 1963.11.27 (Atlas Centaur 2) to 1968.01.07 (Surveyor 7). Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Surveyor series soft-landed on the moon, provided images of the lunar surface, and tested the characteristics of the lunar soil.

Surveyor Block II.

  • American lunar lander. Study 1964. The Surveyor Block II spacecraft was imagined as an unmanned scout that could reconnoiter a specific lunar landing site for Apollo and assist the manned Lunar Module in making a precise touch down.

Surveyor Lunar Rover.

  • American lunar rover. Cancelled 1965. Follow-on Surveyor unmanned lunar landers were to deploy small nuclear-powered rovers (a carry-over from the cancelled Prospector spacecraft).

Surveyor Orbiter.

  • American lunar orbiter. Study 1965. NASA originally planned to have a version of the Surveyor spacecraft conduct detailed orbital photographic reconnaissance of the moon in preparation for the Apollo manned landings.

SV-5D.

  • Alternate designation for Prime manned spaceplane.

Svetoch.

  • Russian military communications satellite. Communications satellite - KGB. No other details available.

SWAS.

  • American infrared astronomy satellite. One launch, 1998.12.06. SWAS, the Submillimeter Wave Astronomy Satellite, had a 0.6m telescope with a 490 to 550 GHz submillimeter receiver and an acousto-optical spectrometer.

Swedish Jerkin.

  • Swedish pressure suit, operational 1968. Partial coverage garment - two pressure flying suit with diaphragmatic bladder, used with high pressure mask equivalent to A-13 with Hardman kit.

Swift.

  • American gamma ray astronomy satellite. One launch, 2004.11.20. Swift was a first-of-its-kind multi-wavelength observatory dedicated to the study of gamma-ray burst (GRB) science.

Symphonie.

  • French communications technology satellite. One launch, 1974.12.18. Experimental telecommunications satellite, constructed jointly by France and the Federal Republic of Germany.

Syncom.

  • American communications technology satellite. 3 launches, 1963.02.14 (Syncom I; Syncom 1) to 1964.08.19 (Syncom 3). Experimental telecommunications satellite.

Synthesis Study.

  • American manned Mars expedition. Study 1991. On 11 May 1991 President Bush declared that he would support a Space Exploration Initiative program leading to a Mars Landing by 2014.

System 49.

  • Russian manned spaceplane. Study 1981. System 49 was the design that followed Spiral and preceded MAKS in the Soviet quest for a flexible air-launched manned space launcher.

System 49-M.

  • Russian manned spaceplane. Study 1981. The 49M was an application of the system 49 air-launched design concept, but with a larger carrier aircraft. The orbiter mass was 28 metric tons in orbit, including a 9 metric ton payload in a 8.

T-1.

  • American pressure suit, operational 1948. David Clark Company developed Dr. Henry's original capstan partial pressure suit.

T2K.

  • Alternate designation for LK manned lunar lander.

TACSAT.

  • American communications technology satellite. First launch 1969.02.09. TACSAT was designed to experimentally test and develop tactical communications concepts for all US military services.

Tacsat ORS.

  • American military surveillance satellite. First launch, 2006.12.16. The Tactical Satellite / Operationally Responsive Satellite program's objective was to demonstrate techniques to dramatically shorten the development time for small satellites.

Taifun-1.

  • Ukrainian military target satellite. 25 launches, 1974.06.18 (Cosmos 660) to 1994.09.27 (Cosmos 2292). From 1969 KB Yuzhnoye built the Lira targets for exercise and test of PVO air defense and space tracking systems.

Taifun-1Yu.

  • Ukrainian military target satellite. 13 launches, 1979.12.05 (Cosmos 1146) to 1996.04.24 (Cosmos 2332). The Taifun-1Yu, a modification of the basic design with smooth calibration surfaces, was to be in service by 1980.

Taifun-2.

  • Ukrainian military target satellite. 31 launches, 1976.04.28 (Cosmos 816) to 1995.03.02 (Cosmos 2306). In 1969 KB Yuzhnoye introduced targets for exercise and test of PVO air defense and space tracking systems.

Taifun-3.

  • Russian military target satellite. 2 launches, 1988.12.23 (Cosmos 1985) to 1989.12.27 (Cosmos 2053). Specifications for a third generation Taifun-3 system were developed in 1980 with flight trials to have started in 1984.

Tansei.

  • Japanese technology satellite. 5 launches, 1971.02.16 (Tansei 1) to 1985.01.07 (SS-10 Sagikake). Series of spacecraft of varying configurations built for engineering tests of scientific satellite equipment.

Tansuo-1.

  • Code name for Shiyan civilian surveillance satellite.

TAOS.

  • American military strategic defense satellite. One launch, 1994.03.13, USA 101. TAOS was a technology demonstration satellite whose purpose was to demonstrate autonomous space navigation systems to reduce satellite ground support needs.

Tattletale.

  • Code name for GRAB military naval signals reconnaisance satellite.

TAV.

  • American manned spaceplane. Developed in the 1980s but halted in favor of the X-30. USAF program of the 1980's that reached the test hardware stage and was leading to a single-stage-to-orbit, rocket-powered, winged manned vehicle.

TAVE.

  • American technology satellite. One launch, 1962.09.29. Thor Agena Vibration Experiment

TD-1A.

  • European technology satellite. One launch, 1972.03.12. Sixth satellite of ESRO.

TDRS.

  • American military communications satellite. 7 launches, 1983.04.04 (TDRS 1) to 1995.07.13 (TDRS 7). Satellite communications network, for use by Shuttle and US military satellites.

Technical University of Berlin Satellite.

  • Alternate designation for Tubsat communications technology satellite.

Technology for Autonomous Operational Survivability.

  • Alternate designation for TAOS military strategic defense satellite.

Techstar.

  • Manufacturer's designation for GFO earth resources radar satellite.

Tecsar.

  • Israeli military surveillance radar satellite. First launch 2008.01.21. Israeli military radar/optical surveillance satellite using synthetic aperture x-band radar, with estimated 10 cm radar and 1 m optical ground resolution.

Teknologia.

  • Russian materials science satellite. Study 1990. In 1990 KB Salyut proposed an unmanned derivative of the TKS to conduct zero-gravity materials production experiments.

Tekos.

  • Russian materials science satellite. In 1991 Lavochkin NPO proposed this recoverable earth orbital spacecraft design, derived from their Venera planetary spacecraft, for materials and microgravity research missions.

Teledesic.

  • American communications satellite. One launch, 1998.02.26. The Teledesic system was announced in 2004, and was to have provided global communication links via a constellation of 288 LEO spacecraft.

Telespazio Micro Satellite.

  • Alternate designation for Temisat communications technology satellite.

Television Infrared Observation Satellite.

  • Alternate designation for TIROS earth weather satellite.

Tellura.

  • Russian earth land resources satellite. Study 1990. In 1990 KB Salyut proposed an unmanned derivative of the TKS manned ferry to conduct earth resources experiments.

Telstar.

  • American communications satellite. 2 launches, 1962.07.10 (Telstar 1) and 1963.05.07 (Telstar 2).

Temisat.

  • Italian communications technology satellite. One launch, 1993.08.31. Temisat's primary mission was demonstration of a data relay system.

Tempsat.

  • American military target satellite. 2 launches, 1965.08.13 (Tempsat 1) and 1969.09.30 (Tempsat 2). Surveillance Calibration; black 14 inch diameter. sphere.

Terilen.

  • Code name for Yantar-4KS1 military surveillance satellite.

Terra.

  • American earth land resources satellite. One launch, 1999.12.18. NASA's Terra satellite (originally known as Earth Observing System EOS AM-1) was the first spacecraft in the EOS program.

Terra-3.

  • Russian military anti-satellite system. Study 1984. OKB Vympel was the systems integrator for ground-based laser systems.

TerraSAR-X.

  • German civilian surveillance radar satellite. First launch 2007.06.15. Scientific / commercial surveillance satellite, equipped with an X-band synthetic aperture radar with 1 meter resolution

TERRIERS.

  • American earth ionosphere satellite. One launch, 1999.05.18.

TES.

  • Indian military surveillance satellite. One launch, 2001.10.22. TES was an imaging satellite equipped with cameras and instruments to test military reconnaissance satellite technology.

Test and Training Satellite.

  • Alternate designation for TTS tracking network technology satellite.

Tether Physics and Survivability.

  • Alternate designation for TiPS tether technology satellite.

Tethered Satellite System.

  • Alternate designation for TSS tether technology satellite.

TETR.

  • American tracking network technology satellite. 2 launches, 1969.08.27 (TETR C) and 1971.09.29 (TETR 3). Test satellite for NASA's Manned Space Flight Network.

TEX.

TFX.

  • American pressure suit, tested 1965. Prototype bladder type partial pressure suit with a separate Anti-G suit valve. APL program with Navy and ILC Dover.

TGR.

  • Russian military surveillance satellite. Study 1963. Two new directions were pursued in the Soviet Union for space optical reconnaissance systems in the mid-1960's: automated systems with television transmission of pictures, and manned systems.

The Green Arrow.

  • British manned spacecraft. Study 2004. X-Prize suborbital ballistic spacecraft concept of Flight Exploration of London, England.

The Space Tourist.

  • American manned spaceplane. Study 2004. X-Prize suborbital flying saucer concept of Discraft Corporation of Portland, Oregon.

The Spirit of Liberty.

  • American manned spacecraft. Study 2004. X-Prize suborbital ballistic spacecraft concept of American Astronautics Corporation, Oceanside, California.

Themis.

  • American earth magnetosphere satellite. 5 launched, 2007.02.17.

Three-Corner Sat.

  • Alternate designation for 3CSat technology satellite.

Three-Magnum Mars Mission.

Thunderbird.

Tian Jiao 1.

  • Chinese manned spaceplane. Study 1988. The Tian Jiao 1 (Pre-eminent in Space 1) manned spaceplane was proposed by the First Academy (now the China Academy of Launch Technology) in 1988.

Tian Jiao 2.

  • Chinese manned spaceplane. Study 2006. What appeared to be an evolved version of 1988's Tian Jiao 1 manned spaceplane concept was proposed by the China Academy of Launch Technology in 2006. A 2020 operational date was mentioned.

Tiangong.

  • Chinese man-tended space laboratory. Operational, first launch planned September 2011. A series of three of these laboratories will be visited by a series of Shenzhou manned spacecraft between 2011 and 2018. The 8.5-ton design will then be extended to a 13-ton cargo carrier for resupply of the Chinese multi-module space station after 2020.

Tier 1.

Tier 1b.

Tier 2.

  • Alternate designation for Tier Two manned spacecraft.

Tier Two.

  • American manned spacecraft. Study 2005. After the successful win of the X-Prize for the first suborbital flight by Burt Rutan's Tier One / SpaceShipOne, the designer hinted a follow-on orbital spacecraft was being designed.

Timation.

  • American navigation technology satellite. 2 launches, 1967.05.31 (Timation 1) and 1969.09.30 (Timation 2).

TIMED.

  • American solar satellite. One launch, 2001.12.07. TIMED was the first NASA Solar Terrestrial Probe, operated by Johns Hopkins Applied Physics Lab to study the thermosphere, mesosphere and lower ionosphere.

Timofei.

  • Alternate designation for Kristall manned space station.

TIP.

  • American navigation satellite. 6 launches, 1972.09.02 (Triad 1) to 1988.06.16 (Nova 2).

TiPS.

  • American tether technology satellite. 3 launches, 1996.05.12 (USA 123) to 1998.10.03 (USA 141). The 53 kg satellite consisted of 2 end masses connected by a 4 km tether. NRO (the National Reconnaissance Office) provided funding for the TiPS project.

TIROS.

  • American earth weather satellite. 12 launches, 1960.04.01 (Tiros 1) to 1966.02.28 (ESSA 2). TIROS spacecraft were the beginning of a long series of polar-orbiting meteorological satellites.

Tiros N.

  • American earth weather satellite. 6 launches, 1978.10.13 (Tiros N) to 2002.06.24 (NOAA 17). Tiros N was part of the ongoing US series of polar-orbiting weather satellites. These were preceded by the TIROS series and the ITOS (Improved TIROS) series.

TIROS Operational System.

  • Alternate designation for TOS earth weather satellite.

TKM-O.

  • Manufacturer's designation for Spektr manned space station.

TKS.

  • Russian manned spacecraft. 4 launches, 1977.07.17 (Cosmos 929) to 1985.09.27 (Cosmos 1686).

TKS BSO.

  • Russian manned spacecraft module. 4 launches, 1977.07.17 (Cosmos 929) to 1985.09.27 (Cosmos 1686). The BSO was equipped with the retro-rocket for deorbit of the VA capsule following separation from the space station. Deorbit Block.

TKS FGB.

  • Russian manned spacecraft module. 4 launches, 1977.07.17 (Cosmos 929) to 1985.09.27 (Cosmos 1686). Orbital Living and Service Module.

TKS Heavy Space Station.

  • Russian manned space station. Study 1961. The TKS (Heavy Space Station, also known as TOSZ - Heavy Orbital Station of the Earth) was Korolev's first 1961 project for a large N1-launched military space station.

TKS SAS.

  • Russian manned spacecraft module. 4 launches, 1977.07.17 (Cosmos 929) to 1985.09.27 (Cosmos 1686). Emergency escape system.

TKS VA.

  • Russian manned spacecraft module. 13 launches, 1976.12.15 (Cosmos 881) to 1985.09.27 (Cosmos 1686). The VA reentry capsule was similar in configuration to the American Apollo, but 30% smaller. Reusable re-entry capsule.

TLSS/ALSS.

  • American pressure suit, tested 1982. Tactical Life Support System. Developed by the USAF and Boeing/Gentex to provide get-me-down protection from 18 km.

TME.

  • Manufacturer's designation for Teknologia materials science satellite.

TMK-1.

  • Russian manned Mars flyby. Study 1959. In 1959 a group of enthusiasts in OKB-1 Section 3 under the management of G U Maksimov started engineering design of this first fantastic project for manned interplanetary travel.

TMK-E.

  • Russian manned Mars expedition. Study 1960. Feoktistov felt that the TMK-1 manned Mars flyby design was too limited. His design group proposed in 1960 a complete Mars landing expedition, to be assembled in earth orbit using two or more N1 launches.

TMP.

  • Manufacturer's designation for Skif-DM sattelite.

TMP.

  • Russian materials science satellite. Study 1992. The enormous 88 metric ton Engineering Production Module (TMP) was proposed by the Salyut Design Bureau in the early 1990's.

Tomato Worm Suit.

  • American pressure suit, tested 1940-43. Project MX-117 full "tomato worm" pressure suits were developed during World War II.

Tomographic Experiment / Radiative Recombinative Ionospheric EUV & Radio Sources.

  • Alternate designation for TERRIERS earth ionosphere satellite.

TOMS-EP.

  • American earth atmosphere satellite. One launch, 1996.07.02.

Topex/Poseidon.

  • American earth sea satellite. One launch, 1992.08.10. TOPEX/Poseidon was a co-operative mission between the United States and France designed to provide high-accuracy global sea level measurements.

TOPO.

  • American earth geodetic satellite. One launch, 1970.04.08. US Army topographic / geodesic satellite launched in 1970.

TOS.

  • American earth weather satellite. 7 launches, 1966.10.02 (ESSA 3) to 1969.02.26 (ESSA 9). TOS spacecraft marked the first operational system of US polar-orbiting meteorological satellites.

Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer - Earth Probe.

  • Alternate designation for TOMS-EP earth atmosphere satellite.

TR-1.

  • American pressure suit, tested 1980. Prototype full pressure suit developed by ILC Dover for the TR-1 aircraft.

TRAAC.

  • American technology satellite. One launch, 1961.11.15. Transit Research and Attitude Control.

TRACE.

  • American solar satellite. One launch, 1998.04.02. TRACE, carried a 30-cm extreme ultraviolet imaging telescope for studies of the sun. Lockheed was the lead contractor while the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory made the telescope mirrors.

Tracking and Data Relay Satellite.

  • Alternate designation for TDRS military communications satellite.

Trailblazer.

  • American technology satellite. Launched 2008.08.03,

Transhab Module.

  • American manned space station module. Cancelled 1998. Cost overruns soon forced NASA to consider other options for the International Space Station's habitation module. The space agency originally intended to use the same 8.

Transit.

  • American navigation satellite. 46 launches, 1959.09.17 (Transit 1A) to 1988.08.25 (Transit O-31). The Transit Navigation System began development in 1958.

Transportniy Korabl Snabzheniya.

  • Alternate designation for TKS manned spacecraft.

Transtage.

  • American space tug. Flown 1968-1982 on Titan 3A and 3C boosters. Transtage mass remaining after insertion of Dynasoar and Abort Stage into orbit. Transtage had its own RCS. Maneuver in earth orbit.

Triad.

  • Alternate designation for TIP navigation satellite.

TRMM.

  • American earth atmosphere satellite. One launch, 1997.11.27. TRMM was an international mission dedicated to measuring tropical and subtropical rainfall.

Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission.

  • Alternate designation for TRMM earth atmosphere satellite.

TRS.

  • American technology satellite. 5 launches, 1963.05.09 (TRS 2) to 1964.07.17 (TRS 6). TRS satellites undertook a range of engineering experiments related to radiation-hardening of solar cells and spacecraft electronics.

TrueZer0.

Trumpet.

  • American military naval signals reconnaisance satellite. 3 launches, 1994.05.03 (USA 103) to 1997.11.08 (USA 136).

TRW Mars.

  • American manned Mars expedition. Study 1963. In 1963 TRW designed a Mars expedition using aerobraking at both Mars and Earth, and a swingby of Venus on return.

TS-1.

  • Article Number of Shiyan civilian surveillance satellite.

Ts-1.

  • Alternate designation for LL manned rocketplane.

Tselina-2.

  • Ukrainian military naval signals reconnaisance satellite. 25 launches, 1984.09.28 (Cosmos 1603) to 2007.06.29 (Cosmos 2406).

Tselina-3.

  • Ukrainian military naval signals reconnaisance satellite. Cancelled in the early 1990s. The Tselina-3 third generation two-tier ELINT satellite system was developed in parallel with Tselina-2.

Tselina-D.

  • Ukrainian military naval signals reconnaisance satellite. 77 launches, 1970.12.18 (Cosmos 389) to 1994.05.25 (Tselina-D). The Tselina D was the detailed observation portion of the two-satellite Tselina ELINT satellite system.

Tselina-O.

  • Ukrainian military naval signals reconnaisance satellite. 42 launches, 1967.06.26 (Tselina-O GVM) to 1982.03.31 (Cosmos 1345). From 1965 to 1967 two dedicated ELINT systems were tested by the Soviet Union: Tselina and US. Both were routinely operated.

Tselina-OM.

  • Ukrainian military naval signals reconnaisance satellite. Study 1970. Improved version of Tselina-O. Either not put into production or later launches listed as Tselina-O were actually of Tselina-OM model.

Tsien Spaceplane 1949.

  • American manned spaceplane. Study 1949. Intercontinental rocket transport, 5,000 km range, single stage winged design clearly derived from V-2 aerodynamics.

Tsien Spaceplane 1978.

  • Chinese manned spaceplane. Study late 1970s. Tsien Hsue-shen's manned spacecraft design proposed in the late 1970's was a winged spaceplane, launched by a CZ-2 core booster with two large strap-on boosters.

Tsikada.

  • Russian navigation satellite. 20 launches, 1976.12.15 (Cosmos 883) to 1995.07.05 (Cosmos 2315). Tsikada was a complementary civilian version of the Parus military naval navigation satellite system for the Soviet Merchant Marine and Academy of Sciences.

Tsikada-M.

  • Alternate designation for Parus navigation satellite.

Tsiklon.

  • Russian navigation satellite. 31 launches, 1967.05.15 (Cosmos 158) to 1978.07.27 (Cosmos 1027).

Tsiklon-B.

  • Manufacturer's designation for Parus navigation satellite.

TsM-D 77KSD-17101.

  • Manufacturer's designation for Kvant-2 manned space station.

TsM-E 37Ke-010.

  • Manufacturer's designation for Kvant manned space station.

TsM-I 77KSI.

  • Manufacturer's designation for Priroda manned space station.

TsM-T 77KST-17201.

  • Manufacturer's designation for Kristall manned space station.

TSS.

  • Italian tether technology satellite. One launch, 1996.02.22. Test from shuttle of 20 km long tether; satellite unintentionally deployed when tether broke February 25 1996. Re-entered March 19.

TTS.

  • American tracking network technology satellite. 2 launches, 1967.12.13 (TTS 1) and 1968.11.08 (TTS 2; TATS 2 (TETR 2)). Tested Apollo tracking network.

Tu-2000.

  • Russian manned spaceplane. Study 1986. In reaction to US X-30 project, government decrees of 27 January and 19 July 1986 ordered development of a Soviet equivalent.

Tubsat.

  • German communications technology satellite. 7 launches, 1991.07.17 (Tubsat-A) to 2007.01.10 (Maroc-Tubsat). Germany's Technical University of Berlin (TUB) built a successful series of 40 kg 'Tubsat' experimental technology satellites.

Type B.

  • British pressure suit, operational 1965. Full pressure suit designed by R. E. Simpson, and developed by Baxter, Woodhouse and Taylor Ltd. for the Royal Air Force.

Tyulpan.

  • Russian military anti-satellite system target satellite. Study 1987. ASAT target designed to be released and tracked by sensors in original design of Mir Spektr module. May also have been the ASAT targets carried aboard the Polyus star wars testbed.

Tyulpan Comsat.

  • Russian communications satellite. By 1994 Lavochkin's Tyulpan system was promoted more heavily than its earlier Nord system.

U400-10.

  • Russian manned rocketplane. Study 1949. Unmanned rocketplane that proved Isayev rocket engine technology in the late 1940's.

UARS.

  • American earth ionosphere satellite. One launch, 1991.09.12. The Upper Atmospheric Research Satellite was designed to study the physical and chemical processes occurring in the Earth's upper atmosphere (between 15 and 100 km).

Ulysses.

  • European solar satellite. One launch, 1990.10.06. Ulysses was a joint NASA / ESA mission designed to study the polar regions of the Sun.

Umanskiy Space Capsule.

  • Soviet manned spacecraft. Study 1965. Small minimum space capsule for emergency return of crew or urgent payloads from orbit. Proposed by an engineer at Soviet Factory 918 in 1965, but no support from the entrenched space interests.

UMPIRE Convair.

  • American manned Mars expedition. Study 1964. Unfavorable Manned Planetary - Interplanetary Roundtrip Expedition profiles were studied under NASA Huntsville contracts to General Dynamics and Douglas in June 1963.

UMPIRE Douglas.

  • American manned Mars expedition. Study 1964. Unfavorable Manned Planetary - Interplanetary Roundtrip Expedition profiles were studied under NASA Huntsville contracts to General Dynamics and Douglas in June 1963.

UniSat.

  • Italian technology satellite. 3 launches, 2000.09.26 (UniSat) to 2004.06.29 (Unisat 3). Experimental satellite developed by the GAUSS (Gruppo di Astrodinamica dell' Universita degli Studi 'la Sapienza') in Roma.

Unitec.

  • Space qualification of university-built computers. Released in solar orbit 0.72 AU x 1.07 AU x 2.0 deg. Launched 2010.05.20,

Universitetskiy.

  • Russian technology satellite. One launch, 2005.01.20. Student satellite for radiation studies, ejected from Cosmos 2414.

Unmanned Logistic System.

  • Alternate designation for Apollo ULS lunar logistics spacecraft.

Unosat.

  • Brazilian technology satellite.

UoSAT.

  • British amateur radio communications satellite. One launch, 2001.09.30, Picosat. Radio science; also carried amateur radio package. Communication and geophysics research satellite.

Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite.

  • Alternate designation for UARS earth ionosphere satellite.

Uragan.

  • Code name for Glonass navigation satellite.

Uragan Space Interceptor.

  • Russian manned combat spacecraft. 2 launches, 1987.08.01 (Cosmos 1871) to 1987.08.28 (Cosmos 1873). Russian sources continue to maintain that the Uragan manned spaceplane project never existed.

Uran.

  • Code name for IS-P military anti-satellite system target satellite.

US-A.

  • Russian military naval surveillance radar satellite. 38 launches, 1965.12.28 (Cosmos 102) to 1988.03.14 (Cosmos 1932). The US-A (later known as RLS) was a nuclear powered RORSAT (Radar Ocean Reconnaissance Satellite).

USA 185.

  • American earth magnetosphere satellite. One launch, 2005.09.23. Classified research satellite, said to carry instruments to characterise the space environment in a sun-synchronous orbit.

USA 193.

  • American military technology satellite. One launch, 2006.12.14, US shoots down failed USA 193 satellite.. Classifed NRO mission of uncertain objectives, possibly military observation with a mixed payload.

USAF Recommended Station.

  • American manned space station. Study 1962. During 1962 NASA Centers, the Air Force, and many of the major aerospace contractors were developing possible space station concepts and studying their potential uses.

US-AM.

  • Manufacturer's designation for US-A military naval surveillance radar satellite.

USB.

  • Russian military anti-satellite system. Study 1978. As platforms for operational versions of space-borne weapons NPO Energia designed a Universal Service Block, based on the DOS-7K space station, in the late 1970's/early 1980's.

USERS.

  • Japanese materials science satellite. One launch, 2002.09.10. USERS (Unmanned Space Experiment Recovery System) was a Japanese microgravity experimental satellite.

US-KMO.

  • Manufacturer's designation for Prognoz SPRN military early warning satellite.

US-KS.

  • Manufacturer's designation for Oko military early warning satellite.

USM No. 176-01.

  • Manufacturer's designation for ISS Zvezda manned space station.

US-P.

  • Russian military naval signals reconnaisance satellite. 37 launches, 1974.12.24 (Cosmos 699) to 1991.01.18 (Cosmos 2122). The US-P (later known as RTR) was a solar powered EORSAT (Electronic Ocean Reconnaissance Satellite).

US-PM.

  • Manufacturer's designation for US-P military naval signals reconnaisance satellite.

US-PU.

  • Manufacturer's designation for Pirs-2 military naval signals reconnaisance satellite.

US-PU.

  • Ukrainian military naval signals reconnaisance satellite. 13 launches, 1993.03.30 (Cosmos 2238) to 2006.06.24 (Cosmos 2421).

V-2 VTOHL.

  • Chinese manned spaceplane. Study 1988. The V-2 vertical takeoff / horizontal landing two-stage reusable space shuttle was proposed by Beijing Department 11 of the Air Ministry in 1988.

Vanguard 1.

  • American technology satellite. 4 launches, 1957.12.06 (Vanguard 1A) to 1958.04.29 (Vanguard 2A). An engineering test satellite. Based on orbital position data derived from its transmissions, the shape of the earth was refined.

Vanguard 2.

  • American earth magnetosphere satellite. 4 launches, 1958.05.28 (Vanguard 2B) to 1959.02.17 (Vanguard 2). The actual operational satellite that was to be launched by the Vanguard launcher.

Vanguard 3.

  • American earth magnetosphere satellite. 4 launches, 1959.04.14 (30-inch Sphere) to 1959.09.18 (Vanguard 3). Radiation, micrometeoroid data.

Vega 5VK.

  • Russian Venus probe. 2 launches, 1984.12.15 (Vega 1) to 1984.12.21 (Vega 2). The Vega 5VK spacecraft was designed for a mission combining a flyby of the planet Venus followed by an encounter with Halley's Comet.

Vega 5VS.

  • Russian Venus probe. Cancelled 1985. Unflown series of Venus probes (which also served as the basis for the Granat satellite). Original plans called for two versions, 5VS and 5VP, both weighing 4850 kg.

Vehicle Evaluation Payload.

  • Alternate designation for VEP technology satellite.

Vektor.

  • Code name for Taifun-1 military target satellite.

Vela.

  • American nuclear detection surveillance satellite. 6 launches, 1963.10.17 (Vela 2) to 1965.07.20 (Vela 6). The Vela (meaning "watchman" in Spanish) series of spacecraft were designed to monitor world-wide compliance with the 1963 nuclear test ban treaty.

Venera 1V (V-67).

  • Russian Venus probe. 2 launches, 1967.06.12 (Venera 4) to 1967.06.17 (Cosmos 167). Venus probe with the announced mission of direct atmospheric studies.

Venera 1VA.

  • Russian Venus probe. 2 launches, 1961.02.12 (Sputnik 7) to (Venera 1). The 1VA probe, the first spacecraft sent towards Venus, consisted of a cylindrical body topped by a dome, totaling 2 meters in height.

Venera 2V (V-69).

  • Russian Venus probe. 2 launches, 1969.01.05 (Venera 6) to 1969.01.10 (Venera 6). Spacecraft was very similar to Venera 4 / 1V (V-67) although the descent module was of a stronger design.

Venera 3MV-1.

  • Russian Venus probe. 3 launches, 1964.02.19 (3MV-1 No. 2 SA) to 1964.04.02 (Zond 1).

Venera 3MV-1A.

  • Russian Venus probe. 2 launches, 1963.11.11 (Cosmos 21) to 1964.02.19 (3MV-1A).

Venera 3MV-3.

  • Russian Venus probe. One launch, 1965.11.16, Venera 3. The mission of this spacecraft was to land on the Venusian surface.

Venera 3MV-4.

  • Russian Venus probe. 2 launches, 1965.11.12 (Venera 2) to 1965.11.23 (Cosmos 96). Carried a TV system and scientific instruments.

Venera 3V (V-70).

  • Russian Venus probe. 2 launches, 1970.08.17 (Venera 7) to 1970.08.22 (Cosmos 359). Venus lander intended to study the Venusian atmosphere and other phenomena of the planet.

Venera 3V (V-72).

  • Russian Venus probe. 2 launches, 1972.03.27 (Venera 8) to 1972.03.31 (Cosmos 482). Venus atmospheric probe; instrumentation included temperature, pressure, and light sensors as well as radio transmitters.

Venera 4V-1.

  • Russian Venus probe. 6 launches, 1975.06.08 (Venera 9) to 1981.11.04 (Venera 14).

Venera 4V-2.

  • Russian Venus probe. 2 launches, 1983.06.02 (Venera 15) to 1983.06.07 (Venera 16). Venera radar mappers which used an 8 cm band side-looking radar to study the surface properties of Venus.

Venturestar.

  • American manned spaceplane. Study 2006. Production reusable single-stage-to-orbit launch vehicle using technology developed in X-33 testbed.

Venus Express.

  • European Venus probe. One launch, 2005.11.09. European Union probe to Venus, with the primary mission of studying the atmosphere and space environment of the planet.

VEP.

  • Japanese technology satellite. 2 launches, 1994.02.03 (VEP) and 2001.08.29 (VEP-2). Monitored H-2 launch vehicle performance. National name MYOJO.

VERAS.

  • French manned spaceplane. Study 1968. A Mach 10 spaceplane demonstrator proposed by Nord Aviation in 1968.

Viking.

  • American Mars lander. 5 launches, 1974.02.11 (Viking Dynamic Simulator) to 1975.09.09 (Viking 2 Lander). First successful soft landings made at two locations on the Martian surface and returned the first images from the surface.

Viking (Sweden).

  • Swedish earth magnetosphere satellite. One launch, 1986.02.22, Viking. Sweden's first satellite, Viking, was originally initiated as a means of providing experience in satellite system development and management.

VKA Myasishchev 1957.

  • Russian manned spaceplane. Study 1957. The VKA (aero-space vehicle) was a 1957 Myasishchev design - a diminutive single-crew star-shaped spaceplane that could be launched by Korolev's R-7 ICBM.

VKA-23 Design 1.

  • Russian manned spaceplane. Study 1960. Myasishchev single-pilot winged spacecraft of 1960, sized for launch to orbit by Korolev's Vostok booster.

VKA-23 Design 2.

  • Russian manned spaceplane. Study 1957. Following the very critical review of the first M-48 spaceplane design by the expert commission, Myasishchev went back to the drawing board.

VKK.

  • Russian manned spaceplane. Study 1998. A Russian concept of the 1990's harking back to Chelomei's Raketoplan of three decades earlier. A manned aircraft would be protected during launch and re-entry by an expendable aeroshell heat shield.

VKS.

  • Russian manned spaceplane. Study 1986. The Energia VKS was designed as a hypersonic rocketplane with multi-regime engines, in response to the Soviet Ministry of Defenses' MVKS single-stage reusable aerospaceplane system requirement.

VMSK-4.

  • Russian pressure suit, operational 1970. The VMSK-4 was a partial pressure immersion suit developed for Soviet Naval Aviation pilots.

Von Braun Cargo Ship.

  • American manned Mars orbiter. Study 1952.

Von Braun Landing Boat.

  • American manned Mars lander. Study 1952. The first design for a manned Mars lander based on engineering analysis. The enormous glider would have a wingspan of 153 m, and land on Mars horizontally either on skis, skids, or wheels on a prepared runway.

Von Braun Lunar Lander.

  • American manned lunar lander. Study 1952. Von Braun's first lunar lander design was an immense spacecraft, larger in earth orbit than a Saturn V booster.

Von Braun Mars Expedition - 1952.

  • American manned Mars expedition. Study 1952. Wernher von Braun made the first engineering analysis of a manned mission to Mars in 1948.

Von Braun Mars Expedition - 1956.

  • American manned Mars expedition. Study 1956. Von Braun's Mars expedition presented in the 1956 book he co-authored with Willy Ley, The Exploration of Mars, was vastly reduced in scope from the 1952 version.

Von Braun Mars Expedition - 1969.

  • American manned Mars expedition. Study 1969. Von Braun's final vision for a manned expedition to Mars was a robust plan that eliminated much of the risk of other scenarios. Two ships would fly in convoy from earth orbit to Mars and back.

Von Braun Passenger Ship.

  • American manned Mars orbiter. Study 1952. The first design for a manned Mars orbiter based on engineering analysis. 10 passengers would be housed in a 20-m-diameter sphere during the 963 day mission to Mars, in Mars orbit, and back to earth.

Von Braun Rocketplane.

  • German manned rocketplane. Study 1939. On 6 July 1939 Wernher von Braun proposed to the German Reich Air Ministry a "fighter with rocket drive".

Von Braun Station.

  • American manned space station. Study 1945. In the first 1946 summary of his work during World War II, Wernher von Braun prophesied the construction of space stations in orbit.

Vortex.

  • Code name for Chalet military naval signals reconnaisance satellite.

Voskhod.

  • Russian manned spacecraft. 5 launches, 1964.10.06 (Cosmos 47) to 1966.02.22 (Cosmos 110).

Voskhod KDU.

  • Russian manned spacecraft module. Study 1965. Auxilliary Retrorocket.

Voskhod PO.

  • Russian manned spacecraft module. Study 1965. Equipment section.

Voskhod SA.

  • Russian manned spacecraft module. Study 1965. Reentry capsule.

Vostok.

  • Russian manned spacecraft. 13 launches, 1960.05.15 (Korabl-Sputnik 1) to 1963.06.16 (Vostok 6). First manned spacecraft. Derivatives were still in use in the 21st Century for military surveillance, earth resources, mapping, and biological missions.

Vostok 2.

  • Alternate designation for Zenit-2 military surveillance satellite.

Vostok 4.

  • Alternate designation for Zenit-4 military surveillance satellite.

Vostok PO.

  • Russian manned spacecraft module. Study 1960. Equipment section.

Vostok SA.

  • Russian manned spacecraft module. Study 1960. Reentry capsule.

Vostok-2.

  • Alternate designation for Vostok-Zh manned spacecraft.

Vostok-Zh.

  • Russian manned spacecraft. Study 1961. The Vostok-Zh (or Vostok-7) maneuverable manned satellite was piloted by a single 'cosmonaut assemblyman'.

Voyager.

  • American outer planets probe. 2 launches, 1977.08.20 (Voyager 2) and 1977.09.05 (Voyager 1). The twin Voyager spacecraft were designed to perform close-up observations of the atmospheres, magnetospheres, rings, and satellites of Jupiter and Saturn.

Voyager 1973.

  • American Mars lander. Cancelled 1967. The original Voyager project was an ambitious NASA project to hurl a 3 metric ton spacecraft using a Saturn IB-Centaur booster toward Mars by 1969.

Vozbrashchaemaya ballisticheskaya kapsula.

Vozvrashchaemiy apparat.

  • Russian name for LK-1 VA manned spacecraft module.

VSOP.

  • Code name for Haruka radio astronomy satellite.

Vykhod.

  • Code name for Voskhod manned spacecraft.

Vzletnaya stuplen.

  • Russian name (ascent module) for LK Energia VS manned spacecraft module.

Weapons Research Establishment Satellite.

  • Alternate designation for Wresat earth atmosphere satellite.

Webb Space Telescope.

  • Alternate designation for WST visible astronomy satellite.

WEOS Kanta-Kun.

  • Japanese earth land resources satellite. One launch, 2002.12.14. Ecology satellite.

Westford Needles.

  • American passive communications satellite. 3 launches, 1961.10.21 (Westford) to 1963.05.09 (Westford). In an attempt to lay a radio-reflective ring around the world, small metal dipole needles were allowed to sublimate out of a matrix.

White Cloud.

  • Code name for NOSS military naval signals reconnaisance satellite.

Wide Field Infrared Explorer.

  • Alternate designation for WIRE infrared astronomy satellite.

Wild Fire.

  • Canadian manned spacecraft. Study 2004. X-Prize suborbital balloon-launched ballistic spacecraft concept of the Da Vinci Project, led by Brian Feeney of Toronto, Canada. Reached the stage of engineering tests by 2003.

Wiley Post Suit.

  • American pressure suit, operational 1934-35. B F Goodrich made a full pressure suit for pioneering aviator Wiley Post, who used it to make ten stratospheric flights in 1934-1935.

Wind.

  • American earth magnetosphere satellite. One launch, 1994.11.01. Wind was designed to provide continuous measurement of the solar wind, particularly charged particles and magnetic field data.

WINDS.

  • Code name for Kizuna communications satellite.

Winged Gemini.

  • American manned spaceplane. Study 1966. Winged Gemini was the most radical modification of the basic Gemini reentry module ever considered.

WIRE.

  • American infrared astronomy satellite. One launch, 1999.03.05. WIRE was designed to survey the celestial sky in the infrared bands and build on the results of the IRAS mission.

WorldView.

  • American civilian surveillance satellite. First launch 2007.09.18. DigitalGlobe's WorldView satellite provided highly detailed imagery for precise map creation, change detection and in-depth image analysis.

Wresat.

  • Australian earth atmosphere satellite. One launch, 1967.11.29. Australian Weapons Research Establishment Satellite, launched using surplus US Army Redstone missile, that obtained solar radiation, upper atmosphere data.

WSF.

  • American materials science satellite. 2 launches, 1995.09.07 (WSF 2) and 1996.11.19 (WSF). Wake Shield Facility; released and later retrieved by the Shuttle in a single mission; semiconductor materials research.

WST.

  • American visible astronomy satellite. Study 2002. 6 m deep space telescope slated to replace the Hubble Space Telescope from 2010.

X-15 Pressure Suit.

  • Alternate designation for MC-2 space suit.

X-15A.

  • American manned spaceplane. 174 launches, 1959.06.08 (X-15 Flight 1) to 1968.10.24 (X-15 Flight 199). The X-15 was the first USAF and NASA project for manned spaceflight, initiated years before Mercury.

X-15A-2.

  • American manned spaceplane. Study 1965. The crash-damaged X-15 number 2 was rebuilt to attain even higher speeds. The body frame was stretched, and two drop tanks were added, increasing propellant load by 75%.

X-15A-3.

  • American manned spaceplane. Cancelled 1962. It had been proposed that X-15 number 3 would be reworked to install a delta wing and designed to reach Mach 8.

X-15B.

  • American manned spacecraft. Study 1958. North American's proposal for the Air Force initial manned space project was to extend the X-15 program. The X-15B was a 'stripped' X-15A with an empty mass of 4500 kg.

X-1A.

  • American manned rocketplane. Study 1951. The X-1A, B, and D were essentially identical rocketplanes intended to reach speeds above Mach 2.

X-1B.

  • American manned rocketplane. Flown 1952. The X-1A, B, and D were essentially identical rocketplanes intended to reach speeds above Mach 2.

X-1D.

  • American manned rocketplane. Study 1953. The X-1A, B, and D were essentially identical rocketplanes intended to reach speeds above Mach 2.

X-1E.

  • American manned rocketplane. Study 1954. The X-1E was designed to test an ultra-thin 4% thickness to cord wing for supersonic flight.

X-2.

  • American manned rocketplane. Design began 1945. X-2 was an AAF/ Bell project that flew three supersonic flight research aircraft, powered by liquid rockets. Originally designated XS-2.

X-20 Glider.

X-20A.

  • Alternate designation for Dynasoar manned spaceplane.

X-23A.

  • Article Number of Prime manned spaceplane.

X-24A.

  • American manned spaceplane. 28 launches, 1969.04.17 to 1971.06.04 . The X-24A was the Martin Corporation's subsonic test version of the US Air Force's preferred manned lifting body configuration.

X-24B.

  • American manned spaceplane. 36 launches, 1973.08.01 to 1975.11.26 .

X-24C.

  • American manned spaceplane. Cancelled 1977. Two X-24C NHFRF (National Hypersonic Flight Research Facility) aircraft were to be built under a $ 200 million budget.

X-30.

  • American manned spaceplane. Study 1990.

X-34.

  • American spaceplane. Study 1996.

X-37.

  • American unmanned spaceplane. The Boeing X-37 Space Maneuver Vehicle began as a subscale version of a proposed USAF manned 21st Century spaceplane. The smaller-scale X-40 tested some technologies prior to completion of the X-37A. The X-37B was the operational reusable space vehicle. Operational, first launch 2010.04.22.

X-38.

  • American manned spaceplane. 2 launches, 1972.02.16 (HL-10 LB Test?) to 1972.05.20 (HL-10 LB Test?). Lifting body reentry vehicle designed as emergency return spacecraft for International Space Station crew.

X-40.

  • American spaceplane. Study 2001. Boeing X-40A Experimental Space Maneuver Vehicle was built to test landing technologies for the later X-37.

X-43.

  • American spaceplane. Study 1997. NASA's X-43 Hyper-X program demonstrated an integrated hypersonic scramjet engine briefly at Mach 10 on its third and final flight.

Xerus.

  • American manned spaceplane. Study 2016. Suborbital vehicle that XCOR planned to design and build on a commercial basis. Rocket powered, it would take off from a runway, and be capable of high altitude, high speed flight.

XF-91.

  • American manned rocketplane. Study 1949. The Republic XF-91 Thunderceptor was a mixed-power interceptor, being powered by both a jet engine and by a battery of rocket motors. Although it showed promise, it was not put into production.

XMM.

  • European x-ray astronomy satellite. One launch, 1999.12.10. ESA's X-ray Multi-Mirror space observatory was the biggest science satellite ever built in Europe. The spacecraft's X-ray optics covered a spectral range of 1-120 nanometers (12keV-0.1keV).

XMM-Newton.

  • Alternate designation for XMM x-ray astronomy satellite.

XOV.

  • Manufacturer's designation for Blackstar manned spaceplane.

XP-79.

  • American manned rocketplane. Flown in 1945. The XP-79 was Jack Northrop's design for a rocket-propelled flying wing fighter.

XP-92.

  • American manned delta-wing rocketplane. Never flown with rockets, but flew as a turbojet-powered research aircraft, 1948-1953.

X-ray Multi Mirror.

  • Code name for XMM x-ray astronomy satellite.

XS-1.

  • American manned rocketplane. Design begun 1943. Also known as the X-1. This rocket plane was the first aircraft to break the sound barrier, and the first in a line of X- aircraft leading to the space shuttle.

XS-2.

  • Alternate designation for X-2 manned rocketplane.

XSS.

  • American rendezvous technology satellite. 2 launches, 2003.01.29 (XSS-10) and 2005.04.11 (USA 165).

XTE.

  • American x-ray astronomy satellite. One launch, 1995.12.30. X-ray Timing Explorer; X-ray astronomy.

Yakhta.

  • Russian communications satellite. One launch, 2006.06.17, Kazsat 1. RKK Energia-developed communications satellite, believed to be a larger development of the Yamal.

Yakovlev MVKS.

  • Russian manned spaceplane. Study 1986. In reaction to US X-30 project, government decrees of 27 January and 19 July 1986 ordered development of a Soviet equivalent.

Yamal.

  • Russian communications satellite. 4 launches, 1999.09.06 (Yamal 101) to 2003.11.24 (Yamal-200 KA-2). The Yamal communications satellite bus was developed by RKK Energia for Gazprom.

Yamsat.

  • Taiwanese technology satellite. Study 2002. Taiwan's NSPO developed this 1 kg picosatellite at a cost of $289,000 pico-class satellite in collaboration with Stanford University, USA. It was planned for launch on a Russian Dnepr booster in May 2002.

Yantar FR6.

  • Alternate designation for Orlets-1 sattelite.

Yantar-1.

  • Russian military surveillance satellite. Study 1968. Survey reconnaissance satellite project of KB Yuzhnoye worked on 1964-1967.

Yantar-1KF.

  • Russian military surveillance satellite. Cancelled 1970. Survey reconnaissance satellite project worked on by Kozlov from 1967, succeeding Yantar-1. To be launched on Soyuz 11A511M launch vehicle.

Yantar-1KFT.

  • Russian military surveillance satellite. 21 launches, 1981.02.18 (Cosmos 1246) to 2005.09.02 (Cosmos 2415). Version of the Yantar photo satellite for topographic mapping on behalf of the Red Army.

Yantar-2.

  • Russian military surveillance satellite. Study 1968. High resolution reconnaissance satellite project worked on by KB Yuzhnoye 1964-1967. Was to have been derived from Soyuz-R manned spacecraft.

Yantar-2K.

  • Russian military surveillance satellite. 30 launches, 1974.05.23 (Yantar-2K failure.) to 1983.06.28 (Cosmos 1471).

Yantar-2K-M.

  • Russian military surveillance satellite. Study 1980. Planned upgrade of Yantar-2K. Not put into production.

Yantar-3KF.

  • Russian military surveillance satellite. Study 1969. Survey reconnaissance satellite system studied in 1969. Not put into production.

Yantar-4.

  • Alternate designation for Yantar-4K2 military surveillance satellite.

Yantar-4K1.

  • Russian film-return military surveillance satellite. Operational, first launch 1979.04.27. Flight trials of the Yantar-2K indicated the satellite was not capable of providing strategic warning of attack. The high resolution Yantar-4K provided that capability, while still capable of being launched by the existing Soyuz-U launch vehicle. Lifetime was 45 days. Two small capsules could return film an an interim basis before the main spacecraft with film returned to earth.

Yantar-4K2.

  • Russian military surveillance satellite. Cancelled 1991. Improved military photo-reconnaissance satellite, using the basic Yantar-4K1 bus. Boost by the Zenit-2 launch vehicle would have allowed 22 film return capsules to be used over a 180 day mission.

Yantar-4KS1.

  • Russian military electro-optical surveillance satellite. Operational, first launched 1982.12.28.

Yantar-4KS2.

  • Russian military surveillance satellite. Cancelled 1983. The Yantar-4KS2 was a heavy military optical reconnaissance satellite, required to have the same capabilities as the KH-11/Crystal reconnaissance satellite of the United States.

Yantar-6K.

  • Manufacturer's designation for Orlets-1 sattelite.

Yantar-6K.

  • Russian military surveillance satellite. Study 1977. Extremely high resolution version of Yantar studied in 1969. A draft project was completed in May 1977, but the decision was made to keep the basic Yantar-2K satellite bus instead.

Yantar-6KS.

  • Russian military surveillance satellite. Study 1977. Electro-optical imaging operational high resolution version of Yantar studied in 1969.

Yaogan.

  • Chinese synthetic aperture radar military surveillance radar and ELINT satellite. Operational, first launch 2006.04.26.

Yastreb.

  • Russian space suit, operational 1969. The Yastreb suit was the first suit designed in the Soviet Union for extra-vehicular activity. Design began in 1965. Initially to be worn on the aborted Soyuz 1/2 1967 crew transfer mission.

Ye-8.

  • Manufacturer's designation for Luna Ye-8 lunar rover.

Ye-8-5.

  • Manufacturer's designation for Luna Ye-8-5 lunar lander.

Ye-8-5M.

Ye-8-LS.

  • Manufacturer's designation for Luna Ye-8-LS lunar orbiter.

YES.

  • European tether technology satellite. 2 launches, 1997.10.30 (YES) and 2007.09.14 (YES). Young Engineers Satellite sponsored by the European Space Tech.

Yug.

Yuri.

  • Japanese communications technology satellite. One launch, 1978.04.07. Medium-scale broadcasting satellite for experimental purposes.

Zarya.

  • Code name for Salyut 1 manned space station.

Zarya.

  • Russian manned spacecraft. Cancelled 1989.' Super Soyuz' replacement for Soyuz and Progress.

Zarya NO.

  • Russian manned spacecraft module. Cancelled 1989. Maneuver system consisted of two engines, each of 300 kgf. Expendable module for orbital maneuvering and experiments.

Zarya VA.

  • Russian manned spacecraft module. Cancelled 1989. The Zarya landing module was enlarged from the Soyuz 2.4 m diameter to 4.1 m diameter, while keeping the same shape and L/D coefficient of 0.26 at Mach 6. Reusable re-entry capsule.

Zenit.

  • Russian military surveillance satellite. Study 1956. Work began on the original Zenit spy satellite on 30 January 1956. After the success of Sputnik Sergei Korolev advocated that manned spaceflight should have first priority.

Zenit-2.

  • Russian military surveillance satellite. 81 launches, 1961.12.11 (Zenit-2 11F61 s/n 1) to 1970.05.12 (Cosmos 344). The Zenit-2 was a derivative of the manned Vostok, and the Soviet Union's first spy satellite.

Zenit-2M.

  • Russian military surveillance satellite. 101 launches, 1968.03.21 (Cosmos 208) to 1979.08.17 (Cosmos 1122). Planning began in mid-1967 for military systems to enter service through 1975.

Zenit-4.

  • Russian military surveillance satellite. 76 launches, 1963.11.16 (Cosmos 22) to 1970.08.07 (Cosmos 355). Zenit-4 was the second Soviet photo-reconnaissance satellite, providing high-resolution imagery to complement the area coverage of the Zenit-2.

Zenit-4M.

  • Russian military surveillance satellite. 61 launches, 1968.10.31 (Cosmos 251) to 1974.07.25 (Cosmos 667). Planning began in mid-1967 for military systems to enter service through 1975.

Zenit-4MK.

  • Russian military surveillance satellite. 80 launches, 1969.12.23 (Cosmos 317) to 1977.06.22 (Cosmos 920). Modernized high resolution version of the Zenit-4M satellite that went into service in 1972. Maneuverable; (two-tone telemetry).

Zenit-4MKM.

  • Russian military surveillance satellite. 39 launches, 1977.07.12 (Cosmos 927) to 1980.10.10 (Cosmos 1214). A further modification of the Zenit-4MK, accepted for military service in 1976, entered service in 1978.

Zenit-4MKM / 11F692.

  • Alternate designation for Zenit-4MK military surveillance satellite.

Zenit-4MKT.

  • Russian military surveillance satellite. 27 launches, 1975.09.25 (Cosmos 771) to 1985.09.06 (Cosmos 1681). The Zenit-4MKT / Fram was an adaptation of the recoverable Vostok spacecraft for reconnaissance/remote sensing missions.

Zenit-4MT.

  • Russian military surveillance satellite. 23 launches, 1971.12.27 (Cosmos 470) to 1982.08.03 (Cosmos 1398). Special version of Zenit developed for topographical photography. This was developed by OKB-1 Filial 1 based on the Zenit-4M.

Zenit-6U.

  • Russian military surveillance satellite. 95 launches, 1976.11.24 (Cosmos 867) to 1984.06.19 (Cosmos 1573). A universal variant of the Zenit spacecraft, used in two altitude ranges, for both observation and high resolution missions.

Zenit-8.

  • Russian military surveillance satellite. 101 launches, 1984.06.11 (Cosmos 1571) to 1994.06.07 (Cosmos 2281).

Zenith Star.

  • American military anti-satellite system. Study 1987. In 1987, the Zenith Star prototype space combat satellite prototype, using the Alpha laser, was announced by President Bush. The launch vehicle would be the Barbarian. Zenith Star weighed 39.

Zerkalo.

  • Russian communications satellite. In 1991 Lavochkin NPO teamed up with NOOS Space Technologies Ltd. Of Moscow to develop the Zerkalo spacecraft and telecommunications system.

Zeya.

  • Russian earth geodetic satellite. One launch, 1997.03.04. The Zeya satellite was used for navigation and geodesy tests from a sun-synchronous orbit.

Zh.

  • Alternate designation for I-270 manned rocketplane.

Zheda Pixing.

  • Chinese technology satellite. Experimental microelectronics research picosatellite. Launched 2007.05.25,

Zi Yuan.

  • Code name for ZY earth land resources satellite.

Znamya.

  • Russian . One launch, 1992.10.27. Reflector mirror, deployed from Progress M-15 after separation from Mir space station.

Zohreh.

  • Iranian communications satellite. In development, 2008. Iranian geosynchronous communications satellite that was to be built with Russian assistance, containing an Alcatel communications payload.

Zond 1.

Zond 2-3.

  • Alternate designation for Mars 3MV-4A mars flyby probe.

Zond 4-8.

  • Alternate designation for Soyuz 7K-L1 manned lunar flyby spacecraft.

Zvezda.

ZY.

  • Chinese earth land resources satellite. 6 launches, 1999.10.14 (ZY-1) to 2007.09.19 (ZY-2C). From 1985 China and Brazil jointly developed a sun synchronous imaging satellite bus, the Zi Yuan-1 (Resouce-1) based on the Shi Jian 3 design.

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